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Getting Started Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 5: Interior Selves… Interior.

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Presentation on theme: "Getting Started Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 5: Interior Selves… Interior."— Presentation transcript:

1 Getting Started Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 5: Interior Selves… Interior Selves; Interior Worlds Focus on World and Relationship Models This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any image; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.

2 What Are Our Models of the World? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 5: Interior Selves… Models for Perceiving Others First, researchers identified adjectives highly, moderately, and not related to extroversion (and, in another condition, introversion) Cantor & Mischels hypothesis: people will store information for Jane according to an extrovert schema Procedure: Participants learned lists describing four fictional target people. (Instructions: I would like you to view these slides and try to remember the personality characterstics…)

3 What Are Our Models of the World? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 5: Interior Selves… Person Perception (Cantor & Mischel, 1978) Pre-Experimental Phase Rated traits as related to extroversion: Outgoing Prompt Thougtful Rating Scale: Unrelated (U) Moderately Related (M) Highly Related (H)

4 What Are Our Models of the World? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 5: Interior Selves… Person Perception (Cantor & Mischel, 1978) 1. Acquisition Stage: (Jane is:) 2. Recognition Stage: (Was Jane?) energetic (M) impulsive (M) dominating (M) friendly (M) ambitious (M) honorable (U) logical (U) punctual (U) neat (U) In Acquisition List: dominating (M) energetic (M) neat (U) punctual (U) Not in Acquisition List (Distractors): spirited (H) exuberant (H) thrifty (U)

5 What Are Our Models of the World? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 5: Interior Selves… Results (Cantor & Mischel, 1978) Trait was In Acquisition List Trait was Not in Acquisition List Trait was Related to Prototype Moderately endorsed (e.g., energetic) (Accurate when endorsed) Moderately endorsed these (e.g., spirited) (Inaccurate when endorsed) Trait was Unrelated to Prototype Moderately endorsed these (e.g., neat) (Accurate when endorsed) Did not endorse these much (e.g., neat) (Inaccurate when endorsed)

6 What Are Our Models of the World? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 5: Interior Selves… Where Do Models Come From? VJ was a thoughtful child, raised in a close family by caring parents. He was brought up in a poor Midwestern suburb, and is now married. He is clumsy, unimaginative, and frivolous. Those who know him describe him as cold. He believes in gaining other's respect and also in being a leader. Physically, he is thin and good-looking. (Mayer & Bower, 1986).

7 What Are Our Models of the World? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 5: Interior Selves… Results (Mayer & Bower, 1986)

8 What Are Our Models of the World? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 5: Interior Selves… Jungian Archetypes Location: The Collective Unconscious: This transpersonal domain is detached from anything personal and is common to all people, since its contents can be found everywhere… (Jung 1917, p. 66). Evidence: Common phobias: snakes, water, heights; uncommon phobias: bicycles, knives, cars

9 What Are Our Models of the World? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 5: Interior Selves… Case Study: Archetypes Schizoprhenic Patient,1906: If you squint your eyes and stare at the sun you could see the suns phallus. You can make the phallus move if you swing your head from side-to- side. The moving phallus makes the wind. (Reported in Beneath the Mask) Greek Tract: For you will see hanging down from the disc of the sun something that looks like a tube. And towards the regions westward it is as though there were an infinite east wind. But if the other wind should prevail towards the regions of the east, you will in like manner see the vision veering in that direction.

10 What Are Our Models of the World? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 5: Interior Selves… Examples of Archetypes Mother and father archetypes: elicited through a real mother, father, mother-in-law, wife, etc. Either positive (kind princess or prince) or negative (witch, harsh ruler) Trickster or magician archetype: fondness for sly jokes, malicious pranks, dual nature: half animal, half human Hero archetype: hero defeats evil, slays dragon or monster Shadow: dark half of personality, demons, devils Wise old person: village elder, wise poet, elderly healer

11 What Are Our Models of Relationships? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 5: Interior Selves… Significant Other Models Models of those we are (or have been) close to Examples: Parents, other caretakers, teachers Significance: We develop patterns with these individuals that we then generalize to others

12 What Are Our Models of Relationships? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 5: Interior Selves… Core Conflictual Relationship Theme (CCRT) Begin with transcripts from psychotherapy Examine them for key themes in relationships Identify those relationships theme and watch for their repetition Excellent inter-agreement reliability for identifying themes

13 What Are Our Models of Relationships? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 5: Interior Selves… Can You Identify the CCRT Theme? 1. He came over to drink beer, and to have this conversation which was a little difficult. I pretended to be enjoying it, enjoying him, you know, in the spirit of good fellowship and shit and stuff, but I really wanted to be -- well, I didn't want to be reading, but you know, I felt that this was the thing that, that was keeping me from reading and that hassled me. I really fucking resented it a lot. You know among my friends, they're respecting and always have really respected my wanting to do my own thing...But you know, with a guy like this (clear throat), he's just in another world totally from that. And, you know, he wouldn't understand if I said that, you know, he would be insulted and that kind of shit. You know it was kind of a hassle.

14 What Are Our Models of Relationships? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 5: Interior Selves… Can You Identify the CCRT Theme? 2. This morning I, like didn't particularly feel like coming here, you know. Because like, I don't know, I felt some kind of, you know, I felt like I didn't need it. I guess I was just, you know, my spirits were a little raised. If only now I could get out of the bag of feeling that I have to....

15 What Are Our Models of Relationships? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 5: Interior Selves… Can You Identify the CCRT Theme? 3. Well, now I'm getting that same feeling that, you know, I'm sort of talking about worthless shit. Because, and you know, my basis for thinking that is the fact that you haven't said anything. Jeez, we go through this same nonsense every session, it's just amazing to me. I'm sort of ashamed that my mind isn't a little more creative, to think of different hassles. You know, it's sort of boring going through the same hassle four times a week, for what at this point seems like a timeless period.

16 What Are Our Models of Relationships? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 5: Interior Selves… Can You Identify the CCRT Theme? 4. When I finally got through to her roommate yesterday and found out that she wasn't going to be in, like all the woman obligations just went off me. I knew that there was nothing I could do to find a woman and you know, there was a kind of relief.

17 What Are Our Models of Relationships? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 5: Interior Selves… Attachment theory Harry Harlow Orphanage Studies Strange situation (Mary Ainsworth) Three types: –Securely attached (empathic mirroring, good contact) –Anxiously attached (inconsistent; uncertain) –Anxious-avoidant/conflicted attached (apathetic)

18 What Are Our Models of Relationships? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 5: Interior Selves… Social Roles Jungs Persona Hogans Socioanalytic Theory –Gaining status; popularity –Necessary for reproduction –Example: Crossing campus and seeing philosopher.

19 What Are Our Models of Relationships? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 5: Interior Selves… Morality and Moral Behavior What rules do we employ for engaging with others? What are our ethical and moral codes? These, too, are part of our personality, part of who we are

20 What Are Our Models of the World? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 5: Interior Selves… Formal Models are Rewarded in Society

21 How Good Are Our Models? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 5: Interior Selves… Constructive Thinking Positive Aspects Emotional CopingI dont let little things bother me. Behavioral CopingWhen I am faced with a difficult task, I think encouraging thoughts that help me do my best. Neutral Aspect Naïve OptimismI believe people can accomplish anything they want if they have enough will power

22 How Good Are Our Models? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 5: Interior Selves… Constructive Thinking Negative Aspects Categorical Thinking I am very judgmental of people Personal Superstitious Thinking Ive learned not to hope too hard because what I hope for usually doesnt happen Esoteric Thinking I believe in astrology

23 How Good Are Our Models? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 5: Interior Selves… Outcomes of Constructive Thinking Among business people, predicts superior performance, faster advancement, more satisfaction at home. Among students, predicts performance at part time jobs, but less so in class (where IQ is more powerful. At low levels, may predict more drug use and problem behavior.


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