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Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. How are autosomal cells and sex cells different? Question of the Day 2-25.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. How are autosomal cells and sex cells different? Question of the Day 2-25."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. How are autosomal cells and sex cells different? Question of the Day 2-25

2 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Objectives –Describe shape / function of a chromosome –Describe differences between autosome & sex chromosomes.

3 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Review 2-25 What am I?

4 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Review Describe the structure of a chromosome. Describe the structure of a chromosome. Identify the differences in structure between prokaryotic chromosomes and eukaryotic chromosomes. Identify the differences in structure between prokaryotic chromosomes and eukaryotic chromosomes. Compare the numbers of chromosomes in different species. Compare the numbers of chromosomes in different species. Explain the differences between sex chromosomes and autosomes. Explain the differences between sex chromosomes and autosomes. Distinguish between diploid and haploid cells. Distinguish between diploid and haploid cells.

5 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Sex Chromosome Abnormalities Female Genotype Syndrome Male Genotype Syndrome XX normalXYnormal XO Turner XXYKlinefelter XXXTriple-XXYY

6 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. What is the same about a homologous pair of chromosomes? What is different? Question of the Day 2-28

7 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ASSIGNMENTS Book Questions (page 5) Cell Division Webquest

8 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. REVIEW What does a chromosome look like right before cell division? What does a chromosome look like right before cell division? Whats a histone? Whats a histone? How is a prokaryote different than a eukaryote? How is a prokaryote different than a eukaryote? Which cells are haploid? Diploid? Which cells are haploid? Diploid?

9 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Cell Division Cell division – is the process by which cells reproduce. Cell division – is the process by which cells reproduce. In Prokaryotes: In Prokaryotes: Binary fission – Division of a prokaryotic cell into 2 offspring cells. Binary fission – Division of a prokaryotic cell into 2 offspring cells.

10 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. In Eukaryotes: In Eukaryotes: Cell Cycle Cell Cycle –Cycle consisting of cell division and interphase –Cell division Process of creating a new cell Process of creating a new cell Includes mitosis cytokinesis. Includes mitosis and cytokinesis. –Interphase Time between cellular division Time between cellular division Majority of the life cycle of a cell Majority of the life cycle of a cell

11 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.Interphase Cell is preparing for next division Cell is preparing for next division

12 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. 3 Parts of Interphase: G 1 -- Cell Growth (duplicate organelles) G 1 -- Cell Growth (duplicate organelles) S -- DNA replication S -- DNA replication G 2 -- Growth and preparation for cell division G 2 -- Growth and preparation for cell division G 0 – cells that do not again prepare for replication – basically stay in G 1 phase G 0 – cells that do not again prepare for replication – basically stay in G 1 phase

13 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. REVIEW Binary fission = ??? Binary fission = ??? Two main parts of cell cycle in eukaryotes = Two main parts of cell cycle in eukaryotes = 3 parts of interphase = ??? 3 parts of interphase = ???

14 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Cell Division – Mitosis and Cytokinesis Mitosis – Process which ONE cell divides into TWO genetically identical cells – Asexual reproduction Mitosis – Process which ONE cell divides into TWO genetically identical cells – Asexual reproduction 4 Stages: 4 Stages: –Prophase –Metaphase –Anaphase –Telophase

15 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.Prophase Chromatin coils into chromosomes (remember DNA was duplicated in the S phase) Chromatin coils into chromosomes (remember DNA was duplicated in the S phase) Nuclear membrane breaks down Nuclear membrane breaks down Centrioles appear and move towards poles of cell Centrioles appear and move towards poles of cell Spindle fibers appear. Spindle fibers = microtubules that radiate from centrioles and attach to chromosomes Spindle fibers appear. Spindle fibers = microtubules that radiate from centrioles and attach to chromosomes chromosomes nuclear membrane centrioles spindle fibers

16 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

17 1. What are the four phases of mitosis? 2. What happens during prophase? Question of the Day 3-1 Objective: Objective: –Discuss what happens in anaphase and telophase

18 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. 1. How are chromosomes different from chromatin? 2. What are the 2 main stages of the cell cycle? 3.What are the 3 main stages of interphase? 4. What happens during each stage of interphase? 5. What are the 2 main parts of cell division? Review 3-1

19 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Metaphase Spindles move sister chromatids to the equator of the cell Spindles move sister chromatids to the equator of the cell

20 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Metaphase chromosomes centrioles spindle fibers

21 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Anaphase Sister chromatids pulled apart into daughter chromatids Sister chromatids pulled apart into daughter chromatids Daughter chromatids move towards poles of cell Daughter chromatids move towards poles of cell

22 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Anaphase sister chromatids centrioles spindle fibers

23 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Telophase Chromosomes unwind Chromosomes unwind Nucleus reforms Nucleus reforms Spindles disappear Spindles disappear Cleavage furrow appears – indentation where cells will split Cleavage furrow appears – indentation where cells will split

24 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Telophase cleavage furrow nuclear membrane spindle fibers

25 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Cytokinesis Animal Cells Animal Cells –Cleavage furrow – indentation where cells will split and separate into two cells indentation where cells will split and separate into two cells Plant Cells Plant Cells –cell plate – separates the dividing cell into two cells.

26 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.Reviewing prophase centrioles spindle fibers metaphase anaphase telophase

27 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

28 Cell divisionInterphase cytokinesismitosisG 1 phaseG 2 phase S phase cytokinesis prophasemetaphase anaphase telophase

29 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. _______________ lined up ________________ ________________ attached to chromosomes

30 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. v v v v v ________________ _____________________________ are pulled apart ________________

31 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. __________________ disappearing _______________________ forming

32 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.


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