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How Does Mental Energy Develop? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation.

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Presentation on theme: "How Does Mental Energy Develop? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation."— Presentation transcript:

1 How Does Mental Energy Develop? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion How Does Mental Energy Develop? Theme and Variation on Topic 4. Motivation and Emotion This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any image; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.

2 How Does Mental Energy Develop? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion The Lecture and the Book… Chapter 4: Motivation and Emotion 1.What are Motives?* 2.How are Motives Expressed? 3.What Are Emotions and Why Are They Important? 4.What Are Emotional Traits and How Are They Expressed? 5.What Are Happy People Like? Lecture 4: How Does Mental Energy Develop? 1.Key terms 2.Projective and other measures 3.Key motives 4.Motives and emotions together 5.Why emotions? 6.Emotions and personality

3 How Does Mental Energy Develop? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion What Are Motives, Instincts, Needs? Motives – Basic biologically-based needs of the organism to behave in a particular way. Henry Murray Developed a long list of 20 or so. –Inanimate objects n Acquisition, n Order –Ambition n Achievement, n Recognition –Superiority: n Inviolacy, n Defendance –Sado-Masochism: n Aggression, n Abasement –Affection: n Affliation, n Rejection

4 How Does Mental Energy Develop? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion The Issues of Honesty and Self Knowledge Issues of Self-Judgments… –How well do people know their motives? –Will they honestly report them? Even if true, would you feel comfortable saying… –…you are motivated by revenge? –…you are interested in having sexual relations whenever you can?

5 How Does Mental Energy Develop? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion Thematic (Projective) Measures of Motives Thematic (Projective) Measures – The presence of an ambiguous stimulus to which an individual must respond. Example: The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) –A person constructs a story to the stimulus, –Portions of his or her style of thinking can be measured.

6 How Does Mental Energy Develop? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion Projective Testing: The TAT Tell a story… What happened to bring this about? What is going on now? What will happen next?

7 How Does Mental Energy Develop? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion Projective Testing: The TAT

8 How Does Mental Energy Develop? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion (Informally) Score Your Own TAT! N. Achievement Meeting standards of excellence Unique attainments Commitment to goals N. Power Controlling others Attempts to heighten their influence Protection of others N. Affiliation Maintaining positive relationships with others Repairing relationships

9 How Does Mental Energy Develop? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion Motivation: What Does It Influence? N for AchievementN for PowerN for Affiliation Prefer tasks of moderate difficulty Direct behavior of others: executives, psychologists, teachers, journalists, clergy Spend more time with others; write more letters Get higher grades only in courses relevant to goals Express extreme opinions on matters to get visibility; obtain desired possessions Sympathetic and accommodating More involved in occupations and upwardly mobile Build alliances; but not necessarily well-liked If intimacy, more popular, better adjusted

10 How Does Mental Energy Develop? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion Self-Report of Motives Measure: Jackson Personality Inventory (based on 20 of Murrays needs) Factor analyses identified needs for: –Achievement vs play –Social leadership –Dependence –Self-protection –Aesthetic & intellectual achievement

11 How Does Mental Energy Develop? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion Enhancing Self-Report Can people be forced to be honest? In forced choice, test-takers must choose two alternatives matched for social desirability Sample item (choose one): A. Do you prefer to be lazy sometimes, and just do nothing? B. Would you describe yourself as seeking revenge against those who injure you?

12 How Does Mental Energy Develop? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion Shift Focus to Emotions This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any image; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.

13 How Does Mental Energy Develop? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion From Motives to Emotion There can be direct connections: e.g., anger often accompanies aggression Happiness and joining others Emotion can amplify motives: e.g., happiness can amplify altruism. (Silvan Tomkins)

14 How Does Mental Energy Develop? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion From Motives to Emotion Robert Plutchiks Emotion-Motive Connections MotiveAmplified or triggered by… Emotion Function Escaping FearProtection Attacking AngerDestruction Mating JoyReproduction

15 How Does Mental Energy Develop? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion Emotions as Evolved Signal System Darwin & the evolution of emotions Saw commonalities in facial and other emotional expressions across species Harbor Seals and Chimpanzees mouth feeding

16 How Does Mental Energy Develop? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion Emotions as Evolved Signal System Darwin & the evolution of emotions Saw commonalities in facial and other emotional expressions across species Anger in the cat and dog

17 How Does Mental Energy Develop? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion Emotions as Evolved Signal System The brain is designed to connect basic emotions with basic facial expressions

18 How Does Mental Energy Develop? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion Universality of Facial Expressions Percent Agreement as to Facial Expression in Developed Nations JapanBrazilChileU.S. Happiness Fear Surprise Anger Disgust Sadness

19 How Does Mental Energy Develop? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion Universality of Facial Expressions Emerging, pre-literate societies Tell a story: She is sitting in a house with no axe, or bow. A pig is standing in the door looking at her and wont move… Agreement equally high as in Western nations

20 How Does Mental Energy Develop? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion Measuring Emotional States Self report is king! Psychophysiology secondary Mood and emotion are often used synonymously for emotional experience

21 How Does Mental Energy Develop? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion Background on Measurement Mood (or Emotion) scales often involve lists of emotion adjectives –Vincent Nowlis –drug company research Using a contemporary approach, there are two dimensions of mood/emotion

22 How Does Mental Energy Develop? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion Background on Measuring Emotion Russells Mood Circumplex

23 How Does Mental Energy Develop? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion Background on Measuring Emotions Emotions are momentary…or are they? Emotions and relation to personality…

24 How Does Mental Energy Develop? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion Background on Measuring Personality Hans Eysenck Developed psychological scales Was among the first to apply factor analysis Sample questions –I prefer making friends to being alone –I often feel anxious.

25 How Does Mental Energy Develop? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion Background on Measuring Personality Eysencks 2- dimensional model of personality is based on factor analysis Personality traits are arranged amidst the two dimensions Active Aggressive Touchy Pessimistic Sober Moody Peaceful Thoughtful Reliable Lively Talkative Sociable ExtravertedIntroverted Neurotic Stable

26 How Does Mental Energy Develop? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion Background on Measuring Personality Remember the ancient division of personality into four types? –Sanguine –Choleric –Melancholic –Phlegmatic …Is there a connection? Active Aggressive Touchy Pessimistic Sober Moody Peaceful Thoughtful Reliable Lively Talkative Sociable ExtravertedIntroverted Neurotic Stable

27 How Does Mental Energy Develop? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion Comparison of States and Traits Active Aggressive Touchy Pessimistic Sober Moody Peaceful Thoughtful Reliable Lively Talkative Sociable ExtravertedIntroverted Neurotic Stable

28 How Does Mental Energy Develop? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion Conclusions Many traditional personality traits reflect a two dimensional structure. Many moods reflect a two dimensional structure The personality traits and the mood traits correspond, when they are rotated –Extroversion = arousal –Introversion = calmness –Neuroticism = unpleasantness –Emotional Stability = pleasantness

29 How Does Mental Energy Develop? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion A Study of the Happiest Students Diener and Seligman screened 222 college stduents Only the 24 happiest students were selected They scored highest on measures of well-being They had consistently happy moods over a 51 day period They had low negative moods over the same period

30 How Does Mental Energy Develop? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion Results from the Study The same as others... Perceived money they had Their grades Conscientiousness Objective physical appearance Time spent in various activities (TV, religious observance) Different from others… Highly satisfied with lives Nearly never thought about suicide Recall many more happy events Experienced more happy events every day Had good quality relationships with family and friends

31 How Does Mental Energy Develop? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion ~ end ~


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