Presentation on theme: "Strategy and Strategic Management"— Presentation transcript:
1Strategy and Strategic Management Exploring ManagementChapter 7Strategy andStrategic Management
2Chapter 7 What types of strategies are used by organizations? How do managers formulate and implement strategies?
37.1 Types of organizational strategies Strategy is a comprehensive plan for achieving competitive advantageOrganizations use corporate, business, and functional strategiesGrowth strategies focus on expansionRestructuring and divestiture focus on consolidationKeep in mind that a strategy is how to achieve the objective. Many people confuse the strategy with the objective.
47.1 CONTINUED Types of organizational strategies Global strategies focus on international business initiativesCooperative strategies focus on alliances and partnershipsE-business strategies focus on using the Internet for business success
5TYPES OF STRATEGIES Competitive Advantage Strategya comprehensive plan guiding resource allocation to achieve long-term organization goals.Strategic Intentfocuses organizational energies on achieving a compelling goal.Competitive Advantageoperating in successful ways that are difficult to duplicate.Information technology and the Internet make it easier to quickly duplicate a competitive advantage.
6TYPES OF STRATEGIES Corporate Strategy Directions and guidelines for use of resourcesBusiness StrategyIdentifies how a strategic business unit or division will compete in its product or service domainFunctional StrategyGuides activities within one specific area of operationsStrategies follow the same organizational structure as objectives
7TYPES OF STRATEGIES Growth and Diversification Strategies Growth StrategyExpansion through current operationsConcentrationExpansion within an existing business areaDiversificationExpansion occurs by entering new business areasVertical IntegrationExpansion by acquiring existing suppliers or distributorsAll of these are growth strategies. It’s a matter of how you plan to grow.
8TYPES OF STRATEGIES Restructuring and Divestiture RetrenchmentChanges operations to correct weaknessesLiquidationAn extreme form of retrenchment wherein the business closes and sells off its assetsRestructuringReduces the scale or mix of operationsChapter 11 bankruptcyAll of these strategies are decline or going-out-of-business strategies. The recession has required many once-strong companies to face radical restructuring in order to survive.
9TYPES OF STRATEGIES Restructuring and Divestiture DownsizingDecreases the size of operationsDivestitureSells off part of the organization to focus on core businessesAll of these strategies are decline or going out of business strategies. The recession has required many once-strong companies to face radical restructuring in order to survive.
10TYPES OF STRATEGIES Global Strategies Globalization StrategyAdopts standardized products and advertising for use worldwideMultidomestic StrategyCustomizes advertising and products to best fit local needsTransnational StrategySeeks efficiencies of global operations with attention to local marketsThese are all strategies for participating in global markets. Again, it’s a matter of the best fit for your company, your market and your product. This is a good place to begin discussing the Dunkin Donuts case.
11TYPES OF STRATEGIES Cooperative Strategies Strategic AlliancesPartnership between organizations to pursue mutual interests or strengthen competitive advantageSupply ChainSupplier and Distribution alliancesCo-opetitionCompetitors share information or technologyA good example of strategic alliances and supply chain cooperation is how UPS has partnered with Nike and Toshiba to provide order fulfillment or product service.
12TYPES OF STRATEGIES E-business E-business StrategiesFocus on Using the Internet for Business TransactionsB2B Business StrategiesUse IT and Web portals to vertically link organizations with members of their supply chains.B2C Business StrategiesUse IT and Web portals to vertically link organizations with members of their customers.E-business is fast becoming just “business”.
13TYPES OF STRATEGIES E-business Social Media StrategyUse of Facebook, Twitter and others to engage customersCrowdsourcingInteractive social media strategy that becomes an interactive idea exchange with customersAsk students how they interact with their favorite companies online. Possibly take a look at the Facebook sites of products, services or even political candidates.
14The strategic management process formulates and implements strategies. Strategy formulation begins with the organization’s mission and objectives.SWOT analysis identifies strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.Porter’s five forces model examines industry attractiveness.Strategic management considers the organization as an open system and how it interacts with the environment as it develops strategy.
157.2 continued Strategic Management Porter’s competitive strategies model examines business or product strategies.Portfolio planning examines strategies across multiple businesses or products.Strategic leadership activates organizations for strategy implementation.
16STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Strategic Management Process the process of formulating and implementing strategies.Strategy Formulationthe process of creating strategies.Strategy Implementationthe process of putting strategies into action.There are many processes for developing strategies. Key to which process is used and which strategy is chosen is the ability to implement the strategy.
17STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Strategic Management Process If your business is doing well, there may be no need to changing your strategy. Changing strategies can be very difficult and dangerous.
18STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Strategy Formulation Mission StatementThe reason for the organizations existence in societyOperating ObjectivesSpecific results that organizations attempt to achieveA mission is at the very heart of the reason an organization exists. What is the mission statement of your college? Consider having the class develop a mission statement for your course or class.
19STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Strategy Formulation Common Operating Objectives of OrganizationsProfitabilityMarket shareHigh-quality workforceCost efficiencyProduct and service qualityInnovativenessSocial responsibilityMany of these objectives depend on whether your goal is growth, status quo or decline.
20STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT SWOT Analysis SWOT analysis is a tool used in strategic planning to determine the current status of the organization.Internal assessment of the organizational strengths and weaknessesExternal assessment of environmental opportunities and threatsSWOT analysis has been a much used model. However, with the environment changing more and more rapidly, it must be reassessed more often.
22STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT SWOT Analysis Core CompetencyA special strength that gives an organization a competitive advantageExamples of core competencies include a dominant market share, high product recognition, proprietary technology or selling efficiency as this real estate broker illustrates with a bold SOLD sign.
23STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Porter’s Five Forces Porter’s five forces provide an opportunity to evaluate the attractiveness of an industry for investment.
24STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Porter’s Five Forces Unattractive industryintense rivalry, easy entry, substitute products, powerful suppliers and customersAttractive industrylow rivalry, barriers to entry, few or no substitute products, weak supplier and customer powerUnattractive industries may require an organization to sell off a division. An attractive industry may induce an organization to diversify into the industry. For example, Apple saw opportunities for growth in the wireless industry and responded with the popular iPhone.
25STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Porter’s Competitive Strategies Differentiation StrategyOffers products and services that are uniquely different from the competition.Focused Differentiation Strategyoffers a unique product to a special market segment.Cost Leadership StrategySeeks to operate at lower costs than competitors.Focused Cost Leadership Strategyuses cost leadership and target needs of a special market.Wal-Mart is the best example of a cost leadership position and they know how to leverage it.Apple is a great example of differentiation in personal computers and phones.
26STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Porter’s Competitive Strategies Wal-Mart gains its cost leadership position through a proprietary inventory and ordering system that allows the company to buy the right products at the right time from the right people.
27STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Portfolio Planning BCG MatrixAnalyzes business opportunities according to growth rate and market shareIt is important to remember that even cash cows need to be fed. Under investing in the cows can be very dangerous.
28STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Strategic Leadership The capability to inspire people to successfully engage in a process of continuous change, performance enhancement, and implementation of organizational strategies.Strategic leadership can be learned. It helps if you are a visionary to begin with.
29STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Strategic Leadership Strategic ControlResponsibility of management to stay on top of strategy, how it’s being implemented and if it needs to be adjusted to be more effective in accomplishing the mission.In times such as these, management cannot afford to be complacent. Competitive advantages can be lost overnight.