Presentation on theme: "Ask the students to define work. List their proposed definitions on the writing surface. Examples may include how one makes a living, what one does with."— Presentation transcript:
Ask the students to define work. List their proposed definitions on the writing surface. Examples may include how one makes a living, what one does with his or her time, how one achieves fame, and what one does all day. Call on one or more students to identify the most important reasons for working and have them explain why they consider the reasons so important. Move from this discussion into how an individual selects an area in which to work. Have students offer suggestions here, with examples being doing the same as your parents, getting information from the counselor, learning what you want to do from supervised experience, and learning about jobs in school. Move from this discussion into objectives for the lesson.
Instruction in this lesson should result in students achieving the following objectives: 1. Explain work and benefits that people get from work. 2. Explain the meaning of a career ladder and the relationship of occupations in agriculture/ horticulture to career success. 3. Explain entrepreneurship as related to occupations. 4. Name and describe the major areas of agriculture/ horticulture occupations based on the nature of the work. 5. Name and describe the major areas of agriculture/ horticulture occupations based on level of education and responsibility. 6. Identify the factors to consider in selecting an occupation in agriculture/ horticulture.
career career ladder employee benefits employment entrepreneurship hourly rate job managerial occupation monetary compensation occupation
piece rate professional occupation salary semi-skilled occupation skilled occupation technical occupation unskilled occupation wages work
Explain work and the benefits that people get from work. Anticipated problem: What is work, and what are the benefits from work? I. Work is the exertion of effort to earn a living and provide for the general well-being of society. Work is generally perceived as gainful employment.
A. Attitudes toward work vary. There is a saying that one can live to work or work to live. Some people see work as the purpose if their lives and are the happiest when working. Others see work as a means to obtain money to buy things and feel secure. Most people view work as a necessary part of human life. 1. Work makes it possible for people to serve useful roles in society. 2. Work is the way people earn money to provide for their needs and the needs of their families.
B. Employment is the use of a persons knowledge and skills to produce a valuable product or service. Employment may be to earn money; this is known as gainful employment. Or, it may not be to earn money, such as to care for a home. 1. People may be employed by other individuals or businesses, or they may be self-employed. 2. Unemployment results when a person desires gainful work, but none is available, either because the individual lacks skills or because no opportunities exist for the skills the individual possesses.
C. People get a number of benefits from their work 1. Monetary compensation is the money a person receives for working. It is a major benefit from work because it is used to provide for the needs of life. Monetary compensation is often called wages. a. Wages are typically paid in one or a combination of three ways: hourly rate, piece rate, and/or salary. (1) Hourly rate is compensation based on a set rate per hour, with a 40-hour week being widely used. Payment is generally made weekly. Individuals may be entitled to overtime pay if they work more than 40 hours in a week. (2) Piece rate is compensation based on productivity. It is concerned with the number of items produced or serviced, such as payment for each tree grafted in a nursery. In selling, piece rate is known as commission. (3) A salary is a fixed amount of pay received regularly (weekly, biweekly, or monthly) for a type of work that, because of its nature, cannot be compensated for on an hourly rate or piece rate.
2. Employee benefits are benefits an individual receives over and beyond wages. They are sometimes called fringe benefits. Common benefits include paid vacations, paid health-care insurance, retirement programs, health-care leave, profit sharing, paid holidays, and recreation benefits. 3. People also derive personal satisfaction from the accomplishments they make through their work. People are often recognized for their work when it is of high quality.
Explain the meaning of a career ladder and the relationship of occupations in agriculture/horticulture to career success. Anticipated Problem: What is a career ladder, and how are occupations related to career success? II. A career ladder is the series of steps one climbs to move up in a career from entry level to more responsible positions. A. Career ladder climbing involves beginning in lower-level occupations and achieving sufficient productivity to advance to higher-level occupations. Moving up is based on being productive, demonstrating leadership and human relations skills, being loyal to the employer, and demonstrating the ability to assume responsibility. Advancement brings additional employment benefits.
B. A career is the general direction of a persons life as related to work. It is the path that a person follows in gainful employment on the career ladder. A career may involve several occupations and jobs. C. An occupation is a specific area of work that has identifiable education and training requirements. 1. An occupation can be given a title or name, such as farm manager, floral designer, or food technologist. 2. The nature of an occupation can be described by the kinds of competencies an individual needs to work in it. 3. Specific education can be provided to prepare individuals for entering and advancing in an occupation.
D. A job is a persons specific work in which he or she has definite duties at a certain location and for which he or she receives benefits.
Explain entrepreneurship as related to occupations. Anticipated Problem: What is the relationship of entrepreneurship to occupations in agriculture/horticulture? III. Entrepreneurship is the ownership of a business that creates goods or services to meet the needs of other people or businesses.
A. Entrepreneurship involves devising new products and/or ways of getting products or services to consumers. 1. An entrepreneur is an individual who owns a business, such as a flower shop, farm equipment dealership, feed and seed store, farm, or lawn-care service. Entrepreneurs are self-employed. They take risks in attempting to be successful. 2. Entrepreneurship has been an important area of gainful employment in agriculture/ horticulture. 3. Entrepreneurs are said to be their own bosses. 4. Entrepreneurs must comply with all regulations of doing business, such as obtaining permits, submitting tax forms, and hiring other individuals to work for them. 5. Entrepreneurs have occupations and need education to be successful.
Name and describe the major areas of agriculture/horticulture occupations based on the nature of the work. Anticipated Problem: What are the major areas of agriculture/horticulture occupations based on the nature of the work? IV. Clustering occupations based on the nature of the work involves studying what people do in the work and relating these observations to the competencies needed to perform the work.
A. Agriculture is divided into six major areas. 1. Production agricultureProduction agriculture is concerned with raising livestock, producing livestock products (e.g., milk and eggs), and growing crops. It is often equated with farming and ranching. 2. Supplies and servicesThe supplies and services area is concerned with providing the inputs needed to produce livestock, livestock products, and/or crops. Examples of supplies are feed, seed, and fertilizer. Examples of services are custom harvesting, crop consulting, and veterinary medical services. 3. Products processing and marketingThe products processing and marketing area includes all the activities in processing the crops or livestock produced on farms and getting the products to consumers in their desired forms. 4. ForestryForestry is concerned with the production of trees for various uses, such as lumber, paper, and ornamental products. It includes native forests as well as tree farms. 5. Natural resourcesThe natural resources area includes the conservation and protection of water, soil, air, and other natural resources, including wildlife. Environmental science can be included in this area. 6. Agricultural mechanics and technologyThis area includes the manufacture, repair, and operation of tractors, implements, and computer-based systems.
B. Horticulture is divided into four major areas. 1. Landscape horticultureThis area includes production nurseries, landscape nurseries, landscape maintenance services, plant and seed producers, retail garden centers/nurseries, and botanical gardens. 2. FloricultureThis area includes the production, design, and marketing of flowers. Flower growers and marketers, wholesale florists, and retail florists are involved in this area. 3. Fruits, vegetables, and nutsThis area deals primarily with food products and includes production, processing, packaging, distribution, and advertising. 4. Turf grassThis area deals with the use of grasses and other groundcovers and includes sod production, turf establishment, and golf course and other turf area design and maintenance.
Name and describe the major areas of agriculture/horticulture occupations based on level of education and responsibility. Anticipated Problem: What are the major areas of agriculture/horticulture occupations based on level of education and responsibility? V. Occupations in agriculture/horticulture can be clustered into areas based on level of education and responsibility.
A. A professional occupation requires a high level of education and/or experience. Many professional occupations require college degrees at the masters or doctoral level. 1. Examples in agricultureagriculture teacher, veterinarian, agricultural engineer, plant breeder, biotechnologist 2. Examples in horticulturehorticulture teacher, landscape architect, plant biotechnologist, vegetable researcher, geneticist
B. A managerial occupation involves managing an agricultural or horticultural enterprise. A college degree and/or considerable experience may be required. An individual who is a manager has large responsibilities for the success of the enterprise and the welfare of the employees. 1. Examples in agriculturefeed mill manager, sawmill manager, fish farm manager, ranch manager 2. Examples in horticulturegarden center manager, turf farm manager, flower market manager
C. A technical occupation is one that demands specialized training in performing processes, using equipment, and carrying out activities. Requirements are usually two years of education beyond high school and/or experience. 1. Examples in agricultureveterinary medical assistant, fish farm water-quality technician, food product inspector, farm equipment mechanic 2. Examples in horticulturefloral designer, landscape designer, vegetable research technician
D. A skilled occupation is one that requires specialized education and training. Education beyond high school is often needed for occupational entry. On-the-job training may be particularly important. 1. Examples in agriculturefarm equipment mechanic, artificial inseminator, pesticide applicator, livestock buyer 2. Examples in horticulturelandscape installer, greenhouse assistant, nursery crop propagator
E. A semi-skilled occupation is one that requires some education and training and/or on-the-job experience. Semi-skilled occupations may be the entry level for individuals who have just completed training and need time to develop more skills before advancing to skilled occupations. 1. Examples in agriculturefarm equipment set-up mechanic, mechanics assistant, warehouse employee, cattle herder 2. Examples in horticulturegarden center assistant, packing shed attendant, lawn maintenance assistant
F. An unskilled occupation is one that requires neither specific education or training nor experience in order to perform the duties. Unskilled occupations are entry- level occupations that often involve considerable manual labor. 1. Examples in agriculturefarm laborer, food plant utility person, fertilizer plant mail clerk 2. Examples in horticulturevegetable picker, warehouse worker, greenhouse worker
Identify the factors to consider in selecting an occupation in horticulture/agriculture. Anticipated Problem: What factors should be considered in selecting an occupation in agriculture/horticulture? VI. Choosing an occupation in agriculture/horticulture is an important event in the life of an individual. A. An individual needs to gather good information and participate in a wide range of experiences related to occupations in agriculture/horticulture. 1. Supervised experience is a useful tool in occupational decision making.
2. Interest tests and other means of assessing personal preferences can fill useful roles. 3. Job shadowing can provide firsthand experience without the need to make decisions that are difficult to change. 4. Interviewing people about their work can provide insight. 5. Information from publications, the Internet, or other reliable sources can be useful. B. The major factors to consider when choosing an occupation can be clustered into eight areas. 1. InterestsPersonal interests are important in career selection. Special tests known as interest inventories may be helpful. Students should make lists of things they are interested in and use them for assessing the appropriateness of occupations.
2. AbilitiesAbilities are the skills or aptitudes one has and/or is willing to develop. Some occupations require specific abilities. For example, floral design requires people who have a sense of shape, proportion, and presentation. 3. Education and training requirementsThe education and training requirements must be considered in selecting an occupation. Students should make decisions that are realistic in terms of what is likely for them. 4. Nature of the workStudents should carefully consider what type of work is done in an occupation and assess if this is congruent with what they want to do. Examples: Fish farmers work outside with fish and water. Landscape installers set plants and carry out other outside duties. Chemical salespeople travel and call on people to sell chemicals. 5. EarningsStudents should assess the earning potential of a given occupation to determine if it is in line with the desired standard of living. An occupational choice should not be exclusively made on the basis of income, but income is definitely important.
6. Location of the occupationConsidering where one will need to live in order to pursue an occupation is an important factor. Some occupations are in large cities; whereas, others are in isolated rural areas. 7. FutureCollecting information about the future and possible opportunities for advancements is important. Some occupations emerge, and others tend to fade out as new technology comes into use. 8. Family tiesA person should always consider where employment opportunities exist before making a commitment to an occupation. Some occupations may require moving away from family.
What is work, and what are the benefits from work? What is a career ladder, and how are occupations related to career success? What is the relationship of entrepreneurship to occupations in agriculture/horticulture? What are the major areas of agriculture/horticulture occupations based on the nature of the work? What are the major areas of agriculture/horticulture occupations based on level of education and responsibility? What factors should be considered in selecting an occupation in agriculture/horticulture?