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Intersection 13: Acid/Base Titration & Electrochemistry Introduction 11/28/06 Reading: 5.4 p 185-188 19.1-19.2 p 909-917.

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Presentation on theme: "Intersection 13: Acid/Base Titration & Electrochemistry Introduction 11/28/06 Reading: 5.4 p 185-188 19.1-19.2 p 909-917."— Presentation transcript:

1 Intersection 13: Acid/Base Titration & Electrochemistry Introduction 11/28/06 Reading: 5.4 p p

2 A Gateway to Scientific Ethics Scientists Employ the Scientific Method to Explore the Physical World. What are the ethical considerations associated with being a scientist? How do they relate to the use of the Scientific Method? Are there ethical considerations beyond the Scientific Method? We will employ a case-study approach to examining these questions including a prominent case of fraud from Lucent Technologies as wella prominent case as the classic Millikan-Ehrenhaft debate. 6 – 8 PM Thursday Nov. 30th Please RSVP by to Prof Banaszak Holl Gateway evenings are optional and will not affect your course grade Gateway Chemistry 130/125/126 Section 600 Dinner Provided

3 Outline Acid/Base Titration Electrochemistry –Oxidation numbers

4 Titration M

5 Titrations: A Closer Look A titration is a method of determining the concentration of a dissolved substance by addition of a reagent of known concentration until a stoichiometric amount has been added indicated by a known effect (precipitation, color change, change in heat, etc.) Titrations are popular because:  Absolute content of a sample can be determined.  Speed.  Versatility  Sample size: micrograms up to several grams  Accuracy and reproducibility  Price M

6 Common Uses of Titrations TAN(Total Acid Number) and TBN(Total Base Number) determinations of motor oil Various weak base drug assays by titration with perchloric acid in a glacial acetic acid media Differentiation of nitric and sulfuric acids in nitrating acid used in the explosives industry. Determination of salt in various foods and snacks. Determination of chloride in drinking water Simultaneous determination of chloride, bromide, and iodide in seawater. Determination of 925 silver in the jewelry industry Determination of silver in photographic developing solutions. M

7 Titration Precipitation: Cl - (aq) + AgNO 3(aq) →AgCl (s) –What was the purpose? –How did you find the end-point? Acid-base (Oxiclean) Redox (coming up…) M

8 Acid/Base Reactions Need to determine the concentration of a solution of HCl. How? 20 mL sample of HCl diluted to 50 mL 1.0 M NaOH used for titration Reaction: How will you know when you have reached the end-point? M

9 Determining End-point? M

10 Finding the Concentration Suppose it takes 15 mL of NaOH, what was the concentration of HCl? 20 mL sample of HCl diluted to 50 mL 1.0 M NaOH used for titration M

11 Problem 1 Strong Acid/Strong Base HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq)  H 2 O (l) + NaCl (aq) Weak Acid/Strong Base CH 3 COOH (aq) + NaOH (aq)  25 mL20 mL of 0.1 M What is the concentration CH 3 COOH? M

12 Question 1 Each of the solutions in the table has equal volume and the same concentration of 0.1 M AcidpH HCl1.1 HCOOH2.3 CH 3 COOH2.9 HCN5.1 Which solution requires the greatest volume of 0.1 M NaOH to reach the titration end-point (stoichiometric point)? Explain A

13 What happens when you add less than a stoichiometric amount of a strong base to a weak acid? 2 mols CH 3 COOH + 1 mol NaOH in 1 L of water? (K a CH 3 COOH = 1.8 x10 -5 ) A

14 Question 2 Each of the solutions in the table has equal volume and the same concentration of 0.1 M? Which will have the highest pH at the stoichiometric point? AcidpH HCl1.1 HCOOH2.3 CH 3 COOH2.9 HCN5.1 A

15 Problem 2 When mL of a weak monoprotic acid solution is titrated with M NaOH, the equivalence point is reached when mL of base have been added. After mL of NaOH solution has been added, the titration mixture has a pH of Calculate K a. M

16 Solution: Initial Concentration HA HA + NaOH  H 2 O + NaA 40 mL35 mL 0.10 M 0.1 mol NaOH * (0.035L) * 1 mol HA L 1 mol NaOH = mol HA in L = M HA M

17 Solution: Finding Initial Values for ICE Table HA + NaOH -> H 2 O + NaA 40 mL 20 mL M 0.1 M mol mollimiting reagent ? mol mol mol mol mol mol mol M

18 Solution: ICE table to find K a HAH 2 O A-A- H3O+H3O+ I mol mL mol mL 0 C -x + x E0.025 – x0.033+xx pH = 5.75 = -log[H 3 O + ] 1.78x10 -6 = [H 3 O + ] = x K a = [H 3 O + ][A - ] = 1.78x10 -6 *0.033 [HA] = 2.35 x x10 -6 M

19 Exam 3 Tuesday, December 5 th 8-10 pm CHEM 1400 Focus on material through this slide Please remember your significant figures A

20 Electrochemistry A

21 Redox Reactions Chemical reactions: acid/base or reduction/oxidation ("redox") Redox reactions involve the transfer of electrons from one reactant to another. The reaction energy can also be harnessed in the form of electricity. The branch of chemistry that deals with the relationship between electricity and chemical reactions is called electrochemistry. A

22 Oxidation States The concept of oxidation state (or oxidation number) was developed to help scientists keep track of the movement of electrons in reactions. 2 Fe (s) + 3 Cl 2(g)  2 FeCl 3(s) A

23 Oxidation Number “Rules” 1.For an atom in its elemental form, the oxidation state is always 0. 2.For any monatomic ion, the oxidation state equals the charge on the ion. 2 Fe (s) + 3 Cl 2(g)  2 FeCl 3(s) A

24 3. Specific elements a) The oxidation state of oxygen is almost always -2. The only major exception is in peroxides (H-O-O-H), where oxygen has an oxidation state of -1. b) The oxidation state of hydrogen is +1 when bonded to non-metals and -1 when bonded to metals. c) The oxidation state of fluorine is always - 1. The other halogens will usually have an oxidation state of -1 in binary compounds. In some instances the halogens other than fluorine may have different oxidation states. For example, in oxyanions the halogens have positive oxidation states. H 2 O HNO 3 ZnH 2 CF 4 NaClO 4 A

25 4.The sum of the oxidation states of all atoms in a neutral compound must equal 0. The sum of the oxidation states of all atoms in a polyatomic ion equals the charge of the ion. Usually, the most electronegative atom in the molecule will have a negative oxidation state. A 2 Fe (s) + 3 Cl 2(g)  2 FeCl 3(s)


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