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Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps"— Presentation transcript:

1 Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004 Nutrients, Bacteria and Caffeine
Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps Jean-Francois Bouffard, B.I.T. Aquality Environmental Consulting Ltd. April 16, 2005

2 Introduction Stream Study Caffeine Bacteria LEPA AAFRD (Sarah Depoe)
Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004 Introduction Stream Study LEPA AAFRD (Sarah Depoe) AAFC-PFRA (Jason Vanrobaeys) Caffeine LEPA and Aquality Bacteria LEPA, ARHA, and Aquality Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps

3 Methods Stream survey Parameters 8 sites sampled during April 2004
Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004 Methods Stream survey 8 sites sampled during April 2004 During spring thaw (April 1st, 5th, 7th, 12th, and 20th) Parameters Nutrients, bacteria, ions, metals and pesticides (1 Site) Flow gauging Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps

4 Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps
Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004 Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps

5 Methods Caffeine Bacteria May 21 (composite sampling)
Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004 Methods Caffeine May 21 (composite sampling) 11 sites LLN – 3 bottles apiece 2 streams 2 beaches - Nakamun Sept 7 – Follow up on May sampling – in lake only Bacteria In lake samples taken with ARHA during May 11th sampling Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps

6 Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps

7 Results Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps
Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004 Results Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps

8 Results Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps
Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004 Results Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps

9 Results Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps
Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004 Results Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps

10 Results Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps
Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004 Results May 21st, 2004 Sept 7th, 2004 Site Name MDL = 0.02 mg/L Majeau Creek 0.02 NA Nakamun Creek ND - Site 1 Site 2 Site 3 0.01* Site 4 Site 5 Site 6 Site 7 Site 8 Site 9 0.04 Site 10 Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps

11 Results Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps
Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004 Results Sample Location Total Coliforms (CFU) Fecal Coliforms (CFU) Birch Cove less than 10 McFadzen's 10 McDonald's Farm Kildeer Beach Camp Encounter 20 Moonlight Bay White Rock Beach Volunteer Cabin Camp Nakamun At Least 10 * Precise quantification could not be done for this sample due to background growth All samples were processed as "Suspected Sewage". Coliform Counts were determined by Membrane Filtration per 100 ml Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps

12 Discussion Nutrients were highest in early April
Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004 Discussion Nutrients were highest in early April TP and TN exceeded ASWQ guidelines for the Protection of Aquatic Life in 100% of the samples NO2-N – 40% compliant E.Coli – 91% compliant Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps

13 Discussion TP TN NO2-N E. coli Guideline: ASWQG Protection: PAL
Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004 Discussion TP TN NO2-N E. coli Guideline: ASWQG Protection: PAL Recreation Guideline Value: 0.05 mg/L 1.0 mg/L 0.018 mg/L 200/100 mL n C Site 1 4 2 Site 2 1 Site 3 Site 4 5 3 Site 5 Site 6 Site 7 Site 8 # Samples 35 14 31 % Compliant 0.00% 40.00% 91%

14 AAWQI Nutrient Sub Index Score
Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004 AAWQI Index Site No. AAWQI Nutrient Sub Index Score Ranking 1 24.5 Poor 2 17.0 3 13.3 4 53.3 Marginal 5 15.6 6 23.0 7 19.7 8 8.8 Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps

15 Discussion Typical of other Alberta Streams CAESA/AESA study 1996-2003
Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004 Discussion Typical of other Alberta Streams CAESA/AESA study Lac la Nonne watershed considered to have moderate Ag intensity (Anderson, A-M, S.E.Cooke and N. MacAlpine. 1999) Other watersheds of similar Ag intensity produce similar results Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps

16 Discussion Bacteria showed decreasing trend
Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004 Discussion Bacteria showed decreasing trend High counts at Site 1 and 3 indicate recent fecal contamination Trace exact source using Microbial Source Tracking techniques Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps

17 Discussion Only 1 pesticide (2-4, D) was detected
Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004 Discussion Only 1 pesticide (2-4, D) was detected Extremely low levels Toxic to fish at much higher levels, minimal effect on humans Change timing of sample collection Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps

18 Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004
Discussion The detection of caffeine in Lac la Nonne confirms that human sewage is entering the lake Possible sources include Older/leaky septic systems Illegal dumping/release of septage Improperly placed outhouses Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps

19 The Next Step Minimize runoff Accurate nutrient budget
Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004 The Next Step Minimize runoff Preserving riparian areas Restore wetlands Accurate nutrient budget Debate over sources of nutrients 57% from cleared lands (Mitchell and Prepas, 1991) Uncertain other sources Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps

20 The Next Step Investigation into sources of human sewage
Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004 The Next Step Investigation into sources of human sewage Septic tank inspections Continue monitoring as a deterrent Probably the easiest source of nutrients to control Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps

21 The Next Step Complete and thorough State of the Watershed Report
Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004 The Next Step Complete and thorough State of the Watershed Report Moose Lake, Lac la Biche, etc. Watershed Management Plan under Alberta Water Act Continue education and outreach Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps

22 Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004
Acknowledgements LEPA and the volunteers who made all the sampling happen Jason Vanrobaeys – PFRA Sarah Depoe – AAFRD Jay White - Aquality Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps

23 Thanks! Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps
Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004 Thanks! Introduction Methods Results Discussion The Next Steps

24 Prediction Avg daily urine prod =1.4L
Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004 Prediction Avg daily urine prod =1.4L Avg urine caffeine conc = 1500 µg/L Adult urine caffeine production = 2100 µg Avg urination freq = 5x daily Volume of flush = 9.8 L= 49 L/Day Introduction Methods Results Conclusion The Next Steps

25 Adult caffeine produced per day
Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004 Prediction Adult caffeine produced per day Total amount of water = 2100 µg caffeine 50.4 L = 42 µg/L (Predicted) Introduction Methods Results Conclusion The Next Steps

26 Prediction Detection level = 0.02 µg/L Predicted conc. = 42 µg/L
Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004 Prediction Detection level = 0.02 µg/L Predicted conc. = 42 µg/L Possible to detect caffeine diluted up to 2100 times! Introduction Methods Results Conclusion The Next Steps

27 Fecal Contamination Issues
Human and animal feces contain high levels of nutrients Nutrients limited in aquatic systems Phosphorus Nitrogen Contains several pathogens which can be fatal to humans and others (contact or ingestion)

28 Effect of Excess Phosphorus
Primary Impacts Excessive macrophyte growth Algal blooms Negative impact on livestock

29 Fecal contamination is a public health risk
Drinking water contamination, contact recreation, harvest of irrigated foods ‘Water contaminated with human feces are generally regarded as a greater risk to human health, as they are more likely to contain human-specific enteric pathogens’ T. Scott et al. 2002

30 Bacteria Viruses Protozoa Nematodes (Roundworms) Cestodes (Tapeworms)
Pathogen Class Examples Disease Bacteria Shigella spp. Salmonella spp. Salmonella typhi Vibrio cholerae Enteropathogenic- Escherichia coli Yersina spp. Campylobacter jejuni Bacilary disease Salmonellosis (gastroenteritis) Typhoid fever Cholera A variety of gastroenteric diseases Haemolytic Uretic Syndrome Yersiniosis (gastroenteritis) Campylobacteriosis (gastroenteritis) Viruses Hepatitis A Virus Norwalk Virus Rotaviruses Polioviruses Coxsackie viruses Echoviruses Reoviruses Astroviruses Calciviruses Infectious hepatitis Acute gastroenteritis Poliomyelitis “Flu-like” symptoms Respiratory infections, gastroenteritis Epidemic gastroenteritis Protozoa Entamoeba histolytica Giardia lambilia Cryptosporidium spp. Balantidium coli Toxoplasma gondii Amebiasis (amoebic dysentery) Giardiasis (gastroenteritis) Cryptosporidiosis (gastroenteritis) Balantidiasis (gastroenteritis) Toxoplasmosis Nematodes (Roundworms) Ascaris lumbricoides Trichuris trichiura Ascaris suum Toxocara canis Necator americanus Digestive and nutritional imbalances, abdominal pain, vomiting, restlessness Abdominal pain, diarrhea, anemia, weight loss Symptoms such as coughing, chest pain and fever Fever, abdominal discomfort, muscle aches, neurological symptoms Hookworm disease, anemia Cestodes (Tapeworms) Taenia spp. Hymenolepsis nana Nervousness, insomnia, anorexia, abdominal pain, digestive disturbances Same as for Taenia sp.

31 Sources of Fecal Contamination
Residential sources Lakeside cottages/subdivisions Leaky septic systems Rogue dumping Improper outhouse placement Urban effluent

32 Sources of Fecal Contamination
Agricultural sources Feedlots In-situ watering by cattle Manure application practices (timing, amount)

33 Sources of Fecal Contamination
Wildlife sources Bear, elk, deer, birds, etc.

34 What is BST? Using DNA fingerprinting to identify sources of microbial contamination in surface water. Term coined in 2002 by Hagedorn and Wiggins

35 What is BST? Methods fall into 3 categories: molecular, biochemical and chemical No standard method developed Emerging area of research and technology development, particularly for drinking water

36 How does it work? Fecal bacteria are uniquely adapted to the host animal in which they live Using DNA analysis techniques we can identify these markers in fecal bacteria

37 How it is Done Samples collected around the watershed
Fecal bacteria are cultured and analyzed in lab Compared to pre-existing database

38 Identifying Sources of Contamination
Pinpoint by taking samples at suspected sources Analyzed New genetic markers added to project database

39

40 Dealing with Suspected Sources of Contamination
Collect samples from location downstream of suspected contamination source Results compared to samples in database

41 Advantages This technique has a much greater power of resolution compared to previous methods No longer tracking an analog of fecal contamination Allows us to create mitigation plans based on better knowledge

42 Canadian Examples Research at the University of Victoria (Maeys and Mazumder, 2004) Elbow River study: ruminants and humans (Sosiak and Dixon, 2004) Aquality to provide as a commercial service (Spring, 2005)

43 Further Study More comparative studies to determine best method for watershed studies Field protocol: timing, number of samples collected, number of isolates identified, location and number of sites Need to optimize analytical and statistical methods to minimize sources of error

44 Lac la Nonne Water Quality Report 2004
Introduction Methods Results Conclusion The Next Steps


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