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The Effectiveness of Inclusion By: Audrey Bruce Angela Rawal Maryam Siddiqui.

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Presentation on theme: "The Effectiveness of Inclusion By: Audrey Bruce Angela Rawal Maryam Siddiqui."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Effectiveness of Inclusion By: Audrey Bruce Angela Rawal Maryam Siddiqui

2 History of Inclusion Before 1800 Before 1800 Children with disabilities are kept at home and few, if any, receive a formal education. Children with disabilities are kept at home and few, if any, receive a formal education – – 1850 Education programs for children with disabilities are created, primarily as residential institutions. While they claim to "educate," most of these children are simply removed from society's view and contribute to a growing segregation in the educational system. Education programs for children with disabilities are created, primarily as residential institutions. While they claim to "educate," most of these children are simply removed from society's view and contribute to a growing segregation in the educational system – – 1950 By the mid-1920s, professional views of persons with disabilities are changing. Superintendents begin to see the positive results of education and community interaction for people with disabilities. By the mid-1920s, professional views of persons with disabilities are changing. Superintendents begin to see the positive results of education and community interaction for people with disabilities – – 1975 In 1954, the landmark Brown v. Board of Education decision rocks the educational system. The U.S. Supreme Court decides that schools cannot discriminate on the basis of race, establishing that a "separate" education is not an equal education. In 1954, the landmark Brown v. Board of Education decision rocks the educational system. The U.S. Supreme Court decides that schools cannot discriminate on the basis of race, establishing that a "separate" education is not an equal education – 1980s 1975 – 1980s The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is passed. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is passed. An important provision of IDEA requires that the education of children with disabilities be provided in the least restrictive environment (LRE) for each child, opening the door for children to be educated in general education classrooms in their neighborhood schools. An important provision of IDEA requires that the education of children with disabilities be provided in the least restrictive environment (LRE) for each child, opening the door for children to be educated in general education classrooms in their neighborhood schools. IDEA challenges educators to reassess the way they view children with disabilities and their potential to learn. IDEA challenges educators to reassess the way they view children with disabilities and their potential to learn. 1980s – s – 1999 In 1997, the Reauthorization of IDEA passes. This law ensures that children with disabilities have the right to more than access to education - they have the right to a quality education and quality outcomes. In 1997, the Reauthorization of IDEA passes. This law ensures that children with disabilities have the right to more than access to education - they have the right to a quality education and quality outcomes to present 2000 to present In 2004, IDEA was again reauthorized, this time to align it more closely with the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), the primary legislation affecting general education in the United States. IDEA 2004 retained many sections of the 1997 law and expands and clarifies several key elements. In 2004, IDEA was again reauthorized, this time to align it more closely with the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), the primary legislation affecting general education in the United States. IDEA 2004 retained many sections of the 1997 law and expands and clarifies several key elements.

3 Reality vs. Misconceptions Misconceptions: Special education is not a place Students are not their disability No partial inclusion Least Restrictive Environment is not based on disability classification or severity of disability An aide assigned to a student with a disability in a general education class is not inclusion Reality: Special education is a service Services are provided to teachers and students All students benefit Collaboration with special ed. and general ed. teachers exists Least Restrictive Environment: General ed. classrooms must be considered as an option before any other service options are considered IL is ranked 47 out of 50 states based on level of integration and inclusion

4 Benefits and Strategies for Students with Disabilities BENEFITS Provided with a sense of normalization Provided with a sense of normalization Increased communication Increased communication Increased age-approritiate social interaction Increased age-approritiate social interaction Comfortable during communication Comfortable during communication Categorized first by who they are, not their disability Categorized first by who they are, not their disability Taunted less Taunted less Initiate, develop, and maintain friendships Initiate, develop, and maintain friendships Higher academic performance in inclusive classroom vs. pull-out programs Higher academic performance in inclusive classroom vs. pull-out programs Higher standardized test scores Higher standardized test scores Better attendance Better attendance Failed fewer classes Failed fewer classesSTRATEGIES Collaboration Collaboration Between general education teacher, special education teacher, paraprofessionals, counselors, therapists, etc. Between general education teacher, special education teacher, paraprofessionals, counselors, therapists, etc. Maintain high expectations for all students Maintain high expectations for all students

5 Benefits for Students without Disabilites Developing a greater sensitivity to the needs of others Developing a greater sensitivity to the needs of others Becoming more helpful in meeting the needs of classmates with disabilities Becoming more helpful in meeting the needs of classmates with disabilities Greater acceptance of diversity through exposure to people with disabilities Greater acceptance of diversity through exposure to people with disabilities Evidencing fewer behavior problems Evidencing fewer behavior problems Opportunities to develop friendships with children with disabilities Opportunities to develop friendships with children with disabilities Improved self-concept Improved self-concept Increased sense of community Increased sense of community

6 Benefits for Teachers A Change Model A Change Model Inclusive practices benefited: Inclusive practices benefited: All students. All students. General education teachers. General education teachers. Special education teachers. Special education teachers.

7 Conclusion In conclusion, inclusive practices promoted teacher interaction, articulation and collaboration that resulted in teachers and students working as an integrated team. In conclusion, inclusive practices promoted teacher interaction, articulation and collaboration that resulted in teachers and students working as an integrated team. Wrap Up Video: Inclusive Education Wrap Up Video: Inclusive Education 998vs&feature=related 998vs&feature=related

8 References Burstein, N., Sears,S.,Wilcoxen,A.(2004). Moving Toward Inclusive Practices. Remedial and Special Education.25 (2), Burstein, N., Sears,S.,Wilcoxen,A.(2004). Moving Toward Inclusive Practices. Remedial and Special Education.25 (2), Hay G., & Courson F. (1997). Strategies for success in inclusive classrooms. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 13 (1), Retrieved October 12, 2009, from EBSCOhost database. Hay G., & Courson F. (1997). Strategies for success in inclusive classrooms. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 13 (1), Retrieved October 12, 2009, from EBSCOhost database. Walther-Thomas C., Korinek L., McLaughlin V., Williams B. (2000). Collaboration for inclusive education: Developing successful programs. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Walther-Thomas C., Korinek L., McLaughlin V., Williams B. (2000). Collaboration for inclusive education: Developing successful programs. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. "Understanding the Special Education Process. Families and Advocates Partnership for Education (FAPE). (www.fape.org)(www.fape.org) U.S. Department of Education. "A Guide to the Individualized Education Program. (www.ed.gov)(www.ed.gov)


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