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Look Smart © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… Look Smart.

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Presentation on theme: "Look Smart © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… Look Smart."— Presentation transcript:

1 Look Smart © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… Look Smart Theme and Variation on Topic 6. Mental Abilities and Navigating the World This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any image; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.

2 Look Smart © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… The Lecture and the Book… Chapter 6: What is a Mental Ability? 1.What Are Some Major Mental Abilities? 2.Are There Additional Intelligences and Mental Abilities? 3.What Is the Relation Between Personality and Intelligence? 4.How Does Personality Express Its Intelligence? Lecture 6: Look Smart 1.Defining Intelligence 2.Concrete and Abstract Thinking 3.Rate of Development and the IQ 4.The Expression of IQ 5.Hot Intelligences 6.(If time) Creativity

3 Look Smart © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… Defining Intelligence Most important: The capacity to carry out abstract reasoning (similarities, differences, accurate generalizations) Adaptation and adjustment –Stern: the general capacity of an individual to adjust Learning –Hennon: capacity for knowledge and knowledge possessed Neural approaches –Pinter: modifiability of the nervous system

4 Look Smart © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… Concrete and Abstract Thinking Concrete Thinking Events Actions Conditions Abstract Thinking Similarities and Differences Organizations Relationships

5 Look Smart © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… Nigel Hunt Hunt, Nigel (1967). The world of Nigel Hunt: The Diary of a Mongoloid Youth. New York: Garrett Publications. Parents: Father and mother were both middle- class public school teachers. Education: extensive home tutoring of the most sensitive and creative type. Nigel also attended his father's school. School standing and progress: no details provided.

6 Look Smart © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… Example of Concrete Thinking (Nigel Hunt, Selection 1) It gives me great pleasure to write this, my very first book. I hope it will do well in America and in England. Now I had better introduce myself. I am Nigel Hunt and I live at 26 Church Avenue, Pinner, England with my parents. They are very nice indeed. I was born at Edgware in I have never been to America yet. The lady who advised me to write this was Mrs. Eileen J. Garrett and she says that I shall be very busy. (cont.)

7 Look Smart © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… Example of Concrete Thinking Nigel Hunt (Selection 2) So it's hallo! Welcome to my first good attempt in making this book and Douglas Hunt is assisting me. I had a royal honour in coming to London to see Mrs. Garrett at the Claridges Hotel and the flags were out for me and I saluted my own colour. I was educated at many places; at Longfield Primary School, Inellan School, Pinner, and at my father's school, Atholl School. I have my own typewriter and I taught myself to type. When I went to London many years ago I made a film with Prof. Penrose looking at my palms. [One sign of Trisomy- 21is a particular pattern in the palm] I also smiled at the camera, and he says it will go to America, and I hope you have seen it. (cont.)

8 Look Smart © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… Example of Concrete Thinking Recalling Nigel Hunt (Selection 3) My mother has been so kind tome all my life. My mother taught me to read. When I was very tiny we used to play together with plastic letters and a book with huge letters in it. I learnt the sounds of the letters from my mother as we played. After I had learned the sound of every letter mother held things up and sound-spelt them like "This is a C-U-P" and soon I could do it all by myself; all our friends were amazed and pleased with me when I began to read properly from books. My mother used to read to me and she would read all the way through and the title of the book was "Alaplied" which I said every time my mother came up. [This was actually "he replied". It was not the title of the book.]

9 Look Smart © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… Example of Concrete Thinking Hunt (Selection 6) One day I was taught good English from Mr. Hunt and then came the periods. Periods 1, 2, 3, 4, and so on; when I went there I became independent and polite to all the boys. Then we had two French teachers.

10 Look Smart © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… Example of Abstract Thinking Alexander Hamilton Signer of the Declaration of Independence Coauthor of the Federalist Papers

11 Look Smart © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… Example of Abstract Reasoning As to what you say respecting your soon having the happiness of seeing us all, I wish an accomplishment of your hopes, provided they are concomitant with your welfare, otherwise not... To confess my weakness, Ned, my ambition is prevalent, so that I contemn the grovelling condition of a clerk or the like, to which my fortune, etc., condemns me, and would willingly risk my life, though not my character, to exalt my station. I am confident, Ned, that my youth excludes me from any hopes of immediate preferment; nor do I desire it; but I mean to preface the way for futurity. I'm no philosopher, you see, and may justly be said to build castles in the air; my folly makes me ashamed, and I beg you'll conceal it; yet Neddy, we have seen such schemes successful when the projector is constant…[How old?]

12 Look Smart © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… Example of Abstract Reasoning The previously quoted letter from Alexander Hamilton was written to a school friend when Hamilton was 12 years, 10 months old. Note –Virtuousity, developed style of writing –Excellent organization –Sustained theme (wanting greatness) –Application of intelligence to life planning Estimated IQ: 135

13 Look Smart © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… Major Intelligences: from Mid 20th Century Verbal-Comprehension IQ –Comprehension: If you find a letter with an address on it but no stamp, what should you do? –Picture Completion –Similarities: How are a computer and a car alike?

14 Look Smart © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… Major Intelligences: from Mid 20th Century Perceptual-Organizational IQ –Block Design: Arrange blocks to form an abstract pattern –Coding: Learn to copy an abstract symbol next to another abstract symbol –Picture Arrangement: Complete a puzzle

15 Look Smart © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… Development and the IQ Score Year 5: –Compare 2 boxes of different weights –Repeat sentence of 10 syllables –Count four pennies (sous) Year 12: –Repeat 7 figures –Find 3 rhymes –Repeat 26 syllable sentences –Interpret the meaning of pictures Binet noticed his older daughter better solved problems than his younger daughter No one had realized intelligence developed with age before His test was age graded

16 Look Smart © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… Development and IQ: Example John Stuart Mill Philosopher Author of On Liberty and Utilitarianism

17 Look Smart © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… How is IQ Expressed? John Stuart Mill ( ): First Alban Government: Roman conquest in Italy. We know not any part, says Dionysius of Halicarnassus, of the History of Rome till the Sicilian invasions. Before that time, the country had not been entered by any foreign invader. After the expulsion of Sicilians, Iberian (?) kings reigned for several years; but in the time of Latinus, Aeneas, son of Venus and Anchises, came to Italy, and established a kingdom there called Albania. He then succeeded Latinus in the government, and engaged in the wars of Italy. The Rutuli, a people living near the sea, and extending along the Numicius up to the Lavinium, opposed him. However, Turnus their king was defeated and killed by Aeneas. Aeneas was killed soon after this. The war continued to be carried on chiefly against the Rutuli, to the time of Romulus, the first king of Rome. By him it was that Rome was built.

18 Look Smart © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… Expression of IQ Preceding passage written at the age of 6 ½ Estimated IQ: 190 Grandfather, shoemaker; father, a philosopher Mother, daughter of woman who managed a lunatic asylum (cont.)

19 Look Smart © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… John Stuart Mill (Cont.) Educated at home –Learned Greek at 3 –Read Plato with understanding at 7 –At 8 studied Latin –Also at 8, covered geometry and algebra –At 9, conic sections, spherics, and Newtons arithmetic –Of his math, it was said, He performed all problems without the book and most of them without any help from the book.

20 Look Smart © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… The Rate IQ The IQ (proposed by Louis Stern) –IQ = MA/CA x 100 –Intelligence Quotient = Mental Age Divided by Chronological Age, times One Hundred Mental Age = the age-based-scale at which a person can solve > half the problems Example: –A 6-year-old child (CA = 6) –Solves problems like the average 8-year-old (MA = 8) –IQ = 8/6 x 100 = (1.333) x 100 = 133.3

21 Look Smart © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… The Rate IQ: Drawbacks Mental age, by itself, lacks meaning. Mental age of 10? –A five year old will be a genius –A 20-year-old will seem slow Alternative is the Deviation IQ –David Wechsler –Measures deviation from average within a given age-range

22 Look Smart © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… Mental Development and the IQ The IQ Distribution Relative Frequency Mean = 100 SD = 15

23 Look Smart © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… Mental Development and the IQ The IQ Distribution Relative Frequency Mean = 100 SD = 15 68%

24 Look Smart © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… Mental Development and the IQ The IQ Distribution Relative Frequency Mean = 100 SD = 15 95%

25 Look Smart © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… Mental Development and the IQ The IQ Distribution Relative Frequency Mean = 100 SD = 15 99%

26 Look Smart © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… How is IQ Expressed? Life StatusCorrelation with IQ Primary school rank in classr =.50 Secondary school rank in classr = High School gradesr =.60 Freshman GPAr =.44* *The r between IQ and SATs is.80

27 Look Smart © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… How is IQ Expressed? Educational LevelAverage IQ Primary School100 Secondary School110 College118 Professional School126

28 Look Smart © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… Focus on Hot Intelligences and Creativity This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any image; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.

29 Look Smart © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… What is hot? Hot information is motivational, emotional, or social information of direct importance or concern to the individual. Hot mental abilities are abilities to process and cope with such personally meaningful and important information

30 Look Smart © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… First sustained theory and measure of emotional intelligence (Mayer & Salovey, 1990; Salovey & Mayer, 1990) Popularization of emotional intelligence (Goleman, 1995) Huge research endeavor thereafter Emotional Intelligence

31 Look Smart © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… Emotional Intelligence. Emotions Are Signals about Relationships and Related Actions Each emotion means something and operates in a particular way. An emotion is, in some sense, like a piece on a chessboard; each emotion has its own function and set of moves.

32 Look Smart © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… Emotional Intelligence Managing Emotions Understanding Emotions Facilitating Thought Perceiving Emotions Emotional Intelligence. Four Branch Model of Emotional Intelligence (Mayer & Salovey, 1997; Salovey & Mayer, 1990)

33 Look Smart © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… Emotional Intelligence. The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) Another Example: Question: A blend of regret, sentimental feelings, love, and loss might lead to what feeling? Answer: nostalgia

34 Look Smart © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… How is Emotional Intelligence Expressed? Stronger, closer relationships Fewer fights and conflicts Less drug abuse, alcohol abuse

35 Look Smart © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… Defining Creativity Definition: The ability to come up with many novel solutions to problems

36 Look Smart © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… Measuring Creativity Alternate Uses –How many uses can you come up with for a shoe? Verbal Fluency –What words rhyme with nation? Remote Associates –What goes with: MATE, BANK, & CROSS?

37 Look Smart © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… Causes Educational –1 year of school = 2 IQ points –Each time you hear me, your IQ goes up.02 points! Biological –Neural transmission speed studies Choice reaction time –Brain size studies Brain scanning results –IQ is highly heritable

38 Look Smart © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… How is Creativity Expressed? Greater output of products (books, poems, music, scientific achievements) judged as creative Longer, delayed, career attainments Novel or unusual career paths


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