Presentation on theme: "1870-1885 Amnesty Issue Métis moving West National Policy CPR Scandal North West Mounted Police Established Louis Riel Elected to and Barred from House."— Presentation transcript:
Amnesty Issue Métis moving West National Policy CPR Scandal North West Mounted Police Established Louis Riel Elected to and Barred from House of Commons Immigration (Canadian, European) Macdonald and Laurier Trade Power
North West Rebellion: Timeline People Events External Influences :Railway costs rising, budget to Indian department cut 1884:Bison hunt over, many reserves facing starvation Louis Riel returns from Montana Métis Bill of Rights created (page 193) CPR almost bankrupt 1885: Manitoba Militia moving into North-West Territories March:Riel gives speech: Justice commands us to take up arms Battle at Duck Lake (SK), 12 NWMP dead April 5000 Canadian troops deployed (via CPR) Dumont+ 60 troops hold off 1600 miltia May: At Batoche, 725 militia attack 175 Métis. Riel captured, Dumont escapes. Summer: Canadian troops track down all Métis leaders Fall: Riel tried in Regina (SK) November 7: Last Spike November 16: Riel hanged
North West Rebellion: Timeline People Events External Influences North West Mounted Police CPR The Jury (pg 197)
North West Rebellion: Timeline People Events External Influences $$$ Racism Riel was tried for treason and hanged for the execution of Scott.
The Métis Bill of Rights, December 1, 1869 Canadian Northwest 1. The right to elect our Legislature. 2. The Legislature to have power to pass all laws, local to the Territory, over the veto of the Executive, by a two-third vote. 3. No act of the Dominion Parliament (local to this Territory) to be binding on the people until sanctioned by their representatives. 4. All sheriffs, magistrates, constables, etc., etc., to be elected by the people -- a free homestead pre- emption law. 5. A portion of the public lands to be appropriated to the benefit of schools, the building of roads, bridges and parish buildings. 6. A guarantee to connect Winnipeg by rail with the nearest line of railroad -- the land grant for such road or roads to be subject to the Legislature of the Territory. 7. For 4 years the public expenses of the Territory, civil, military and municipal, to be paid out of the Dominion treasury. 8. The military to be composed of the people now existing in the Territory. 9. The French and English language to be common in the Legislature and Council, and all public documents and acts of Legislature to be published in both languages. 10. That the Judge of the Superior Court speak French and English. 11. Treaties to be concluded and ratified between the Government and several tribes of Indians of this Territory, calculated to insure peace in the future. 12. That all privileges, customs and usages existing at the time of the transfer to be respected. 13. That these rights be guaranteed by Mr. McDougall before he be admitted into this Territory. 14. If he have not the power himself to grant them, he must get an act of Parliament passed expressly securing us these rights; and until such act be obtained, he must stay outside of the Territory. 15. That we have a full and fair representation in the Dominion Parliament. Source: Alexander Begg, (Toronto: 1971), p. 110.
The Trial Louis Riel
The Charges The Charges Defense Prosecution Verdict Sentence "When a man do levy war against our Lord the King in his realm... or be adherent to the King's enemies in his realm, giving them aid and comfort in the realm and elsewhere, and thereof be proveably attainted of open deed by the people of their condition...this shall be one ground upon which the party accused of the offence and legally proved to have committed the offence, shall be held to be guilty of the crime of high treason." 1352 Statute of Treasons (Britain) Indicted July 6, 1885 in Regina Complainant: Alexander David Stewart (Chief of Police, Hamilton ON) 6 counts of Treason Duck Lake x 3 Fish Creek x 2 Batoche
Saints Prosecution Case…. Saints Defense Case…
Defense The Charges Defense Prosecution Verdict Sentence How did the rebellion carry on (What proof is there of the acts of treason)? The Government of Canada had wholly failed in its duty to the NWT Credits Métis for civilizing the Indians: has done more for the NW than anything that has ever been done before …2,000 miles away from Ottawa… without one single voice to be raised in their favour… To what extent is Riel responsible for proven acts? Sanity Did he… stand back or stand from under and endeavour to save himself? Riels character: You have this man here, this deep, designing, cunning man, this man with wonderful intellect… Justice to Riel: I know you will do him justice, and that this man shall not be sent to the gallows by you, and that you shall not weave the cord that shall hang and hang him high in the face of all the world, a poor confirmed lunatic; a victim, gentlemen, of oppression or the victim of fanaticism.
Prosecution The Charges Defense Prosecution Verdict Sentence Proves the events took place willfully There is no dispute, there is not a single witness whose word has been doubted, there is not a single fact proved on the part of the Crown. …carried out with deliberation and intention, that it was the result of no sudden impulse, that it was no outburst of passion, but it was clearly, calmly, and deliberately opened and carried out. Holds Riel responsible Medical opinion Could an insane man lead these armies?: They place their lives and property under his control and direction, and trusting in his judgment they risk both in obedience to his advice. Laments Riels actions If he had only considered this was a free land and a land where free speech will always get a man his rights, there would have been no difficulty or trouble in the matter. Points out contradictions in defense's case They cannot claim for their client what is called a niche in the temple of fame and at the same time assert that he is entitled to a place in a lunatic asylum. Justice to the whole: We have the cause of public justice entrusted to our hands; we have the duty of seeing that the cause of public justice is properly served, that justice is done.
Verdict The Charges Defense Prosecution Verdict Sentence Clerk of the Court: Gentlemen are you agreed upon your verdict? How say you, is the prisoner guilty or not guilty? (The jury find the prisoner guilty.) Clerk of the Court : Gentlemen of the jury, hearken to your verdict as the court records it, 'You find the prisoner, Louis Riel, guilty, so say you all.' (The jury answer 'guilty.') A Juror: Your Honors, I have been asked by my brother jurors to recommend the prisoner to the mercy of the Crown. Mr. Justice Richardson: I may say in answer to you that the recommendation which you have given will be forwarded in proper manner to the proper authorities. July 31, 1885
Sentence The Charges Defense Prosecution Verdict Sentence Mr. Justice Richardson: Louis Riel, after a long consideration of your case, in which you have been defended with as great ability as I think counsel could have defended you with, you have been found by a jury… You have been found guilty of high treason. You have been proved to have let loose the flood gates of repine and bloodshed… …For me, I have only one more duty to perform, that is, to tell you what the sentence of the law is upon you…It is not my painful duty to pass the sentence of the court upon you… that on the 18th of September next you be taken to the place appointed for you execution, and there be hanged by the neck till you are dead, and may God have mercy on your soul. July 31, 1885
The Charges Defense Prosecution Verdict Sentence Looking back from the 21 st Century… Legitimacy of Charges Riels citizenship Application of law in North-West Territories Jury Composition Trial Location Jury of peers Language More…?