2Napoleon Bonaparte 5ft, 3 inches tall Recognized as one of the world’s military geniuses along with Alexander and Julius CaesarSent to military school in northern France at age 91785, only 16 years old, finished school and became a lieutenant in the army
3Hero of the HourWhen the Revolution broke out, Napoleon joined the new government’s armyRoyalists stormed the National Convention, and Napoleon received orders to greet those protestors with fireThose attackers fled in panic and confusionNapoleon Bonaparte became the hero of the hour, and was hailed throughout Paris as the savior of the French Republic
41796, the Directory (France’s new government) appoints Napoleon to lead an army against Austria and the kingdom of SardiniaNapoleon’s army won a series of battles in Italy, crushing the threat of Austrian troops to FranceThe newspapers praise Napoleon’s victories
5Napoleon’s series of defeats would end, and his luck ran out Napoleon vs. NelsonNext, Napoleon’s army moved on to Egypt to disrupt trade between Britain and IndiaNapoleon’s series of defeats would end, and his luck ran outHis French troops were defeated by British admiral Horatio NelsonNapoleon was able to keep this defeat from the press
6Directory Loses Control The French people had lost confidence in the DirectoryThe only thing keeping the them in power was their control of the armyThe Abbe Sieyes urges Napoleon to seize political powerNapoleon puts a plan in motion
7Napoleon Takes Control It began on November 9, 1799, when Napoleon was put in charge of the militaryIt ended the next day when his troops drove out the members of 1 chamber of the legislature, and then voted to dissolve the DirectoryNapoleon assumes dictatorial powers as 1 of 3 consulsSudden seize of power called a coup- french phrase coup d`e tat
9Europe at Peace France was still at war 1799, British Diplomats assemble the Second Coalition of anti-French powers- Britain, Austria and Russia- with the goal of driving Napoleon from powerBy 1802, as a result of war and diplomacy, all 3 countries had signed peace agreements with France and Europe was at peace for the first time in 10 years.
10Napoleon could now focus on restoring France At first, he pretends to be the constitutionally chosen leader, but in 1800, Napoleon holds a plebiscite (vote of the people) to approve a new constitutionThis was the 4th constitution in 8 yearsFrench people are so desperate for strong leadership, voted in favor for power to Napoleon
11Napoleon Brings Stability and Order To get economy stable- sets up tax collection and national bankDismissed corrupt officialsSet up lycees, government run public schools to train officialsSigned concordat (agreement) with Pope Pius VII, creating a new relationship between the Church and FranceConcordat gains Napoleon support from church and the French
12Napoleonic CodeHe was most proud of Napoleonic Code, gave France a uniform set of laws-eliminated many injustices-limited and promoted order and authority over individual rights-freedom of speech and press restricted, as well as women’s rights-restored slavery in French colonies in the Caribbean where slavery had been abolished
13Napoleon Crowned as Emperor In 1804, napoleon decided to make himself emperorIn a flashy ceremony, wearing a long robe, he walked slowly down the aisle of the Notre Dame Cathedral in ParisHe takes the crown out of the pope’s hands, and puts it on his own headThis arrogant gesture showed Napoleon had more power than the church
14Napoleon taking the crown from the pope instead of following tradition and allowing the Pope to crown him
15Napoleon Creates an Empire Napoleon wants to create an empire and control all of Europe and reassert French power in the new world (Americas)He envisions his western empire to include Florida, Louisiana and the French West IndiesTo do this, he needs support from the French colony St. Domingue (now Haiti)There’s a civil war going on in St. Domingue because slaves want their freedom back, along with the same privileges of French citizens
16Louisiana PurchaseNapoleon sends over troops to get control over the islandThousands of soldiers die from yellow feverNapoleon realizes the long obstacle facing him and doesn’t want the troubleHe offers to sell all of the Louisiana territory to the U.S.
17In 1803, U.S. President, Thomas Jefferson agrees to buy the territory for $15 million. This benefited Napoleon 2 ways:1) France gains money to finance operations in Europe2) punished Britain by giving them another rival (the U.S.)
19Napoleon Focuses on Conquering Europe Napoleon had already annexed the Austrian Netherlands, parts of Italy and set up a puppet government in SwitzerlandFearful of his ambitions, Britain persuaded Russia, Austria and Sweden to join a third coalition against France
20Hey… Why do you think Britain needs to have a strong Navy?? Napoleon has a series of brilliant battles and crushes his oppositionAll rulers sign a peace treaty with France except BritainNapoleon has the biggest empire since the RomansThe only threat is Britain’s NavyYep- it’s an island and surrounded by water!Hey… Why do you think Britain needs to have a strong Navy??
22In his war against the third coalition, Napoleon lost just one major battle, the Battle of Trafalgar This naval defeat was more important than all of Napoleon’s victories on land
23Battle took place in 1804 off coast of Spain Napoleon vs. Nelson Round 2Battle took place in 1804 off coast of SpainBritish admiral who defeated Napoleon in 1798 in charge of British fleetNelson outmaneuvered the much bigger fleet of French-Spanish fleetNelson was wounded by a French sharpshooter, but heard the news of defeating Napoleon once again before he died“Now I am satisfied,” whispered the admiral. “Thank God, I have done my duty”.
25Destruction of French fleets had 2 major results: 1) assured supremacy of British navy for the next hundred years2) Napoleon had to give up idea of invading Britain
26Napoleon’s EmpireBy 1812, the only major European countries free from Napoleon’s control were Britain, Ottoman Empire, Portugal and SwedenOther countries in Europe had rulers who were puppets of Napoleons, or even relatedFrench Empire is huge, but unstable.Napoleon was able to maintain the empire for just 5 years ( ), but caused the collapse himself