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Development of International Health Organizations Formulation of Health as a Human Right LN 1919 (UN) 1945 (WHO) 1948 Preamble Draft of the WHO Constitution.

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Presentation on theme: "Development of International Health Organizations Formulation of Health as a Human Right LN 1919 (UN) 1945 (WHO) 1948 Preamble Draft of the WHO Constitution."— Presentation transcript:

1 Development of International Health Organizations Formulation of Health as a Human Right LN 1919 (UN) 1945 (WHO) 1948 Preamble Draft of the WHO Constitution March- April 1946 Health is a state of physical fitness and of mental and social well- being, not only the absence of infirmity and disease. WHO Constitution April 7, 1948 Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Evolution of the Right to Health

2 Development of International Health Organizations Formulation of Health as a Human Right LN 1919 (UN) 1945 (WHO) 1948 Preamble Draft of the WHO Constitution March- April 1946 Healthy development of the child toward world citizenship is of paramount importance. WHO Constitution April 7, 1948 Healthy development of the child is of basic importance; the ability to live harmoniously in a changing total environment is essential to such development. Evolution of the Right to Health

3 Development of International Health Organizations Formulation of Health as a Human Right LN 1919 (UN) 1945 (WHO) 1948 Preamble Draft of the WHO Constitution March- April 1946 Health is an essential factor in the attainment of security and well- being for individuals and States. WHO Constitution April 7, 1948 The health of all peoples is fundamental to the attainment of peace and security and is dependent upon the fullest co-operation of individuals and States. Evolution of the Right to Health

4 Development of International Health Organizations Formulation of Health as a Human Right LN 1919 (UN) 1945 (WHO) 1948 Preamble Draft of the WHO Constitution March- April 1946 Health is a dynamic state of complete physical, mental, spiritual and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. WHO Constitution April 7, 1948 Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Evolution of the Right to Health

5 Development of International Health Organizations Formulation of Health as a Human Right LN 1919 (UN) 1945 (WHO) 1948 Preamble Draft of the WHO Constitution March- April 1946 WHO Constitution April 7, 1948 Main difference between draft of texts: Right to Health Highest attainable standard of health Evolution of the Right to Health

6 Development of International Health Organizations Formulation of Health as a Human Right LN 1919 (UN) 1945 (WHO) 1948 Preamble Draft of the WHO Constitution March- April 1946 The right to health is one of the fundamental rights to which every human being is entitled, without distinction of race, religion, political belief, economic or social condition WHO Constitution April 7, 1948 The enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being without distinction of race, religion, political belief, economic or social condition Evolution of the Right to Health

7 Development of International Health Organizations Formulation of Health as a Human Right WHO Constitution – Final Version THE STATES Parties to this Constitution declare, in conformity with the Charter of the United Nations, that the following principles are basic to the happiness, harmonious relations and security of all peoples: Evolution of the Right to Health

8 Development of International Health Organizations Formulation of Health as a Human Right WHO Constitution Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Evolution of the Right to Health

9 Development of International Health Organizations Formulation of Health as a Human Right WHO Constitution The enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being without distinction of race, religion, political belief, economic or social condition. Evolution of the Right to Health

10 Development of International Health Organizations Formulation of Health as a Human Right WHO Constitution The health of all peoples is fundamental to the attainment of peace and security and is dependent upon the fullest co-operation of individuals and States. Evolution of the Right to Health

11 Development of International Health Organizations Formulation of Health as a Human Right WHO Constitution The achievement of any State in the promotion and protection of health is of value to all. Evolution of the Right to Health

12 Development of International Health Organizations Formulation of Health as a Human Right WHO Constitution Unequal development in different countries in the promotion of health and control of disease, especially communicable disease, is a common danger. Evolution of the Right to Health

13 Development of International Health Organizations Formulation of Health as a Human Right WHO Constitution Healthy development of the child is of basic importance; the ability to live harmoniously in a changing total environment is essential to such development. Evolution of the Right to Health

14 Development of International Health Organizations Formulation of Health as a Human Right WHO Constitution The extension to all peoples of the benefits of medical, psychological and related knowledge is essential to the fullest attainment of health. Evolution of the Right to Health

15 Development of International Health Organizations Formulation of Health as a Human Right WHO Constitution Informed opinion and active co-operation on the part of the public are of the utmost importance in the improvement of the health of the people. Evolution of the Right to Health

16 Development of International Health Organizations Formulation of Health as a Human Right WHO Constitution Governments have a responsibility for the health of their peoples which can be fulfilled only by the provision of adequate health and social measures. Evolution of the Right to Health

17 Development of International Health Organizations Formulation of Health as a Human Right WHO Constitution ACCEPTING THESE PRINCIPLES, and for the purpose of co- operation among themselves and with others to promote and protect the health of all peoples, the Contracting Parties agree to the present Constitution and hereby establish the World Health Organization as a specialized agency within the terms of Article 57 of the Charter of the United Nations. Evolution of the Right to Health

18 Legal Effect – WHO Constitution Constitutions of international organizations, and therefore also the Constitution of the WHO, are multilateral treaties according to public international law. The Constitution of the WHO is therefore binding upon States that are a party to the WHO. State parties will accordingly have to comply with the international right to health as set forth in the preamble to the WHO Constitution.

19 Evolution of the Right to Health Legal Effect – WHO Constitution The WHO is the most prominent international organization in the field of health. (a).The functions of the WHO are performed by the World Health Assembly (WHA). (b).WHA has the authority to adopt conventions, regulations and recommendations. (c).Each Member State is required to report annually to the WHO-WHA on the action taken and the progress achieved in improving the health of its people.

20 Evolution of the Right to Health Legal Effect – WHO Constitution WHO has six core functions, as follows: Advocating evidence-based policy Managing information Catalyzing change through technical and policy support Building national and global partnerships Developing norms and standards Developing new technologies tools and guidelines.

21 Evolution of the Right to Health WHO Study: Diarrhoeal diseases reduce by 46% Perinatal conditions reduce by 60% Unipolar depression increase by 40% Road traffic accidents increase by 88% Ischaemic heart disease increase by 44% Violence increase by 109%.

22 Evolution of the Right to Health WHO – Primary Health Care Declaration of Alma-Ata International Conference on Primary Health Care, Alma-Ata, USSR, 6-12 September 1978 Organized by WHO and UNICEF

23 Evolution of the Right to Health WHO – Primary Health Care Declaration of Alma-Ata Declaration stated that Primary Health Care would be the key to attaining health for all by the year The Declaration expressed the responsibility of Governments for the health of their people.

24 Evolution of the Right to Health WHO – Primary Health Care Declaration of Alma-Ata Primary Health Care is to be considered essential health care which is to be made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community in ways acceptable to them, through their full participation and at a cost that the community can afford.

25 Evolution of the Right to Health WHO – Primary Health Care Declaration of Alma-Ata I. The Conference strongly reaffirms that health, which is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, is a fundamental human right and that the attainment of the highest possible level of health is a most important world-wide social goal whose realization requires the action of many other social and economic sectors in addition to the health sector.

26 Evolution of the Right to Health WHO – Primary Health Care Declaration of Alma-Ata II. The existing gross inequality in the health status of the people particularly between developed and developing countries as well as within countries, is politically, socially and economically unacceptable, and is, therefore, of common concern to all countries.

27 Evolution of the Right to Health WHO – Primary Health Care Declaration of Alma-Ata III. Economic and social development, based on a New International Economic Order, is of basic importance to the fullest attainment of health for all and to the reduction of the gap between the health status of the developing and developed countries. The promotion and protection of the health of the people is essential to sustained economic and social development and contributes to a better quality of life and to world peace.

28 Evolution of the Right to Health WHO – Primary Health Care Declaration of Alma-Ata IV. The people have the right and duty to participate individually and collectively in the planning and implementation of their health care.

29 Evolution of the Right to Health WHO – Primary Health Care Declaration of Alma-Ata V. Governments have a responsibility for the health of their people which can be fulfilled only by the provision of adequate health and social measures. A main social target of governments, international organizations and the whole world community in the coming decades should be the attainment by all peoples of the world by the year 2000 of a level of health that will permit them to lead a socially and economically productive life. Primary health care is the key to attaining this target as part of development in the spirit of social justice.

30 Evolution of the Right to Health WHO – Primary Health Care Declaration of Alma-Ata VI. Primary health care is essential health care based on practical, scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and technology made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community through their full participation and at a cost that the community and country can afford to maintain at every stage of their development in the spirit of self reliance and self-determination. It forms an integral part both of the country's health system, of which it is the central function and main focus, and of the overall social and economic development of the community. It is the first level of contact of individuals, the family and community with the national health system bringing health care as close as possible to where people live and work, and constitutes the first element of a continuing health care process

31 Evolution of the Right to Health WHO – Primary Health Care Declaration of Alma-Ata VII. Primary health care: (1). reflects and evolves from the economic conditions and sociocultural and political characteristics of the country and its communities and is based on the application of the relevant results of social, biomedical and health services research and public health experience;

32 Evolution of the Right to Health WHO – Primary Health Care Declaration of Alma-Ata VII. Primary health care: (2). addresses the main health problems in the community, providing promotive, preventive, curative and rehabilitative services accordingly;

33 Evolution of the Right to Health WHO – Primary Health Care Declaration of Alma-Ata VII. Primary health care: (3). includes at least: education concerning prevailing health problems and the methods of preventing and controlling them; promotion of food supply and proper nutrition; an adequate supply of safe water and basic sanitation; maternal and child health care, including family planning; immunization against the major infectious diseases; prevention and control of locally endemic diseases; appropriate treatment of common diseases and injuries; and provision of essential drugs;

34 Evolution of the Right to Health WHO – Primary Health Care Declaration of Alma-Ata VII. Primary health care: (4). involves, in addition to the health sector, all related sectors and aspects of national and community development, in particular agriculture, animal husbandry, food, industry, education, housing, public works, communications and other sectors; and demands the coordinated efforts of all those sectors;

35 Evolution of the Right to Health WHO – Primary Health Care Declaration of Alma-Ata VII. Primary health care: (5). requires and promotes maximum community and individual self- reliance and participation in the planning, organization, operation and control of primary health care, making fullest use of local, national and other available resources; and to this end develops through appropriate education the ability of communities to participate;

36 Evolution of the Right to Health WHO – Primary Health Care Declaration of Alma-Ata VII. Primary health care: (6). should be sustained by integrated, functional and mutually supportive referral systems, leading to the progressive improvement of comprehensive health care for all, and giving priority to those most in need;

37 Evolution of the Right to Health WHO – Primary Health Care Declaration of Alma-Ata VII. Primary health care: (7). relies, at local and referral levels, on health workers, including physicians, nurses, midwives, auxiliaries and community workers as applicable, as well as traditional practitioners as needed, suitably trained socially and technically to work as a health team and to respond to the expressed health needs of the community.

38 Evolution of the Right to Health WHO – Primary Health Care Declaration of Alma-Ata VIII. All governments should formulate national policies, strategies and plans of action to launch and sustain primary health care as part of a comprehensive national health system and in coordination with other sectors. To this end, it will be necessary to exercise political will, to mobilize the country's resources and to use available external resources rationally.

39 Evolution of the Right to Health WHO – Primary Health Care Declaration of Alma-Ata IX. All countries should cooperate in a spirit of partnership and service to ensure primary health care for all people since the attainment of health by people in any one country directly concerns and benefits every other country. In this context the joint WHO/UNICEF report on primary health care constitutes a solid basis for the further development and operation of primary health care throughout the world.

40 Evolution of the Right to Health WHO – Primary Health Care Declaration of Alma-Ata X. An acceptable level of health for all the people of the world by the year 2000 can be attained through a fuller and better use of the world's resources, a considerable part of which is now spent on armaments and military conflicts. A genuine policy of independence, peace, détente and disarmament could and should release additional resources that could well be devoted to peaceful aims and in particular to the acceleration of social and economic development of which primary health care, as an essential part, should be allotted its proper share.

41 Evolution of the Right to Health WHO – Primary Health Care Declaration of Alma-Ata X. The International Conference on Primary Health Care calls for urgent and effective national and international action to develop and implement primary health care throughout the world and particularly in developing countries in a spirit of technical cooperation and in keeping with a New International Economic Order.

42 Evolution of the Right to Health ?


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