Presentation on theme: "Question of the Day GOAL SETTING: Unit 4 Test grade = ____%"— Presentation transcript:
1Question of the DayGOAL SETTING:Unit 4 Test grade = ____%I feel I was successful or unsuccessful3. I prepared by…4. Next time I will prepare by…5. Goal for next time = ____If you met your goal + got an A: You may maintain or improve.If you met your goal but did not get an A: You must improve at least 1 percentage points.If you did not meet your goal it stays the same.2-22
2Question of the Day2-232 things you know about DNA = ??? (can be anything you’ve learned before – write something down!!!)
3Objectives Describe shape / function of a chromosome Describe differences between autosome & sex chromosomes.
4Chromosome Structure Chromosomes Histones - rod-shaped structures made of DNA and protein – formed during cell divisionHistones -Proteins that DNA wrap aroundaids in the compact structure of the chromosome
7Parts of a chromosome Eukaryotic cells: Chapter 8Eukaryotic cells:Chromatids – ½ of the chromosome – identical to other half – replicated in the “S phase” for replicationCentromere – where sister chromatids are joined.Genes – bands found on the chromosome
8Chromatin – uncoiled DNA found in nucleus – Seen when cell isn’t dividing
9Contain only 1 circular chromosome Chapter 8Prokaryotic cells:Contain only 1 circular chromosome
10Comparing Cell Division in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Chapter 8Comparing Cell Division in Prokaryotes and EukaryotesProkaryotic cells reproduce faster than eukaryotic cells – Less sophisticated, takes less time
11Chromosome NumbersDifferent species have a characteristic number of chromosomes in each cell.More chromosomes do not always equal more sophisticated
12Previewing Assignment 2-22In owl book – get questions from me and read pages (Cell Reproduction – section # 1)
13Question of the Day2-24What is the relationship between DNA and chromosomes?
14Review2-24What am I?What am I?What am I?What am I?
15Objectives Describe shape / function of a chromosome Describe differences between autosome & sex chromosomes.
16Chromosome Type Autosomes Non-sex chromosomes 22 pairs Sex Chromosomes determine the sex of an organismIn humans:X and YXX = femaleXY = male
17Homologous chromosomes Chromosomes that carry the same genes (not necessarily the same code)One from dad other from momKaryotypePicture of chromosomes in a normal dividing cell
18Karyotype Used primarily to study chromosome problems Stop cell in metaphase and stain the chromosomesMatch use length and bands (bands can represent 100’s of genes)
19Karyotype Identifying a Chromosome: Length Placement of centromere Banding patter
20Diploid and Haploid Cells Diploid - Cells having two sets of chromosomes – 2n - which means 2 x number of chromosomesAll human cells except sex cellsHaploid Cells – Cells which have only one set of chromosomes (1n)Sperm and egg cellsASSIGNMENT
21Review Describe the structure of a chromosome. Identify the differences in structure between prokaryotic chromosomes and eukaryotic chromosomes.Compare the numbers of chromosomes in different species.Explain the differences between sex chromosomes and autosomes.Distinguish between diploid and haploid cells.