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Chapter 11 APPRAISAL METHODS 371. The appraiser uses three appraisal methods and then correlates this data to arrive at a final valuation for a property.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11 APPRAISAL METHODS 371. The appraiser uses three appraisal methods and then correlates this data to arrive at a final valuation for a property."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 11 APPRAISAL METHODS 371

2 The appraiser uses three appraisal methods and then correlates this data to arrive at a final valuation for a property. 373

3 I. COMPARATIVE APPROACH (MARKET DATA METHOD) 373

4 Takes current selling prices of properties similar to the appraised property and adjusts those prices for any differences. 374

5 A. How to Adjust a Comparable Sale (Comps) Subtract the value of any improvements found in the comparable houses but not in the house to be appraised. Add the value of any improvements found in the appraisal house but not found in the comparable houses. Adjust also for differences in location, lot size, building size, condition of the property, time differences between the sales. 374

6 Compare with cost of similar unsold properties which have been on the market for a long time they are probably overpriced. Compare with comparable properties from many different sources 374

7 B. Advantages of The Market Approach It is easy to learn and, with a little experience, easy to apply. Required information is usually readily available since there are generally many recent comparable sales. This is the most effective appraisal approach for home and condominium sales. 375

8 C. Disadvantages of The Market Approach This method requires many recent comparable sales of similar properties. This method is least reliable when there are rapid economic changes. The market data method is less valid with certain income properties because a separate analysis of the income is required. 375

9 II. COST APPROACH (REPLACEMENT COST METHOD) 375

10 THE COST APPROACH is the process of appraising a property by calculating the cost of the land and buildings as if they were new today, and then subtracting the accrued depreciation in order to arrive at the current value. 375

11 A.Costs are Both Direct and Indirect Direct Costs - expenditures for labor and materials used in the construction of the improvement(s). A contractor’s overhead and profit are generally treated as direct costs. Indirect Costs - expenditures other than material and labor costs. Examples are administrative costs, professional fees, financing costs, insurance, and taxes. 378

12 B. Steps in the Cost Approach 379

13 1. Appraise the Land Separately - Estimate the value of the vacant land using the market comparison approach. 379

14 2. Estimate Replacement Cost Replacement Cost - the cost of building a similar new structure today using modern construction methods. The most current information is available from construction cost engineers. Three Replacement Methods Comparative-Unit Method Unit-In-Place Method Quantity Survey Method The simplest way to determine replacement cost is to determine the Square Footage, which is obtained by measuring the outside of the structure. 379

15 3. Estimate and Deduct Depreciation Depreciation - reduction in the value of property due to any cause. Three types: Physical Deterioration (Curable or Incurable) Functional Obsolescence (Curable or Incurable) Economic Obsolescence (Incurable) 381

16 4. Value of the Property - Add the depreciated value of any improvements to the value of the land. This figure is the market value of a property using the cost approach. 384

17 C. Advantages of The Cost Approach - can be used for: New buildings. Unique structures. Public buildings. Cost equals value when improvements are new and of the highest and best use. 385

18 D. Disadvantages of The Cost Approach There must be an accurate value of the site (land). Since determining depreciation is more difficult as buildings age, the reliability of the depreciation estimate may be questioned. This approach may be difficult to apply to condos or planned unit developments because the land, improvements, and marketing costs are not always easy to determine just for appraising one unit. 385

19 III. CAPITALIZATION APPROACH (INCOME APPROACH) 385

20 A. Steps in the Income Approach 386

21 1. Calculate the Annual Effective Gross Income Figure out how much gross rental income is currently being generated if the property is fully rented. Adjust this figure upward if more rent could be charged and downward if rent is too high and causing a lot of vacancies. 386

22 2. Complete an Operating Expense Statement. The basic expense categories are: Property taxes Insurance and licenses Manager fees Utilities Maintenance, repairs, and services (gardener, pool man, etc.) Replacement Reserves - the cost of replacing an item in the future 387

23 3. Deduct Related Operating Expenses (Step 2) from Gross Income (Step 1 to get Net Income) 4. Divide Net Income by the Appropriate Capitalization Rate 5. Result of Dividing Net Income by the Appropriate Capitalization Rate 387

24 B. Gross Rent Multiplier (GRM) - A multiplication “rule of thumb” for converting rental value into market value. Neighborhoods have determinable multipliers (rules of thumb). Select the proper multiplier. Find out the gross rents of the appraisal property. Multiply the rent times the multiplier. The result is an approximate value of the property. Not an accurate appraisal by any means. 389

25 C. Advantages of the Income Approach The advantage of the income approach method is that no other method focuses solely on determining the present value of the future income stream from the subject property. Emphasis is on the income generated by the real property. This is of primary importance to investment buyers. = VALUE OF PROPERTY 391

26 D. Disadvantages of The Income Approach Sometimes difficult to determine capitalization rate. May also be difficult to estimate vacancy rate, economic rent, operation expenses, and reserve requirements. 392

27 IV. CORRELATION OF VALUE (BRACKETING) 391

28 CORRELATION is the process of selecting the most appropriate appraisal method for a particular type of property and giving it the most consideration in pinpointing final value. 391

29 V. FINAL ESTIMATE OF VALUE (APPRAISAL REPORT) 392

30 The documentation of the appraiser's findings. 392

31 A. Cost of an Appraisal There is little need to pay for an expensive appraisal simply to determine a selling price for a home or condominium. A local broker can help you. On the other hand, appraisal of large parcels, commercial buildings, and apartment houses, or appraisals to be used in court, may require the services of a highly skilled appraiser. 393

32 VI. LICENSING, FEE APPRAISERS, AND APPRAISAL ORGANIZATIONS 393

33 A. Appraisal License and Certification Trainee Appraiser Residential Appraiser Certified Residential Appraiser Certified General Appraiser 393

34 B. Fee Appraisers - An independent, self-employed appraiser; he or she appraises for a fee or charge. National Association of Independent Fee Appraisers 395

35 Chapter 11 - Summary 3 Appraisal approaches: Comparative approach Cost approach Capitalization approach Market data approach: Principle of substitution Cost approach: Replacement cost Comparative-unit Unit-in-place Quantity survey Depreciation Physical Functional Economic Curable/incurable 397

36 Chapter 11 - Summary Capitalization Approach Determine value Cap rate Gross rent multiplier Gross income multiplier Correlation/Reconciliation Final estimate of value Short form/Narrative Cost of an Appraisal Licenses & certification Trainee license Residential license Certified residential license Certified general license 398


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