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Question of the Day 4-19 1. ADD 2.5 points before dividing!!! Unit 7 Quest grade = ____% 2. I feel I was successful or unsuccessful 3. I prepared by… 4.

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Presentation on theme: "Question of the Day 4-19 1. ADD 2.5 points before dividing!!! Unit 7 Quest grade = ____% 2. I feel I was successful or unsuccessful 3. I prepared by… 4."— Presentation transcript:

1 Question of the Day ADD 2.5 points before dividing!!! Unit 7 Quest grade = ____% 2. I feel I was successful or unsuccessful 3. I prepared by… 4. Next time I will prepare by… 5. Goal for next time = ____ If you met your goal + got an A: You may maintain or improve. If you did not meet your goal it stays the same.

2 Chapter 10 – DNA, RNA and Protein Synthesis

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4 STRUCTURE and FUNCTION of DNA Structure – double-helix (looks like a spiral staircase) Structure – double-helix (looks like a spiral staircase) Function – carries your genetic information Function – carries your genetic information

5 DNA is the genetic code life It controls all aspects of the cell. But how? It controls all aspects of the cell. But how? By the different proteins that it codes for. By the different proteins that it codes for. Different proteins have different functions Different proteins have different functions –Enzymes – control / speed up chemical reactions IE: building ATP or digesting food IE: building ATP or digesting food –Repair, transport, structural proteins

6 What is the genetic code? Set of rules by which information is transferred from… Set of rules by which information is transferred from… DNA into RNA into Protein (using amino acids) DNA into RNA into Protein (using amino acids) Even bacteria and viruses have a genetic code Even bacteria and viruses have a genetic code

7 What are Nucleic Acids? A complex macromolecule that stores information in cells in the form of a code. DNA and RNA. A complex macromolecule that stores information in cells in the form of a code. DNA and RNA. Composed of monomers of nucleotides Composed of monomers of nucleotides

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9 What is DNA? Deoxyribonuclei c acid Deoxyribonuclei c acid Contains the genetic instructions for development / functioning of living things Contains the genetic instructions for development / functioning of living things

10 What is a nucleotide? A monomer that consists of three parts A monomer that consists of three parts –Sugar (deoxyribose or ribose) –Phosphate –Nitrogen Base (A, C, T, G and U)

11 REVIEW: Monomers and Polymers Define Monomer – Define Monomer – –The smallest unit that makes up a larger molecule Define Polymer Define Polymer – A large molecule formed by many smaller molecules called monomers monomer of proteins = monomer of proteins = mondomer of nucleic acids = mondomer of nucleic acids = amino acids nucleotide

12 REVIEW Do all organisms have DNA? Do all organisms have DNA? – YES – All living things have a genetic code What is a Protein? What is a Protein? – A large complex polymer composed of amino acids.

13 REVIEW Peptide Bond – –Covalent bond (sharing electrons) formed between two amino acids (the bonds in proteins)

14 Question of the Day Structure of DNA = 2. Function of DNA =

15 On a half sheet of scratch paper What two types of nucleic acids do you know of? 2. What are the 3 parts of a nucleotide? 3. What process makes proteins from RNA? 4. What is the monomer of a protein?

16 QUICK TALK 4-20 cell monomer DNA nucleus mitosis eukaryotes phospholipid bilayer photosynthesis mitochondria chromosome diffusion ATP

17 DNA SONGS:

18 Question of the Day What two types of nucleic acids do you know of? 2. What are the 3 parts of a nucleotide? Use notes if needed

19 What are the Nitrogen Bases? Adenine Adenine Guanine Guanine Thymine (DNA only) Thymine (DNA only) Cytosine Cytosine Uracil (RNA only) Uracil (RNA only)

20 Nitrogen Bases

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23 Nitrogen Base Pairing How do the nitrogen bases pair in DNA? How do the nitrogen bases pair in DNA? –A with T –C with G –RNA A with U (no Thymine) What holds the nitrogen bases together? What holds the nitrogen bases together? –Hydrogen Bonds

24 Why is the nucleotide sequence important? Why is the nucleotide sequence important? –All organisms have DNA –The closer the DNA resemblance, the more closely related the organisms are

25 DNA REPLICATION DNA Replication – the process of copying DNA DNA Replication – the process of copying DNA When do we copy our DNA? When do we copy our DNA? –S-phase of Interphase

26 DNA REPLICATION STEP ONE: STEP ONE: –Helicase – An enzyme that breaks hydrogen bonds between nitrogen bases unzipping the DNA

27 DNA REPLICATION Replication Fork – location where the DNA is splitting apart Replication Fork – location where the DNA is splitting apart

28 DNA REPLICATION STEP TWO: STEP TWO: –DNA POLYMERASE – An enzyme that bonds free floating nucleotides together to form a new DNA chain An enzyme that bonds free floating nucleotides together to form a new DNA chain

29 DNA REPLICATION How long does this continue? How long does this continue? –Until the entire chain is copied…forming two new chains Why do we copy DNA? Why do we copy DNA? –So that new cells have the genetic material needed to survive

30 Question of the Day RNA and DNA are both examples of ____________ you should be able to answer even if absent yesterday!!! 2. The enzyme that separates or unzips DNA = Use notes if needed

31 Review DNA

32 REVIEW Replication fork

33 REVIEW Peptide Bond – Peptide Bond – –Bond formed between two amino acids (in a protein) What holds nitrogenous bases together? – hydrogen bonds

34 True or False? True or False? –The closer the DNA resemblance, the more closely related the organisms are The process of copying DNA = … – DNA replication REVIEW

35 REVIEW Helicase – An enzyme that breaks hydrogen bonds between nitrogen bases unzipping the DNA An enzyme that breaks hydrogen bonds between nitrogen bases unzipping the DNA

36 Replication Fork – Replication Fork – –location where the DNA is splitting apart REVIEW

37 DNA POLYMERASE – An enzyme that bonds free floating nucleotides together to form a new DNA chain An enzyme that bonds free floating nucleotides together to form a new DNA chain REVIEW

38 Front of handout – due end of period today READ pages (my.hrw.com) AND complete #s 1-2, 4-8 on the bottom of page 202 – due beginning of class tomorrow 4-18 Assignment My.hrw.com Chapter 10 section 3 Username = dhe5n Password = p5e8n


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