Presentation on theme: "Question of the Day GOAL SETTING: Unit 4 Test grade = ____%"— Presentation transcript:
1 Question of the DayGOAL SETTING:Unit 4 Test grade = ____%I feel I was successful or unsuccessful3. I prepared by…4. Next time I will prepare by…5. Goal for next time = ____If you met your goal + got an A: You may maintain or improve.If you met your goal but did not get an A: You must improve at least 1 percentage points.If you did not meet your goal it stays the same.2-22
2 Question of the Day2-232 things you know about DNA = ??? (can be anything you’ve learned before – write something down!!!)
3 Objectives Describe shape / function of a chromosome Describe differences between autosome & sex chromosomes.
4 Chromosome Structure Chromosomes Histones - rod-shaped structures made of DNA and protein – formed during cell divisionHistones -Proteins that DNA wrap aroundaids in the compact structure of the chromosome
7 Parts of a chromosome Eukaryotic cells: Chapter 8Eukaryotic cells:Chromatids – ½ of the chromosome – identical to other half – replicated in the “S phase” for replicationCentromere – where sister chromatids are joined.Genes – bands found on the chromosome
8 Chromatin – uncoiled DNA found in nucleus – Seen when cell isn’t dividing
9 Contain only 1 circular chromosome Chapter 8Prokaryotic cells:Contain only 1 circular chromosome
10 Comparing Cell Division in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Chapter 8Comparing Cell Division in Prokaryotes and EukaryotesProkaryotic cells reproduce faster than eukaryotic cells – Less sophisticated, takes less time
11 Chromosome NumbersDifferent species have a characteristic number of chromosomes in each cell.More chromosomes do not always equal more sophisticated
12 Previewing Assignment 2-22In owl book – get questions from me and read pages (Cell Reproduction – section # 1)
13 Question of the Day2-24What is the relationship between DNA and chromosomes?
14 Review2-24What am I?What am I?What am I?What am I?
15 Objectives Describe shape / function of a chromosome Describe differences between autosome & sex chromosomes.
16 Chromosome Type Autosomes Non-sex chromosomes 22 pairs Sex Chromosomes determine the sex of an organismIn humans:X and YXX = femaleXY = male
17 Homologous chromosomes Chromosomes that carry the same genes (not necessarily the same code)One from dad other from momKaryotypePicture of chromosomes in a normal dividing cell
18 Karyotype Used primarily to study chromosome problems Stop cell in metaphase and stain the chromosomesMatch use length and bands (bands can represent 100’s of genes)
19 Karyotype Identifying a Chromosome: Length Placement of centromere Banding patter
20 Diploid and Haploid Cells Diploid - Cells having two sets of chromosomes – 2n - which means 2 x number of chromosomesAll human cells except sex cellsHaploid Cells – Cells which have only one set of chromosomes (1n)Sperm and egg cellsASSIGNMENT
21 Review Describe the structure of a chromosome. Identify the differences in structure between prokaryotic chromosomes and eukaryotic chromosomes.Compare the numbers of chromosomes in different species.Explain the differences between sex chromosomes and autosomes.Distinguish between diploid and haploid cells.