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OA Models for Monographs Some recent developments –New infrastructure and services –New publishers and initiatives Overview of OA book publishers –What.

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Presentation on theme: "OA Models for Monographs Some recent developments –New infrastructure and services –New publishers and initiatives Overview of OA book publishers –What."— Presentation transcript:

1 OA Models for Monographs Some recent developments –New infrastructure and services –New publishers and initiatives Overview of OA book publishers –What types of publishers? –Publishing models –Approaches OA business models –Dual edition publishing –Institutional support –Authorside publication fees

2 Internationale Plattform OAPEN 2

3 Professionalisierung des OA- Publizierens OASPA – OA Scholarly Publishers Association Qualitätssicherung im Bereich von OA >> Prinzipien bei der Auswahl der Mitglieder (ggf. Ausschluss) Reine vs. Hybridverlage bzgl. des Publikationsmodells Alle großen STM-Verlage „leisten“ sich expandierende OA-Sparten. Directory of Open Access Journals, – ca Zss. (ca. 2/3 ohne Publikationsgebühren) Für Bücher ist OA derzeit noch ein sehr kleiner Markt (Bsp. De Gruyter, Akademie Verlag, Springer, Universitätsverlage). Directory of Open Access Books 3

4 Disziplinäre Sichten auf Open Access 4

5 Open Access in Deutschland (Umfrage Herbst 2012) 5

6 Die Sicht der Forschungsförderer Von zahlreichen Forschungsförderern nachdrücklich gefordert und unterstützt: Europäische Kommission, DFG, Wellcome Trust, NIH etc. The European Commission is committed to making open access to scientific publications the general principle of Horizon

7 Open Access in der Praxis: How open is it? 7

8 Open Access Internationale Bewegung seit ca In einzelnen Disziplinen bereits seit den 1990er Jahren Teil der Kommunikationskultur, z.B. arXiv, RePEc, diverse Zeitschriften Open Definition (http://opendefinition.org/):http://opendefinition.org/ „A piece of content or data is open if anyone is free to use, reuse, and redistribute it – subject only, at most, to the requirement to attribute and/or share-alike.“ Budapest Open Access Initiative: "By 'open access' to this literature, we mean its free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain, should be to give authors control over the integrity of their work and the right to be properly acknowledged and cited.” 8

9 Open Access für die buchorientierten Disziplinen Erlösmodelle Volles Open Access ohne Derivate Keine Erlöse für Verlag auf Nutzerseite möglich Neue Vertriebswege (auch ohne Buchhandel und Bibliothek) Hybrides Angebot von vollem Open Access Medium und kostenpflichtiger Version des Mediums (Print und E) Kombination der Medien muss geschickt gewählt werden Kostenpflichtige Medien entlang der klassischen Vertriebswege Funktionsbeschränkte Open Access Version als Marketing- und Distributionsinstrument für kostenpflichtiges Medium (Print und E) Eingeschränktes Risiko der Medienkombination Kostenpflichtige Medien entlang der klassischen Vertriebswege

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13 OAPEN Foundation: supporting OA for books 1. OAPEN Library: Aggregating a collection of OA books Provide quality assurance Increase visibility and retrievability 30+ publishers, OA books 2. Developing infrastructure/services for OA books: OAPEN Library: deposit service Directory of Open Access Books: discovery service e-Depot National Library: preservation service 3. OAPEN projects: Conduct experiments Work with funders and publishers in various countries to publish OA books

14 OA Models for Monographs Some recent developments –New infrastructure and services –New publishers and initiatives Overview of OA book publishers –What types of publishers? –Publishing models –Motives OA business models –Dual edition publishing –Institutional support –Authorside publication fees

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21 OA Models for Monographs Some recent developments –New infrastructure and services –New publishers and initiatives Overview of OA book publishers –What kind of publishers? –Publishing models –Approaches OA business models –Dual edition publishing –Institutional support –Authorside publication fees

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26 OA Monograph Publishers OAD + DOAB: 55 academic OA publishers –Western bias: 83 % – USA: 36 %; Europe: 47 % –English bias: 60 %

27 OA Monograph Publishers Commercial and non-profit Established and start-ups Institutional and professional Professional and ‘scholar led’ University and Library presses

28 OA Monograph Publishers Commercial: 19 % Non-profit:81 % University presses:71 % Other non-profit:10 %

29 OA Monographs: Models Free versus libre –Free to read (all rights reserved) –Free to use and re-use (CC-BY) –Non commercial and/or no derivatives Online versus downloads –Online reading only (HTML) –PDF, e-reader formats –Online + download

30 OA Monographs: Licensing Free versus libre –Free to read (all rights reserved): 32 % –Creative commons (any): 62% –Non commercial (CC-BY-NC): 18% –+ No derivatives (CC-BY-NC-ND): 36%

31 OA Monographs: Approaches Frontlist publishing Backlist / long tail approach Dedicated Open Access Service / Part of portfolio Promotional / attracting readers Selective / specific project or series

32 OA Models for Monographs Some recent developments New infrastructure and services New publishers and initiatives Overview of OA book publishers What types of publishers? Publishing models Motives OA business models Dual edition publishing Institutional support Authorside publication fees

33 OA Books: Business models 1 Advertising 2 Collaborative underwriting 3 Commissioning 4 Cross subsidies 5 Crowdfunding 6 Dual-edition publishing 7 Endowments 8 Institutional subsidies 9 Liberation 10 Street performer protocol 11 Temporary OA 12 Tiered quality 13 Value-added services

34 OA business models for monographs Hybrid or dual edition publishing Institutional support Author side publication fee New models

35 OA business models - 1 Dual edition publishing Dual edition: hybrid model, publishing both OA edition + other editions (print or PoD) Used by almost all OA book publishers Also called ‘Freemium’ or value-added model: OA + value added or premium products and services Examples: Bloomsbury Academic, NAP, OECD publishing

36 Freemiun Access publishing: OECD All publications are free online (HTML5) All books available in print / PoD All PDFs available to subscribers of OECD Library and purchasers (many are also free) OECD recovers almost all of its costs through this model

37 OA business models - 2 Institutional support Institutional support: OA publishing activity is in some way subsidised Grants from foundations or societies Mellon Foundation Subsidy from university or library Leiden UP, Athabasca University Press Providing infrastructure for press Mpublishing for Open Humanities Press Running press from library Göttingen University Press, Mpublishing

38 Institutional support: Athabasca University Press Athabasca receives support from Government Grants and from Athabasca University (together 80% of budget) Athabasca University’s 1% solution: 1% of university budgets should be allocated towards scholarly communication. Principles: - Integral to scholarly research is its communication and dissemination - University presses directly contribute to the university's teaching and research missions - This communication of the scholarship generated by universities should be seen as part of the core activity and mandate of a university Frits Pannekoek, president Athabasca University

39 Institutional support: Australian National University Press E-press publishing OA monographs Costs covered by ANU’s information budget Central ICT services Distributed editorial model: 20 E-press Editorial Boards Principles: - Press is seen as part of of Scholarly communication infrastructure - Press uses existing University ICT infrastructure Colin Steele: ‘…there is no point in supporting key academic research if there is no means of distributing and accessing it effectively’

40 OA business models - 3 Author side publication fee ‘APC’ for OA books: Publishers charge a fee to publish monograph in OA Springer Open, De Gruyter, Amsterdam UP Publication fee is paid by funder of original research (research council, research institution, university) Some OA funds are now open for OA books Research libraries (Utrecht UL, UCSF) Research councils (NWO, FWF)

41 Author side publication fee: OA funds of research funders Research councils set up funds to pay OA publication fees Restricted to publications based on funded research Either as incentive for Open Access or mandated Principles: - Results from publicly funded research should be publicly available - Funds for OA publication fees should be open for articles and books Examples:

42 Using existing funds for books: A Swedish project to achieve OA ‘Towards quality controlled Open Access Monographs in Sweden - exploring the possibilities of a consortium based approach’ Initiative of National Library and funder of research to bring together a number of universities / university libraries and academic presses to improve the Swedish situation for monographs: – ensure effective dissemination based on Open Access – coordinate quality control and share specific services – using existing funds for books

43 OA business models: new approaches Library consortium - collaborative underwriting (Knowledge Unlatched) Crowd-funding (Gluejar Inc.) Library licensing model: OpenEdition Freemium

44 Library licensing: OpenEdition Freemium Licensing model for libraries, introduced as pilot Based on combination of free content in HTML + premium content (PDF, e-pub) and services – revenues split 1/3-2/3 between OpenEdition and publishers Intended to: – make OA content discoverable – provide a business model for OA content – help sustain platform

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