Sources of milk are from goats, camels, llamas, sheep, reindeer, and water buffalo. Dairy Cattle are the main source of milk in the USA
First brought to Jamestown Colony in 1611 Farms had only 1 or 2 cows Lack of refrigerator was the reason The second part of the 19 th century brought pasteurization, homogenization, refrigeration, and bottled milk 9.1 million dairy cows in the USA on farms 165 billion pounds of milk are produced by US cows each year
Each cow produces nearly 18,000 pounds of milk per year One cow can provide for 25 people with their dairy needs Dairy farm numbers have declined since 1950, by 95% Herd sizes range from 35 -500 to as much as 10,000 cows High tech milking equipment is used
Growth hormones are used to increase milk production California leads in total milk production, Wisconsin is 2 nd, then New York Calves are used for veal (males) Older cows are used for bologna and hamburger
Kingdom – Animal Phylum – Chordata – vertebrates Class – Mammalia – warm blooded Order – Artiodactyla (Even toed, cloven hoofed) Family – Bovidae – Ruminants Genus – Bos Species – taurus and indicus
Should appear angular Lack muscle development Well shaped udder Four teats
Seven Top Dairy Breeds: Jersey Holstein- Friesian Brown Swiss Guernsey Ayrshire Milking Shorthorn Red and White
Selecting Sires – One per herd Artificial Insemination Nutrient requirements – Look at their rations Feeding calves – Colostrum first 6 hours Feeding young stock – creep feeding Feeding Dry cows – no concentrates only roughages Feeding lactating cows – one pound of concentrates for every 3 pounds of milk produced. Roughages are fed at a rate of 2% of body weight.
Animal/Human interaction Stress modification – space (housing), feed on time, milk on time Climate Modification – temperature, humidity or precipitation, wind, and radiation
Metabolic Health Disorders Milk fever – overfeeding calcium Ketosis – Blood sugar low Mastitis – inflammation of the mammary glands
Cold Housing Warm Housing Milking Parlor Mechanized feeding Manure handling systems 15-20 tons manure is produced per dairy cow Solid manure system – low cost – daily labor Liquid manure system – high cost – move every 4-5 months Lagoons (ponds) lots of land needed, odor problems
Training Washing Grooming Clipping Trimming In the Ring
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