Presentation on theme: "ERP and E-Business- An Overview"— Presentation transcript:
1 ERP and E-Business- An Overview Based on the book “Enterprise Resource Planning Solutions and Management” by Flona Fui-Hoon Nah, Idea Group Publishing 2001
2 ContentsWhat is ERP?The Evolution of ERP Systems—A Historical PerspectiveERP System ArchitectureExtended ERPTowards an ERP Life-Cycle Costs ModelAdvantages and Disadvantages of ERP SystemsERP From E-BUSINESS PerspectiveAre You Ready for ERP?E-BUSINESS Pushes ERP To The Network EdgeCommon ERP? E-Business Platform (Oracle & SAP)Web Services and XML
3 Topic 1: What Is ERP? ERP = Enterprise Resource Planning – A software solution that addresses enterprise needs taking the process view of an organization to meet the organization goals.-- It integrates all the departments and functions acrossa company into a single computer system that can serve all those different departments’ particular needs.
4 What Is ERP?An ERP system is analogous to the internal technological hub of a company. When fully implemented as an integrated suite, it can be thought of as a company's central repository. The five major processes in a typical ERP system are: finance, logistics, manufacturing, human resources and sales/marketing (refer to Figure next slide). The focus of ERP systems is on the efficiency and effectiveness of the internal process. It offers a way to streamline and align business processes, increase operational efficiencies and bring order out of chaos.
6 What Is ERP?ERP Combines various department systems into a single, integrated software program that runs off a single database so that the various departments can more easily share information and communicate with each other.The best part of ERP is the way in which it improves the order fulfillment process that is taking the customer order and process it into an invoice and revenue.It doesn’t handle the front-end that is handled by CRM (Customer Relationship Management).
7 What Is ERP?When a customer service representative enters a customer order into an ERP system, he has all the information necessary to complete the order such as customer’s credit rating and order history from the finance module, the company’s inventory levels from the warehouse module and the shipping dock’s trucking schedule from the logistics module.How it’s being done: It integrates the financial information and customer order information . It does so by integrating the following:DatabaseApplicationInterfacesToolsBPR
8 What Is ERP?It standardizes and speeds up the manufacturing process. This saves time, increases productivity and reduces head count.It reduces the inventory. Due to the information available about all the orders it helps to maintain the right level of stock and smoothes the manufacturing process.
9 Topic 2: The Evolution of ERP Systems—A Historical Perspective The phenomenal growth of computing power and the Internet is bringing ever more challenges for the ERP vendors and the customers to redesign ERP products breaking the barrier of proprietorship and customization, and embracing the collaborative business over the Intranet, Extranet and the Internet in a seamless manner. The vendors already promise many "add-on" modules, some of which are already in the market as a sign of acceptance of these challenges by the ERP vendors. It is a never-ending process of reengineering and development bringing new products and solutions to the ERP market. ERP vendors and customers have recognized the need for packages that follow open architecture, provide interchangeable modules and allow easy customization and user interfacing.
10 ERP Applications Take Hold The 1990s saw, for the first time, many companies embrace product offerings from companies such as SAP AG, Peoplesoft, and Oracle that provided (or at least intended to provide) a single integrated package framework upon which most or all of a company's core business processes could be implemented, deployed, and used throughout the enterprise.
11 ERP Applications Take Hold For example, supply chain automation applications began appearing, and business-to-business (B2B)e-commerce applications such as electronic procurement (e-procurement) and buyer-to-seller electronic marketplaces are directly descended from these first-generation cross-enterprise supply chain applications, which in turn owe a large portion of their growth to the tenacity of ERP proponents who persevered throughout the decade and made successful large-scale, complex distributed computing systems a reality.
12 Topic 3: ERP Systems Architecture An ERP system is required to have the following characteristics:Modular design comprising many distinct business modules such as financial, manufacturing, accounting, distribution etc.Use centralized common database management system (DBMS)The modules are integrated and provide seamless dataflow among the modules increasing operational transparency through standard interfaces.They are generally complex systems involving high costThey are flexible and offer best business practicesThey require time-consuming tailoring and configuration setups for integrating with the company's business functionsThe modules work in real-time with on-line and batch processing capabilitiesThey are or soon they will be Internet-enabled
13 ERP Systems Architecture The modules of an ERP system can either work as stand-alone units or several modules can be combined together to form an integrated system. The systems are usually designed to operate under several operating platforms such as UNIX, MS Windows NT, Windows 2000, IBM AIX, HP UX systems. SAP AG, the largest ERP vendor provides a number of modules shown in the next slide with its famous R/3 ERP system. New modules are introduced by SAP and other vendors in response to the market and technological demand such as the Internet technology.
16 Topic 4: Extended ERPThe proliferation of the Internet has shown tremendous impact on every aspect of the IT sector including the ERP systems becoming more and more ‘Internet-enabled’ (Lawton, 2000). This environment of accessing systems resources from anywhere anytime has helped ERP vendors extend their legacy ERP systems to integrate with newer external business modules such as supply-chain management, customer-relationship management, sales force automation (SFA), advanced planning and scheduling (APS), business intelligence (BI), and e-business capabilities. In fact ERP is becoming E-business backbone for organizations doing on-line business transactions over the Internet. Internet-based solutions are destined to improve customer satisfaction, increase marketing and sales opportunities, expand distribution channels, provide more cost-effective billing and payment methods. The extension to SCM and CRM enables effective tri-party business relationships between the organization, suppliers and the customers. A supply chain management has sub-modules for procurement of materials, transformation of the materials into products and distribution of products to customers.
17 Extended ERPE-commerce is the conduct of business transactions among organizations with the support of networked information and communication technologies, especially utilizing Internet applications such as the Web and effectively reaching the global customers. Adoption of e-commerce and e-business solutions, especially business-to-business (B2B) solutions, are seen by many as the wave of current and future extensions of traditional ERP systems of most small, medium and large vendors. The front-end web-based Internet-business applications are integrated with the back-office ERP-based applications enabling business transactions such as order placement, purchasing, inventory updates, employee benefits etc. to take place between the customers, suppliers and the enterprise based on reliable, relevant data and applications instantly in a border-less domain.
18 Extended ERPThe legacy ERP systems designed to integrate enterprise functions within the four walls of the enterprise have introduced software solutions with Web-interface essentially extending to Internet enabled CRM, SCM and other Internet-business models. Examples of such extended ERPs are available from most of the ERP vendors. Thus SAP's Internet-enabled integrated ERP system called (SAP, 2001) is a suite of ERP, CRM and other products that can be linked together using Internet portals. The concept of the Internet-enabled extended ERP system is shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2(next two slides).
19 Extended ERPFigure 1: Web-enabled extended ERP system
21 Figure 2: Developments in e-ERP and Business Practice for Doing e-Business
22 Topic 5: Towards an ERP Life-Cycle Costs Model To define the life-cycle model we use a simplified version of the model proposed by Esteves and Pastor (1999a, 1999b). This model is structured in phases and dimensions. Here, we only make reference to the phases as the different stages of the life-cycle of an ERP system in an organization. Next, we describe each phase, i.e., adoption, acquisition, implementation, usage and maintenance, evolution and retirement.Adoption decision phaseAcquisition phaseImplementation phaseUse and maintenance phaseEvolution phaseRetirement phase
23 Adoption Decision Phase During this phase managers examine the need for a new ERP system while selecting the general information system approach that will best address the critical business challenges and improve the organizational strategy. This decision phase includes the definition of system requirements, its goals and benefits, and an analysis of the impact of adoption at a business and organizational level.
24 Acquisition PhaseThis phase consists on the selection of a ERP product that best fits the requirements of the organization, thus minimizing the need for customization. A consulting company is also selected to help in the next phases of the ERP life-cycle especially in the implementation phase. Factors such as price, training and maintenance services are analyzed and, the contractual agreement is defined. In this phase, it is also important to make an analysis of the return on investment of the selected product.
25 Implementation PhaseThis phase include the customization or parameterization and adaptation of the ERP package to the needs of the organization. Usually this task is made with the help of consultants who provide implementation methodologies, know-how and training.
26 Use and Maintenance Phase This phase covers the personal of time where the ERP product is selected in a way that returns benefits and minimizes disruption. During this phase, one must be aware of the aspects related to functionality, usability and adequacy to the organizational and business processes. Once a system is implemented, it must be maintained, because malfunctions have to be corrected, special optimization requests have to be met, and general systems improvements have to be made.
27 Evolution PhaseThis phase corresponds to the integration of more capabilities into the ERP system, providing new benefits, such as advanced planning and scheduling, supply-chain management, customer relationship management, workflow, and expanding the frontiers to external collaboration with other partners.
28 Retirement PhaseThis phase corresponds to the stage when, with the appearance of new technologies or the inadequacy of the ERP system or approach to the business needs, managers decide if they will substitute the ERP software with other information system approach more adequate to the organizational needs of the moment.
29 Topic 6: Advantage of ERP Systems What benefitReliable information accessAvoid data and operations redundancyDelivery and Cycle time reductionCost reductionEasy adaptabilityHowCommon DBMS, Consistent and accurate data, improved reports.Modules access same data from the central database, avoids multiple data input and update operations.Minimizes retrieving and reporting delaysTime savings, improved control by enterprise-wide analysis of organizational decisions.Changes in business processes easy to adapt and restructure.
30 Advantage of ERP Systems Improved scalabilityImproved maintenanceGlobal OutreachE-Commerce, E-BusinessStructured and modular design with "add-ons"Vendor supported long term contract as part of the system procurement.Extended modules such as CRM and SCMInternet Commerce, Collaborative culture.
31 Disadvantages of ERP Systems How to overcomeDisadvantagesTime consumingExpensiveConformity of the modulesVendor dependenceMinimize sensitive issues, internal politics and raise general consensus.Cost may vary from thousands of dollars to millions. Business process re-engineering cost may be extremely high.The architecture and components of the selected system should conform to the business processes, culture and strategic goals of the organization.Single vendor vs multi-vendor consideration, options for "best of breeds", long term committed support.Now that we have XML data, what can we do with it?
32 Disadvantages of ERP Systems How to overcomeDisadvantagesFeature and complexityScalability and global outreachExtended ERP capabilityERP system may have too many features and modules that the user needs to consider carefully and implement the needful only.Look for vendor investment in R&D, long term commitment to product and services, consider Internet-enabled systems.Consider middle-ware "add-on" facilities and extended modules such as CRM and SCM.
33 ERP BenefitsIBM has used ERP to reduce the processing time for updating pricing data from 80 days to five minutes.Chevron has used ERP to decrease its annual purchasing cost by 15%.
34 Topic 7: ERP From E-BUSINESS Perspective E-business stands for "electronic business," which involves communications and doing business electronically through the Internet. E-business is defined as "the use of electronically enabled communication networks that allow business enterprises to transmit and receive information" (Fellenstein and Wood, 2000).
35 ERP and E-BUSINESSIt can significantly improve business performance by strengthening the linkages in the value chain between businesses (B2B) and consumers (B2C). Besides increasing efficiency in selling, marketing and purchasing, e-business achieves effectiveness through improved customer service, reduced costs and streamlined business processes. Furthermore, e-business creates a strategic, customer-focused business environment for shared business improvements, mutual benefits and joint rewards.
36 Complete E-Business Suite MarketingSalesFinancialsOne DatabaseOrder MgtProcurementHuman ResourcesSUPPLY ChainWeb ServicesMFG
37 ERP And E-BUSINESSNantucket Nectars, a juice manufacturer with 40% growth and $70 million in annual sales revenue, sells its organic juices through 150 distributors nationwide as well as general stores and juice bars in Nantucket. By using Oracle's ERP system and e-business platform, the salespersons can track sales and promotions through the Internet, and are provided assistance and suggestions to enhance their performance. The salespersons and distributors have access to commission reports, and they can track and adjust sales orders. Through consolidating its financial, compensation, sales and depletion data into a single report, Nantucket prevents out-of-stock and partial shipments. The forecasted need for 50% more labor force to handle customer service issues in the past was eradicated by integrating ERP system with e-business (Oracle, 2000).
38 ERP And E-BUSINESSBy definitions and by their respective functions, traditional ERP systems take care of internal value chain (i.e., within a company) whereas e-businesses establish the value chain across the market and the industries. More and more companies construct their systems' architectures by integrating ERP systems with e-business. They use Web-based interface (corporate portals) with outside entities plus add-on modules such as CRM, SCM, etc. in the integration.
39 Topic 8: Are You Ready For ERP? A good managementEnough financial fundsCore project team members from all functional areas in placeGet the approval from the managementGet feedback from employees for the plan
40 Metrics You Can Use to Gauge your ERP Readiness Check the hardware configuration detailsAnalyze the existing processFine turn the process to be inline with those of ERD definedPrototype it and present itRefine the prototype and freeze the specifications
41 ERP SelectionCheck whether all functional aspects of the business are duly covered.Check whether all the business functions and procedures are fully integrated.Check whether all latest IT tends are covered.Check whether the vendor has customizing and implementing capabilities.Calculate ROI.
42 Topic 9: E-BUSINESS Pushes ERP To The Network Edge In a traditional business process, after a customer order is received, the order information flows from department to department through order entry, manufacturing, warehousing, distribution and finance until the product is delivered to the customer and the payment is received. The key elements of the value chain have been controlled by separate and disparate information systems that could not communicate with one another. Not only did the companies not take an integrated view of their own business processes, but they also had an equally vague understanding of how their systems relate to the systems of their suppliers, competitors, business partners, distributors and customers. Hence, these transactions are typically carried out with minimal or no shared business processes.
43 E-BUSINESS Pushes ERP To The Network Edge In recent years, there has been a revolution in systems planning and design. Management takes an integrated company-wide view of its IT investments and choices, and implements an ERP system that integrates the core business processes of an entire company into a single software and hardware system. Customers, suppliers and business partners are consciously included in the business process, systems operation and systems development.
44 E-BUSINESS Pushes ERP To The Network Edge An ERP system is analogous to the internal technological hub of a company. When fully implemented as an integrated suite, it can be thought of as a company's central repository. The five major processes in a typical ERP system are: finance, logistics, manufacturing, human resources and sales/marketing (refer to Figure 1 next slide). The focus of ERP systems is on the efficiency and effectiveness of the internal process. It offers a way to streamline and align business processes, increase operational efficiencies and bring order out of chaos.
45 E-BUSINESS Pushes ERP To The Network Edge Figure 1
46 E-BUSINESS Pushes ERP To The Network Edge You can't improve what you don't measure. Performance measurement isvital for the long-term success of any endeavor. In our complex world,everyone has multiple goals and mechanisms for reaching them. Forexample, in addition to financial performance goals, many firms placegreat importance on employee satisfaction and community contribution.Good performance measures are:Relevant-- Related to the strategic and tactical goals of the companyBalanced-- Balanced between short-term and long-term goalsUnderstandable-- Easily comprehended by those it affectsObjective-- Measurable without significant biasConsistent-- Used on a regular basisActionable-- Affected by actions of employees
47 E-BUSINESS Pushes ERP To The Network Edge E-business is focused on efficiency and effectiveness of external, cross-enterprise processes. While ERP technology supports business strategy, e-business opens the door to new strategic opportunities, which forces ERP to take one step further—to move from the single ERP system model to the extended ERP system model (refer to Figure 2). The Web technology provides the bridge between companies and their business partners to make e-business possible, while e-business makes the ERP system more transparent and outward. Instead of thinking about ERP within a company, we may view the ERP system along the value chain of companies in the same industry, or across industries.
48 E-BUSINESS Pushes ERP To The Network Edge Figure 2
49 E-BUSINESS Pushes ERP To The Network Edge When e-business is integrated with ERP, the whole extended system provides a vision of business processes that span multiple businesses and enterprises. In the most ideal case, companies should be able to connect disparate platforms, applications and data formats across the value chain, including not only suppliers, but also customers as well. Furthermore, companies should retain the flexibility to change and add functions to applications as business needs evolve. Companies need to be able to adapt their ERP systems to the emerging world of e-business.
50 Developments in e-ERP and Business Practice for Doing e-Business
51 Topic 10: Common ERP/E-BUSINESS Platform (ORACLE & SAP) Today, customers expect more than ever before. To meet these expectations, companies need to reach out and bring customers closer to their information systems and have them engage in product configuration, selection and Internet self-service (Economist, 1999, p.32). Also, it is essential for the vendors to set up a compatible e-business platform for system integration. Some major ERP vendors launched their Web-enabled ERP in the early part of the year 2000 to create the B2B and B2C solutions. Both Oracle and SAP set up Internet portal (hub) and use eXtensible Markup Language (XML) to manipulate data from internal ERP and push information flow across the value chain (refer to Figure 3).
53 SAP (SAP, 2000)Established in Germany in 1972, SAP possesses 33% market share worldwide. With more than 20,000 employees and an increase in revenue of 60% per year, SAP is another major ERP provider in the world. SAP uses the front-office market with a number of new Web-based applications covering B2B procurement, B2C selling and B2B selling—all designed to integrate with its market-leading R/3 suite. SAP believes this will be the key to extending its franchise into e-business.R/3 is a client/server architecture product that uses the "best" enterprise business practices and supports immediate response to change throughout the organization on a global scale. R/3 currently contains modules for more than 1,000 business processes that may be selected from the SAP library and included within installed SAP applications, tailoring the application solution to the customer.
54 SAP Contains the Following Functions End-to-end Web business processesThe XML has been used to allow the exchange of structured business documents over the Internet to provide a common standard for different applications and IT systems to communicate and exchange business data. XML provides the bridge between different systems, companies and users. It provides an easy way to put flexible end-to-end business processes in place.
55 SAP Contains the Following Functions Open business document exchange over the InternetThe SAP Business Connector is based on open Internet communication standards. It uses the widely available hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) to exchange XML-based business documents over the Internet. XML defines common business semantics to business documents such as orders, invoices, etc. With XML, the lingua franca of the Internet, business documents exchange across applications and systems are easily available.
56 SAP Contains the Following Functions XML-enabled SAP solutionThe SAP Business Connector makes all SAP solutions accessible via XML-based business documents. It supports all major existing interfaces provided by SAP and empowers SAP customers to instantly benefit from SAP functionality over the Internet. This makes SAP solutions an integral part of their e-business solution. With the availability of Business Applications Programming Interfaces (BAPIs), customers can jump-start into the Internet age with their individual solutions by using R/3 with more than 1,000 BAPIs. The SAP's Application Link Enabling (ALE) capabilities are supported. Fully cooperative business solutions now require only a widely available and cost-effective Internet connection.
57 SAP Contains the Following Functions Web automationThe SAP Business Connector makes it easy to leverage the information and processes available at a company's Web site. For example, companies can use the SAP Business Connector to retrieve catalog information from a supplier's Web site and integrate the information with internal applications automatically and in real time.
58 Topic 11: Web Services and XML are units of application logic that provide data and services to other applicationsrepresent black box functionality that can be reused without worrying about how the service is implementedThe online store exampleAuthenticationPersonalizationCredit card processingSales tax calculationPackage tracking from shipping companiesIn house catalog connected to an internal inventory application
59 Web Services Generic Architecture Service RequestThe architecture is divided into five logical layers.Furthest from the client is the data layer, which stores information required by the Web Service.Above the data layer is the data access layer, which presents a logical view of the physical data to the business layer. The data access layer isolates business logic from changes to the underlying data stores and ensures the integrity of the data.The business layer implements the business logic of the Web Service. As in Figure 2, it is often subdivided into two parts: the business façade and the business logic. The business façade provides a simple interface that maps directly to operations exposed by the Web Service. The business façade uses services provided by the business logic layer. In a simple Web Service, all the business logic might be implemented by the business façade, which would interact directly with the data access layer.Client applications interact with the Web Service listener. The listener is responsible for receiving incoming messages containing requests for service, parsing the messages, and dispatching the request to the appropriate method on the business façade. If the service returns a response, the listener is also responsible for packaging the response from the business façade into a message and sending that back to the client. The listener also handles requests for contracts and other documents about the Web Service. If you think about it, the only part of the Web Service that knows it is part of a Web Service is the listener!Service ResponseListenerBusiness FacadeBusiness LogicData AccessData
60 Why Use Web Services? Web services are powerful Provide a simple, flexible, standards-based model that takes advantage of existing infrastructure and applicationsEasily assembled components with locally developed services and existing services, regardless of the platform or the development languageFacilitate communication and integration between intra- and inter-company applicationsThe online store exampleAuthentication – for user access and authorizationPersonalization – to adapt web pages to each user’s preferenceCredit card processing --Sales tax calculationPackage tracking from shipping companiesIn house catalog connected to an internal inventory application
61 Example <?xml version=“1.0” encoding=“UTF-8”?> <!DOCTYPE catalog SYSTEM “catalog.dtd”><?xml-stylesheet type=“text/xsl” href=“show_book.xsl”?><!—catalog last updated ><catalog xmlns=<book id=“bk101”><author> Martin Fowler</author><title>Refactoring</title><genre>Computer</genre><price>44.95</price></book></catalog>
62 XML-RPC Example - Request <?xml version=“1.0”?><methodCall><methodName>GetLastTradePrice</methodName><params><param><value><string>INTC</string></value></param></params></methodCall>
63 XML-RPC Example - Response <?xml version=“1.0”?><methodResponse><params><param><value><struct><member><name>company</name><value><string>Intel Corp.</string></value></member><name>price</name><value><double>27.34</double></value></struct></value></param></params></methodResponse>
64 Pros/Cons for XML-RPC Pro Cons Simple Loosely coupled components Uses standard communications protocols – HTTP, XMLOlder protocol, well knownCons“Unnatural” syntaxVerbose, especially for structures/objectsHigh network bandwidth
65 SOAP Example - Request <?xml version=“1.0”?> <SOAP:Envelope xmlns:SOAP=“urn:schemas-xmlsoap-org:soap.v1”><SOAP:Body><m:GetLastTradePrice xmlns:m=“urn:example-trades”><m:symbol>INTC</m:symbol></m:GetLastTradePrice></SOAP:Body></SOAP:Envelope>
66 SOAP Example - Response <?xml version=“1.0”?><SOAP:Envelope xmlns:SOAP=“urn:schemas-xmlsoap-org:soap.v1”><SOAP:Body><m:GetLastTradePriceResponse xmlns:m=“urn:example-trades”><m:quote><m:company>Intel Corp.</m:company><m:price>27.200</m:price></m:quote></m:GetLastTradePriceResponse></SOAP:Body></SOAP:Envelope>
67 Pros/Cons for SOAP Pro Con Strong typing with automatic validation More “natural” XML syntaxLess verbose than XML-RPCConNewer protocol, not as widely usedMore complex syntax because of the use of namespaces and schemas
68 Summary XML can be used for calling remote methods. Plain-text format, so it is free of charge.Platform and language agnostic.XML remoting does not require additional open ports beyond those required for HTTP.Using SOAP, XML remote procedure calls can be strongly-typed and self-describing.
69 EAIEnterprise Application Integration (EAI) software helps to integrate applications by packaging together the commonly used functionalities—combining popular enterprise packages and legacy applications in a predefined way. Therefore, EAI will make ERP/e-business integration and componentization simpler and more practical. In addition to the above issues, other issues remain in implementing ERP, integrating the systems and outsourcing ERP/e-business.XSLT is a transformation language written using XML
70 Why use XSLT?XSLT is an incredibly powerful and flexible tool for e-commerce.Enables business systems to exchange dataMap one company’s XML data structure to another.XSLT - powerful and flexible tool for e-CommerceThere are many uses for this technology, I’ve got just a few examples.If 2 companies need to exchange data, but their XML data structures are different, they can use these transformations to map one data structure to the other.
71 Order XSLT Style sheet A XSLT Style sheet B Books.com <?xml version=“1.0”?><book><title>XSLT For Dummies</title><author>Iam Aguru</author><ISBN> </ISBN><cost><regular>24.95</regular><wholesale>18.95</wholesale><currency>US Dollars</currency></cost></book>To further the example, Books.com:Business systems exchanging dataXML Data Structure for a bookcommunicate w/ business partnersuse own dataput through transformationresult is a data structure that matches their business partner’sXSLT Style sheet AXSLT Style sheet BSupplier A<?xml version=“1.0”?><book><ISBN> </ISBN><language>English</language><price>18.95</price></book>Supplier B<?xml version=“1.0”?><book><name>XSLT For Dummies</name><ISBN> </ISBN><language>English</language><price>24.95</price></book>
72 Why use XSLT?, cont.Enables presentation of customer targeted information.Determine what to display based on the status of your user.Enables data to be rendered in many different formats.Take one set of data and dynamically transform it into many different formats.A page displayed differently depending on if user is first time shopper, preferred shopper, wholesale customer.If you have two customers entering your web page, one on wireless device, one on PC, you can deliver html to the PC user and wml to the wireless user.
73 Database XSLT Style sheet A XSLT Style sheet B Books.com <?xml version=“1.0”?><book><title>XSLT For Dummies</title><author>Iam Aguru</author><ISBN> </ISBN><cost><regular>24.95</regular><wholesale>18.95</wholesale><currency>US Dollars</currency></cost></book>Example, Books.com:XML Data StructureRender data in different formatsHTML FormatWML FormatCustomer Targeted InformationWholesale priceRegular priceXSLT Style sheet AXSLT Style sheet BHTML Format<html><body><p>Book Title:Cost: 18.95</p></body></html>WML Format<wml><card id=”book1"><p>Book Title:Cost: 24.95</p></card></wml>
74 What would I need to do this? XML DocumentXSLT Style sheetWhat would I need to do this? 3 ThingsXML document - XML document to be transformedXSLT style sheet - Instructions for the transformation we’ll talk about how these work.XSL Engine - Software that will carry out all instructions specified in the style sheetXSL EngineSeveral browsers including the latest version of Internet Explorer have an XSL Engine.There are many free stand alone engines available for download (MSXML, XT).How does it run?The XML document and XSLT style sheet are loaded by the XSL processorThe processor applies the style sheet to the XML document, in doing so itOutput all text encountered as isExecute XSL instructions, output value of resultOf these, the mystery is style sheets…talk more about thoseXSL ProcessorOutput
75 How do XSLT style sheets work? A style sheet is composed of one or more templates.XSLT Style sheetA style sheet contains transformation instructions.In order for the transformation to work, there must be some way of specifying what to look for in the original document and once it is found, how to transform it into what is to be output to the resulting document.For this specification to be effective, it must be powerful and flexible. It just so happens that it is, and it is called a template.Template 1Template 2
76 Tell me more about templates! A template defines where to start looking in the source XML<xsl:template match="/"> start looking at the root elementA template specifies a mixture of the following for output:TextPatterns to look for in the source XML tree, their values will be determined at runtimeB2Once the starting point has been defined, the template will specify a what to output1. Text2. Values to be determined at runtime
77 Template example...<?xml version=“1.0”?><xsl:stylesheet version=“1.0”><xsl:output method=“xml” indent=“yes”><xsl:template match=“/”><html><body><p>Book Title:<xsl:value-of select=“/book/title”>ISBN: <xsl:value-of select=“/book/ISBN”></p></body></html></xsl:template></xsl:stylesheet>Specified text will be sent to the output file as isAnything beginning with "xsl" will be evaluated at run time, the resulting value inserted into the output file
78 <?xml:stylesheet type="text/xsl" href="Transform.xsl"?> <bookstore><book><title>XSLT For Dummies</title><author>Iam Aguru</author><ISBN> </ISBN><cost><regular>24.95</regular><wholesale>18.95</wholesale><currency>US Dollars</currency></cost></book><title>Your Friend, XSLT</title><author>Yuccan Beagurutoo</author><ISBN> </ISBN><regular>45.55</regular><wholesale>39.95</wholesale></bookstore>Transform.xslI actually tried this…Here is the XML I used. The XML refers to the style sheet.I used IE to load the XML documentResults displayed were after the transformation was appliedView source - you see XML onlyI hope from this brief overview, you can see the power and flexibility this technology offers:business to business data exchangedynamic display of user interfacessimple…only took me 1 hour, never used before
79 ConclusionWeb Services allow different applications to communicate across the webXML makes this communication possibleXML is simple, self-describing, and self-validatingXML remote procedure calls enable cross-platform, cross-language communicationsXSLT can map disparate XML data schemas and dynamically format them for presentationWe hope you can take away from our presentation a few important points…Once unthinkable cross-platform, cross-language communicationThis was a whirlwind tour into a whole new world so we’ve provided links for more info...
80 Where can I find more information? Web ServicesXMLXSLT