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Flat Flow by Kamila Součková 11. Task Fill a thin gap between two large transparent horizontal parallel plates with a liquid and make a little hole in.

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Presentation on theme: "Flat Flow by Kamila Součková 11. Task Fill a thin gap between two large transparent horizontal parallel plates with a liquid and make a little hole in."— Presentation transcript:

1 Flat Flow by Kamila Součková 11

2 Task Fill a thin gap between two large transparent horizontal parallel plates with a liquid and make a little hole in the center of one of the plates. Investigate the flow in such a cell, if a different liquid is injected through the hole. 2

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13 Interfacial Pressure 13

14 Understood Phenomena 14 Figure from Hornberger et al. (1998) k : permeability of medium h : gap between plates

15 Position, Velocity measure how fast the interface moves –at various places – take the average 15 weight on syringe removed

16 Formation of Instabilities 16

17 Formation of Instabilities small instability pressure differences instability grows “fingers” 17

18 Slow-Motion Video of Patterns fps

19 What Affects Instabilities? 19 destabilizing high viscosity of liquid in the gap → pressure differences big pressure gradient stabilizing surface tension promotes disturbances tries to dampen out disturbances

20 Low Viscosity → No Fingers low viscosity symmetrical situation easier to spread out evenly no “fingers” 20

21 Low Viscosity → No Fingers 21 Ink (less viscous) Glycerol (more viscous)

22 PATTERN COMPLEXITY MEASUREMENTS

23 Equipment Liquid : –more viscous: glycerol, motor oil –less viscous: water (colored), ink, ethanol Plates – plexiglass (Hele–Shaw cell): –25 x 25 cm –gap: distance set by weights –hole: size customized to the syringe 23

24 Equipment 24

25 Equipment 25

26 What to Measure quantify the instabilities count perturbances –tells how “interesting” the pattern is –to make more objective: 26

27 VISCOSITY 27

28 Viscosity of Medium water → motor oil 5W water → motor oil 10W Viscosity < 28

29 water → glycerol water → motor oil 15W Viscosity < Viscosity of Medium 29

30 # of Fingers vs Viscosity of Medium 30

31 new ink (less viscous) → glycerol Viscosity of Injected Liquid old ink (more viscous) → glycerol Viscosity > 31

32 DISTANCE OF THE PLATES 32

33 Gap Size (Water → glycerol) 1mm≈0.8 mm 33

34 ≈0.2mm ≈0.1mm ≈0.4mm 34

35 # of Fingers vs Gap Size 35

36 PRESSURE IN SYRINGE 36

37 Pressure in Syringe p = 15 kPa (300g) p = 22 kPa (450g)p = 49 kPa (1 kg) changed by putting weights on syringe 37

38 # of Fingers vs Pressure 38

39 INTERFACIAL TENSION 39

40 Interfacial Tension Ethanol: → glycerol Water: → glycerol 40

41 Air → water ( = N/m) Air → water with detergent (δ = N/m) Higher surface tension → more rounded Lower surface tension → greater instability 41

42 FURTHER INVESTIGATION 42

43 An analogous experiment Jose A. Miranda, Michael Widom: Radial Fingering in a Hele-Shaw Cell: a weakly nonlinear analysis, Physica D 120(1998)

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45 Gap Size h 45

46 Pressure p 46

47 Ethanol → glycerol Water → glycerol 47

48 Conclusion observed the phenomenon showed when it does not work explained the mechanism of emerging patterns 48

49  pressure  surface tension Conclusion  viscosity  gap between the plates Proved assumed influences on the phenomenon: << > < 49

50  pressure  surface tension  viscosity  gap between the plates << > < 50 Thank you for your attention! Proved assumed influences on the phenomenon:

51 for your attention ! Thank you 11. Flat Flow Kamila Součková

52 APPENDIX

53 Changing temperature of glycerol 80°C → the same patterns

54 Data for experiments

55 Motor oil → glycerol (∆ ν = 1119, m 2 /s)


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