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©2010 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing 13/e, Arens/Elder/Beasley 11 - 1 Fraud Auditing Chapter 11.

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Presentation on theme: "©2010 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing 13/e, Arens/Elder/Beasley 11 - 1 Fraud Auditing Chapter 11."— Presentation transcript:

1 ©2010 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing 13/e, Arens/Elder/Beasley Fraud Auditing Chapter 11

2 ©2010 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing 13/e, Arens//Elder/Beasley Types of Fraud  Fraudulent financial reporting  Misappropriation of assets

3 ©2010 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing 13/e, Arens//Elder/Beasley The Fraud Triangle Incentives/Pressures OpportunitiesAttitudes/Rationalization

4 ©2010 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing 13/e, Arens//Elder/Beasley Examples of Risk Factors for Fraudulent Reporting  Financial stability or profitability is threatened by economic, industry, or entity operating conditions  Excessive pressure exists for management to meet debt requirements  Personal net worth is materially threatened Incentives/Pressures:

5 ©2010 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing 13/e, Arens//Elder/Beasley Examples of Risk Factors for Fraudulent Reporting  There are significant accounting estimates that are difficult to verify  There is ineffective oversight over financial reporting  High turnover or ineffective accounting, internal audit, or information technology staff exists Opportunities:

6 ©2010 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing 13/e, Arens//Elder/Beasley Examples of Risk Factors for Fraudulent Reporting  Inappropriate or inefficient communication and support of the entity’s values is evident  A history of violations of laws is known  Management has a practice of making overly aggressive or unrealistic forecasts Attitudes/Rationalization:

7 ©2010 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing 13/e, Arens//Elder/Beasley Examples of Risk Factors for Misappropriation of Assets  Personal financial obligations create pressure to misappropriate assets  Adverse relationships between management and employees motivate employees to misappropriate assets Incentives/Pressures:

8 ©2010 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing 13/e, Arens//Elder/Beasley Examples of Risk Factors for Misappropriation of Assets  There is a presence of large amounts of cash on hand or inventory items  There is an inadequate internal control over assets Opportunities:

9 ©2010 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing 13/e, Arens//Elder/Beasley Examples of Risk Factors for Misappropriation of Assets  Disregard for the need to monitor or reduce risk of misappropriating assets exists  There is a disregard for internal controls Attitudes/Rationalization:

10 ©2010 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing 13/e, Arens//Elder/Beasley Assessing the Risk of Fraud SAS 99 provides guidance to auditors in assessing the risk of fraud. SAS 1 states that, in exercising professional skepticism, an auditor “neither assumes that management is dishonest nor assumes unquestioned honesty.”

11 ©2010 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing 13/e, Arens//Elder/Beasley Sources of Information Gathered to Assess Fraud Risks Communication among audit team Inquiries of management Risk factors Analytical procedures Other information Identified risks of material misstatements due to fraud

12 ©2010 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing 13/e, Arens//Elder/Beasley Documenting Fraud Assessment  Discussion  Specific risks  Procedures  Reasons  Nature of communications  Other conditions and analytical relationships

13 ©2010 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing 13/e, Arens//Elder/Beasley Corporate Governance Oversight to Reduce Fraud Risks 1.Culture of honesty and high ethics 2.Management's responsibility to evaluate risks of fraud 3.Audit committee oversight

14 ©2010 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing 13/e, Arens//Elder/Beasley Organizational Factors Contributing to Risk of Fraud Collusion between employees and third parties Inadequate internal controls Management override of internal controls

15 ©2010 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing 13/e, Arens//Elder/Beasley Organizational Factors Contributing to Risk of Fraud Collusion between employees and management Lack of control over management by directors Ineffective or nonexistent ethics or compliance program

16 ©2010 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing 13/e, Arens//Elder/Beasley Responding to the Risk of Fraud Change the overall conduct of the audit to respond to identified fraud risks. Design and perform audit procedures to address identified risks. Design and perform procedures to address the risk of management override of controls.

17 ©2010 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing 13/e, Arens//Elder/Beasley Initial Detection Method for Million Dollar Schemes Tip By Accident Internal Audit Internal Controls External Audit Notified By Police $1,000,000+ All Cases 0% 10% 20%30%40%50% Note: The sum of percentages in this chart exceeds 100 percent because in some cases respondents identified more than one detection method. 42.3% 46.2% 22.8% 20.0% 18.6% 19.4% 16.7% 23.3% 15.8% 9.1% 6.0% 3.2% Type of Detection

18 ©2010 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing 13/e, Arens//Elder/Beasley Specific Fraud Risk Areas  Inventory fraud risks  Revenue and accounts receivable fraud risks  Purchases and accounts payable fraud risks  Other areas of fraud risk

19 ©2010 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing 13/e, Arens//Elder/Beasley Responding to Misstatements That May Be the Result of Fraud When fraud is suspected, the auditor gathers additional information to determine whether fraud actually exists.

20 ©2010 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing 13/e, Arens/Elder/Beasley End of Chapter 11


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