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Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004 Nutrients, Bacteria and Caffeine Jean-Francois Bouffard,

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004 Nutrients, Bacteria and Caffeine Jean-Francois Bouffard,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004 Nutrients, Bacteria and Caffeine Jean-Francois Bouffard, B.I.T. Aquality Environmental Consulting Ltd. April 16, 2005

2 Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps Stream Study –LEPA –AAFRD (Sarah Depoe) –AAFC-PFRA (Jason Vanrobaeys) Caffeine –LEPA and Aquality Bacteria –LEPA, ARHA, and Aquality Introduction Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004

3 Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps Methods Stream survey –8 sites sampled during April 2004 –During spring thaw (April 1st, 5th, 7th, 12th, and 20 th) Parameters –Nutrients, bacteria, ions, metals and pesticides (1 Site) –Flow gauging Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004

4 Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004

5 Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps Methods Caffeine –May 21 (composite sampling) 11 sites LLN – 3 bottles apiece 2 streams 2 beaches - Nakamun –Sept 7 – Follow up on May sampling – in lake only Bacteria –In lake samples taken with ARHA during May 11 th sampling Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004

6 Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps

7 Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps Results Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004

8 Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps Results Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004

9 Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps Results Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004

10 Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps Results May 21 st, 2004Sept 7 th, 2004 Site Name MDL = 0.02 mg/L Majeau Creek0.02NA Nakamun Creek ND - Site 1ND- Site 2 ND - Site 30.01*ND Site 4ND- Site * ND Site 6ND- Site 7 ND - Site 8ND- Site ND Site 10ND- Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004

11 Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps Sample Location Total Coliforms (CFU) Fecal Coliforms (CFU) Birch Coveless than 10 McFadzen's10less than 10 McDonald's Farmless than 10 Kildeer Beachless than 10 Camp Encounter20less than 10 Moonlight Bayless than 10 White Rock Beachless than 10 Volunteer Cabin20 Camp NakamunAt Least 10less than 10 * Precise quantification could not be done for this sample due to background growth All samples were processed as "Suspected Sewage". Coliform Counts were determined by Membrane Filtration per 100 ml Results Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004

12 Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps Discussion Nutrients were highest in early April TP and TN exceeded ASWQ guidelines for the Protection of Aquatic Life in 100% of the samples NO2-N – 40% compliant E.Coli – 91% compliant Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004

13 Discussion TPTNNO 2 -NE. coli Guideline:ASWQG Protection:PAL Recreation Guideline Value:0.05 mg/L1.0 mg/L0.018 mg/L200/100 mL nCnCnCnC Site Site Site Site Site Site Site Site # Samples % Compliant 0.00% 40.00% 91% Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004

14 Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps AAWQI Index Site No.AAWQI Nutrient Sub Index Score Ranking 124.5Poor 217.0Poor 313.3Poor 453.3Marginal 515.6Poor 623.0Poor 719.7Poor 88.8Poor Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004

15 Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps Discussion Typical of other Alberta Streams –CAESA/AESA study –Lac la Nonne watershed considered to have moderate Ag intensity (Anderson, A-M, S.E.Cooke and N. MacAlpine. 1999) –Other watersheds of similar Ag intensity produce similar results Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004

16 Discussion Bacteria showed decreasing trend High counts at Site 1 and 3 indicate recent fecal contamination Trace exact source using Microbial Source Tracking techniques Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004 Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps

17 Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps Discussion Only 1 pesticide (2-4, D) was detected –Extremely low levels –Toxic to fish at much higher levels, minimal effect on humans Change timing of sample collection Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004

18 Discussion The detection of caffeine in Lac la Nonne confirms that human sewage is entering the lake Possible sources include –Older/leaky septic systems –Illegal dumping/release of septage –Improperly placed outhouses Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004 Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps

19 The Next Step Minimize runoff –Preserving riparian areas –Restore wetlands Accurate nutrient budget –Debate over sources of nutrients 57% from cleared lands (Mitchell and Prepas, 1991) –Uncertain other sources Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004 Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps

20 The Next Step Investigation into sources of human sewage –Septic tank inspections Continue monitoring as a deterrent Probably the easiest source of nutrients to control Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004 Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps

21 The Next Step Complete and thorough State of the Watershed Report –Moose Lake, Lac la Biche, etc. Watershed Management Plan under Alberta Water Act Continue education and outreach Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004 Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps

22 Acknowledgements LEPA and the volunteers who made all the sampling happen Jason Vanrobaeys – PFRA Sarah Depoe – AAFRD Jay White - Aquality Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004 Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps

23 Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps Thanks! Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004

24 Introduction Methods Results Conclusion The Next Steps Prediction Avg daily urine prod =1.4L Avg urine caffeine conc = 1500 µg/L Adult urine caffeine production = 2100 µg Avg urination freq = 5x daily Volume of flush = 9.8 L= 49 L/Day Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004

25 Introduction Methods Results Conclusion The Next Steps Prediction Adult caffeine produced per day Total amount of water = 2100 µg caffeine 50.4 L = = 42 µg/L (Predicted) Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004

26 Introduction Methods Results Conclusion The Next Steps Prediction Detection level = 0.02 µg/L Predicted conc. = 42 µg/L Possible to detect caffeine diluted up to 2100 times! Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004

27 Fecal Contamination Issues Human and animal feces contain high levels of nutrients Nutrients limited in aquatic systems –Phosphorus –Nitrogen Contains several pathogens which can be fatal to humans and others (contact or ingestion)

28 Effect of Excess Phosphorus Primary Impacts –Excessive macrophyte growth –Algal blooms –Negative impact on livestock

29 Fecal contamination is a public health risk –Drinking water contamination, contact recreation, harvest of irrigated foods Water contaminated with human feces are generally regarded as a greater risk to human health, as they are more likely to contain human-specific enteric pathogens T. Scott et al. 2002

30 Pathogen ClassExamplesDisease Bacteria Shigella spp. Salmonella spp. Salmonella typhi Vibrio cholerae Enteropathogenic- Escherichia coli Yersina spp. Campylobacter jejuni Bacilary disease Salmonellosis (gastroenteritis) Typhoid fever Cholera A variety of gastroenteric diseases Haemolytic Uretic Syndrome Yersiniosis (gastroenteritis) Campylobacteriosis (gastroenteritis) Viruses Hepatitis A Virus Norwalk Virus Rotaviruses Polioviruses Coxsackie viruses Echoviruses Reoviruses Astroviruses Calciviruses Infectious hepatitis Acute gastroenteritis Poliomyelitis Flu-like symptoms Respiratory infections, gastroenteritis Epidemic gastroenteritis Protozoa Entamoeba histolytica Giardia lambilia Cryptosporidium spp. Balantidium coli Toxoplasma gondii Amebiasis (amoebic dysentery) Giardiasis (gastroenteritis) Cryptosporidiosis (gastroenteritis) Balantidiasis (gastroenteritis) Toxoplasmosis Nematodes (Roundworms) Ascaris lumbricoides Trichuris trichiura Ascaris suum Toxocara canis Necator americanus Digestive and nutritional imbalances, abdominal pain, vomiting, restlessness Abdominal pain, diarrhea, anemia, weight loss Symptoms such as coughing, chest pain and fever Fever, abdominal discomfort, muscle aches, neurological symptoms Hookworm disease, anemia Cestodes (Tapeworms) Taenia spp. Hymenolepsis nana Nervousness, insomnia, anorexia, abdominal pain, digestive disturbances Same as for Taenia sp.

31 Sources of Fecal Contamination Residential sources Lakeside cottages/subdivisions –Leaky septic systems –Rogue dumping –Improper outhouse placement Urban effluent

32 Sources of Fecal Contamination Agricultural sources –Feedlots –In-situ watering by cattle –Manure application practices (timing, amount)

33 Sources of Fecal Contamination Wildlife sources –Bear, elk, deer, birds, etc.

34 What is BST? Using DNA fingerprinting to identify sources of microbial contamination in surface water. Term coined in 2002 by Hagedorn and Wiggins

35 What is BST? Methods fall into 3 categories: molecular, biochemical and chemical No standard method developed Emerging area of research and technology development, particularly for drinking water

36 How does it work? Fecal bacteria are uniquely adapted to the host animal in which they live Using DNA analysis techniques we can identify these markers in fecal bacteria

37 How it is Done Samples collected around the watershed Fecal bacteria are cultured and analyzed in lab Compared to pre- existing database

38 Identifying Sources of Contamination Pinpoint by taking samples at suspected sources –Analyzed –New genetic markers added to project database

39

40 Collect samples from location downstream of suspected contamination source Results compared to samples in database Dealing with Suspected Sources of Contamination

41 Advantages This technique has a much greater power of resolution compared to previous methods No longer tracking an analog of fecal contamination Allows us to create mitigation plans based on better knowledge

42 Canadian Examples Research at the University of Victoria (Maeys and Mazumder, 2004) Elbow River study: ruminants and humans (Sosiak and Dixon, 2004) Aquality to provide as a commercial service (Spring, 2005)

43 Further Study More comparative studies to determine best method for watershed studies Field protocol: timing, number of samples collected, number of isolates identified, location and number of sites Need to optimize analytical and statistical methods to minimize sources of error

44 Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004 Introduction Methods Results Conclusion The Next Steps


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