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Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. 2-22 GOAL SETTING: 1.Unit 4 Test grade = ____% 2. I feel I was successful or unsuccessful.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. 2-22 GOAL SETTING: 1.Unit 4 Test grade = ____% 2. I feel I was successful or unsuccessful."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved GOAL SETTING: 1.Unit 4 Test grade = ____% 2. I feel I was successful or unsuccessful 3. I prepared by… 4. Next time I will prepare by… 5. Goal for next time = ____ If you met your goal + got an A: You may maintain or improve. If you met your goal but did not get an A: You must improve at least 1 percentage points. If you did not meet your goal it stays the same. Question of the Day

2 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved things you know about DNA = ??? (can be anything youve learned before – write something down!!!) Question of the Day

3 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Objectives –Describe shape / function of a chromosome –Describe differences between autosome & sex chromosomes.

4 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Chromosome Structure Chromosomes Chromosomes –rod-shaped structures made of DNA and protein – formed during cell division Histones - Histones - –Proteins that DNA wrap around –aids in the compact structure of the chromosome

5 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Chromosome Structure

6 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

7 Chapter 8 Parts of a chromosome Eukaryotic cells: Eukaryotic cells: Chromatids – ½ of the chromosome – identical to other half – replicated in the S phase for replication Chromatids – ½ of the chromosome – identical to other half – replicated in the S phase for replication Centromere – where sister chromatids are joined. Centromere – where sister chromatids are joined. Genes – bands found on the chromosome Genes – bands found on the chromosome

8 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Chromatin – uncoiled DNA found in nucleus – Seen when cell isnt dividing Chromatin – uncoiled DNA found in nucleus – Seen when cell isnt dividing

9 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Chapter 8 Prokaryotic cells: Prokaryotic cells: Contain only 1 circular chromosome Contain only 1 circular chromosome

10 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Chapter 8 Comparing Cell Division in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Prokaryotic cells reproduce faster than eukaryotic cells – Less sophisticated, takes less time

11 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Chromosome Numbers Different species have a characteristic number of chromosomes in each cell. Different species have a characteristic number of chromosomes in each cell. More chromosomes do not always equal more sophisticated More chromosomes do not always equal more sophisticated

12 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved In owl book – get questions from me and read pages (Cell Reproduction – section # 1) Previewing Assignment

13 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. What is the relationship between DNA and chromosomes? Question of the Day 2-24

14 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Review 2-24 What am I?

15 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Objectives –Describe shape / function of a chromosome –Describe differences between autosome & sex chromosomes.

16 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Chromosome Type Autosomes Autosomes –Non-sex chromosomes –22 pairs Sex Chromosomes Sex Chromosomes –determine the sex of an organism –In humans: X and Y X and Y XX = female XX = female XY = male XY = male

17 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Homologous chromosomes Homologous chromosomes –Chromosomes that carry the same genes (not necessarily the same code) –One from dad other from mom Karyotype Karyotype –Picture of chromosomes in a normal dividing cell

18 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Karyotype Used primarily to study chromosome problems Used primarily to study chromosome problems Stop cell in metaphase and stain the chromosomes Stop cell in metaphase and stain the chromosomes Match use length and bands (bands can represent 100s of genes) Match use length and bands (bands can represent 100s of genes)

19 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Karyotype Identifying a Chromosome: Identifying a Chromosome: 1.Length 2.Placement of centromere 3.Banding patter

20 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Diploid and Haploid Cells Diploid - Cells having two sets of chromosomes – 2n - which means 2 x number of chromosomes Diploid - Cells having two sets of chromosomes – 2n - which means 2 x number of chromosomes –All human cells except sex cells Haploid Cells – Cells which have only one set of chromosomes (1n) Haploid Cells – Cells which have only one set of chromosomes (1n) –Sperm and egg cells ASSIGNMENT

21 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. Review Describe the structure of a chromosome. Describe the structure of a chromosome. Identify the differences in structure between prokaryotic chromosomes and eukaryotic chromosomes. Identify the differences in structure between prokaryotic chromosomes and eukaryotic chromosomes. Compare the numbers of chromosomes in different species. Compare the numbers of chromosomes in different species. Explain the differences between sex chromosomes and autosomes. Explain the differences between sex chromosomes and autosomes. Distinguish between diploid and haploid cells. Distinguish between diploid and haploid cells.


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