Presentation on theme: "Evaluating an Argument Brake English II. Opinion Statement/Position Statement/Claim This is the AUTHORS opinionNOT YOURS!!! It needs to be a complete."— Presentation transcript:
Evaluating an Argument Brake English II
Opinion Statement/Position Statement/Claim This is the AUTHORS opinionNOT YOURS!!! It needs to be a complete sentence! It should not tell me reasons why. It needs to tell me the WHOLE idea of what the author is trying to convince you of.
Example: You read an article that is trying to convince you that the driving age shouldnt be 16; it should be 18. WHAT WOULD BE THE OPINION STATEMENT OF THIS ARTICLE?
GOOD EXAMPLES Lawmakers should change the driving age from 16 to 18. Teenagers should not get their drivers license until they are 18. People should be 18 to get a drivers license. The driving age should be 18. All of these are complete sentences and tell us the authors ENTIRE opinion!
POOR EXAMPLES We should change the driving age. (This does not tell us the entire idea of the author. This should be more specific.) Changing the driving age. (This is NOT a complete sentence. Again, this should be more specific.) I think the driving age should stay 16. (This is NOT the authors opinion. It might be yours.) We should change the driving age to 18 because it would help save lives. (Do not tell us why we should change it. Thats the point of the reasons and supporting evidence.)
Reasons & Supporting Evidence Reasons are statements that explain WHY the author holds an opinion. Reasons will be more broadthe general ideas of why we should accept their opinion. The supporting evidence HAS to be relevant to the reasonmust be logically and directly related to it. Supporting evidence will be more specific.
Supporting Evidence should answer the question… How do we KNOW…??? EXAMPLE: The article about changing the driving age from 16 to 18 has the reason that teenagers are not ready to get their license. The supporting evidence should answer the question: How do we know teenagers are not ready to get their license? The supporting evidence could be something like many accidents caused by teens are due to poor choices like excessive speed and/or racing.
Logical Appeals Includes sound reasons and factual evidence Appeals to our reason Types of Evidence for Logical Appeals: 1.Facts 2.Statistics (NUMBER facts) 3.Example 4.Quotation or opinion by an EXPERT
Examples of LOGICAL Types of Evidence Facts Abraham Lincoln was our 16 th president. Ms. Brake teaches English. On September 11, 2001, the World Trade Centers collapsed. Statistics In 2010, 2/3 of students say they have text during class. 76% of teenagers ages say they have used their phone while driving. There were 164 accidents caused by phone related distractions during January and February. Examples If Im reading an article about texting and driving, some examples could be: *Sarah Davis admitted that her and her friends text each other all the time while they are driving. *I have text while driving on a number of occasions, but only when its a true emergency. Quotations or Opinions By Experts If Im reading an article about texting and driving, some quotations or opinions by experts could be: *Driving deaths caused by phone distractions have increased lately. Its becoming quite a problem, said Jerry Ford, a Missouri State Trooper. *Justin Thomas, a driving instructor for The School of Safe Driving, has noticed more problems with phones during his driving lessons.
Emotional Appeals Directed more towards our hearts than our minds Trying to get an emotional reaction out of you Types of Emotional Appeals 1.Anecdotebrief story or personal account of an event or happening 2.Loaded WordsWords with strong emotional connotation or association
Example of EMOTIONAL Types of Evidence Loaded Words Jill passed away. (NOT loaded words) Jill was brutally murdered. (Loaded words) …behind the wheel of a car. (NOT loaded words ) …behind the wheel of a deadly weapon. (Loaded words) Anecdote Some examples of an anecdote about texting and driving. *Bailey Goodman and four of her friends were on their way to her familys cottage. Moments after text messages were exchanged on Baileys cell phone, she slammed into an oncoming truck. All of the teens were killed. *Last year, one of my friends was driving home from work when a teenager smashed into the her head-on. It turns out, the teen was texting while driving. **NOTICE: Although all of the anecdotes are true events, their point is to get an emotional response from you.
Is the evidence comprehensive? You are telling me if the author did a good or bad job writing persuasively. Did they give you enough reasons? Were their reasons well supported with enough evidence? Did they use both types of appeals? REMEMBER: R easons E vidence A ppeals
Whats the authors tone? Tone is the writers attitude towards the topic. Some sort of emotion/description needs to be attached to this Example: Sad, Angry, Upset, Humorous, Negative Must support your reasoning with DETAILS or EXAMPLES from the text
Faulty Reasoning Faulty Reasoning is defined as mistakes in logical thinking. There are SIX different types of faulty reasoning we will cover: 1.Begging the Question/Circular Reasoning 2.Name-Calling 3.Stereotyping 4.Hasty Generalization 5.Either-or Fallacy 6.False Cause and Effect
Begging the Question/Circular Reasoning You appear to be giving a reason to support your opinion, but all youre doing is restating your opinion in different words. Example: College graduates are financially successful because they can get high-paying jobs.
Name-Calling Uses labels to attack a person who holds an opposing view, instead of giving reasons or evidence to attack the opposing view itself. This fallacy includes criticizing the persons character, situation, or background. Example: President Obama grew up in a non- Christian household. Therefore, President Obama is a terrorist.
Stereotyping Gives all members of a group the same (usually, but not always, undesirable) characteristics. It assumes that everyone or everything in that group is alike. Stereotypes are often based on misconceptions about racial, social, religious, gender, or ethnic groups. Example: Teenagers are too self-centered to participate in volunteer programs.
Hasty Generalization A broad, general statement or conclusion that is made without sufficient evidence to back it up. A hasty generalization is often made on the basis of only one or two experiences of observations. Example: One day Sarah went over to Jennas house for dinner. Jenna complained about how expensive it was to raise her cat. While Sarah was there, she also saw a flea on Jennas cat. Sarah has concluded that cats do not make good pets.
Either-or Fallacy Assumes that there are only two possible choices or solutions (usually extremes), even though there may be many. Example: I have to get a drivers license, or Ill lose all of my friends!
False Cause and Effect Occurs when one event is said to be the cause of another event just because the two events happened in sequence. You cannot assume that an event caused whatever happened afterward. Example: As soon as I start jogging, my grades improved.