Presentation on theme: "Matter and Mixtures Topic : Mixing and Dissolving."— Presentation transcript:
Matter and Mixtures Topic : Mixing and Dissolving
Mixing and Dissolving All pure substances have their own unique set of properties, or characteristics. All mixtures contain two or more pure substances, which have their own distinct properties (some of which may be hidden)
Classification of Matter
Homogenous Mixtures - are mixtures which look as though they have only one set of properties. - the blended mixture has equal amounts of both substances (all parts of the mixture are the same) solution - if the homogenous mixture does not have any settling of any of the substances it is made of, then it is called a solution - solutions occur because each particle slips between each other particle and is evenly distributed throughout the entire mixture
Heterogeneous mixture Classification of: suspension -in which the particles settle slowly after mixing, is called a suspension (eg. orange juice) colloid - a heterogeneous mixture, in which the particles do not settle at all, is called a colloid (eg. fog) emulsion - to disperse the particles for a longer period of time, an emulsifying agent (like a protein) is used to form an emulsion (eg. mayonnaise) mechanical mixtures - mixtures that are obviously two or more substances are called mechanical mixtures -the separate parts of the mechanical mixture are called phases
What Makes Materials Dissolve? - forming a solution by mixing two or more materials together is called dissolving - dissolving occurs because of the attraction between the particles (there may be a stronger attraction to the particles of another substance, than to the particles of the same substance) Using the particle theory explain how a substance dissolves? Using the particle theory explain how a substance dissolves?
Why does Salt dissolve in water? The salt molecules have a strong attraction to the water molecules so the salt dissolves and forms a solution. The water is the solvent (part of the solution that does the dissolving) The Salt is the solute (part of the solution that is dissolved)
Solutes and Solvents The solute is the substance that dissolves in a solvent. The solvent is the substance that dissolves the solute to form a solution. Soluble Soluble means to be able to be dissolved in a particular solvent. Solutes and solvents can be gases or liquids.
Identify: Solute and Solvent Air Pop *20 K Gold jewelry Steel Salt water Solvent-Nitrogen: Solute-Oxygen Solvent-Water Solute-Sugar & CO 2 Solvent-Gold Solute-Other metals Solvent-Iron Solute-Other metals Solvent-Water Solute-Salt
Water - the Universal Solvent 'universal solvent' - it is called the 'universal solvent' because it can dissolve so many materials 97% of the water on Earth is Ocean water, 2% is frozen and only about 0.5% is 'usable' - and even this has materials already dissolved in it that can be harmful
The Rate of Dissolving rate of dissolving - the speed at which the solute dissolves in a solvent is called the rate of dissolving and can be affected by: - agitation (stirring or shaking) - temperature: increase of decrease - pressure: increase of decrease
How Much Can Be Dissolved? the limit to concentration is called solubility a saturated solution is one in which no more solute will dissolve in a specific amount of solvent at a specific temperature an unsaturated solution is one in which more solute can be dissolved in a specific solvent at the same specific temperature SATURATION MEANS - using the particle theory, SATURATION MEANS the attractive forces between the particles becomes balanced and no more particles of the solute can be attracted by the particles of the solvent
Beyond the Limit: Supersaturated Solutions a solution that contains more solute than would normally dissolve at a certain temperature is called a super-saturated solution.
Cleaning Up with Solvents Not all solutes will dissolve in solvents Not all solutes will dissolve in solvents. Insoluble means not able to be dissolved in a particular solvent. - certain solvents are used for special circumstances because they will dissolve some solutes that water and other solvents cannot What does it mean to be insoluble? What does it mean to be insoluble?
Cleaning Up with Solvents (rubbing alcohol is use to dissolve chlorophyll - grass stains, because the particles have strong attractions) Water will not dissolve oil or products that are oil based. Mix an emulsifying agent with the water (phosphate based soap) and the oil will then dissolve when the clothes are washed. Why will soap clean oil when it is added to water? Why will soap clean oil when it is added to water?
Topic: Solutions and Solubility As well as Percent Concentration OR WHAT DOES IT MEAN IF A SOLUTION IS SATURATED!
What is a solution? Solution is homogeneous Composed of a solvent and a solute If a liquid solution the solvent is usually liquid and the solute solid If it is a solution that is a solid solution like Brass, the solvent is the greater quantity and the solute is the lesser quantity
Solubility DEF n : The maximum amount of solute that can dissolve in a specific amount of solvent usually at a specific temperature. g of solute 100 g 20 0 C
Saturated and Unsaturated A saturated solution contains the maximum amount of solute that can dissolve. Undissolved solute remains. An unsaturated solution does not contain all the solute that could dissolve
Learning Check S1 At 40 C, the solubility of KBr (Potassium Bromide) is 80 g/100 g H 2 O. Indicate if the following solutions are (1) saturated or (2) unsaturated A. ___60 g KBr in 100 g of water at 40 C B. ___200 g KBr in 200 g of water at 40 C C. ___25 KBr in 50 g of water at 40 C
Solution S1 At 40 C, the solubility of KBr is 80 g/100 g H 2 O. Indicate if the following solutions are (1) saturated or (2) unsaturated A. 2 Less than 80 g/100 g H 2 O B. 1 Same as 100 g KBr in 100 g of water at 40 C, which is greater than its solubility C. 2 Same as 60 g KBr in 100 g of water, which is less than its solubility
Temperature and Solubility of Solids TemperatureSolubility (g/100 g H 2 O) KCl(s)NaNO 3 (s) 0° °C °C °C The solubility of most solids (decreases or increases ) with an increase in the temperature.
Temperature and Solubility of Solids TemperatureSolubility (g/100 g H 2 O) KCl(s)NaNO 3 (s) 0° °C °C °C The solubility of most solids increases with an increase in the temperature.
Temperature and Solubility of Gases TemperatureSolubility(g/100 g H 2 O) CO 2 (g)O 2 (g) 0°C °C °C The solubility of gases (decreases or increases) with an increase in temperature.
Temperature and Solubility of Gases TemperatureSolubility(g/100 g H 2 O) CO 2 (g)O 2 (g) 0°C °C °C The solubility of gases decreases with an increase in temperature.
Learning Check S2 A. Why would a bottle of carbonated drink possibly burst (explode) when it is left out in the hot sun ? B. Why would fish die in water that gets too warm?
Solution S2 A. Gas in the bottle builds up as the gas becomes less soluble in water at high temperatures, which may cause the bottle to explode. B. Because O 2 gas is less soluble in warm water, the fish may not obtain the needed amount of O 2 for their survival.