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© 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Appendix 11.A Labor Contracts and Nominal-Wage Rigidity
© 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 11-2 Appendix 11.A: Labor Contracts and Nominal- Wage Rigidity Some Keynesians think the nonneutrality of money is because of nominal-wage rigidity, not nominal-price rigidity –Nominal wages could be rigid because of long-term contracts between firms and unions –With nominal-wage rigidity, the short-run aggregate supply curve slopes upward instead of being horizontal –Even so, the main results of the Keynesian model still hold
© 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 11-3 Appendix 11.A: Labor Contracts and Nominal- Wage Rigidity The short-run aggregate supply curve with labor contracts –U.S. labor contracts usually specify employment conditions and the nominal wage rate for three years –Employers decide on workers' hours and must pay them the contracted nominal wage –The result is an upward-sloping short-run aggregate supply curve As the price level rises, the real wage declines, since the nominal wage is fixed As the real wage declines, firms hire more workers and thus increase output
© 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 11-4 Appendix 11.A: Labor Contracts and Nominal- Wage Rigidity Nonneutrality of money –Money isn't neutral in this model, because as the money supply increases, the AD curve shifts along the fixed (upward-sloping) SRAS curve (Fig. 11.A.1) –As a result, output and the price level increase –Over time, workers will negotiate higher nominal wages and the SRAS curve will shift left to restore general equilibrium –Thus money is nonneutral in the short run but neutral in the long run
© 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 11-5 Figure 11.A.1 Monetary nonneutrality with long- term contracts
© 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 11-6 Appendix 11.A: Labor Contracts and Nominal- Wage Rigidity Nonneutrality of money –There are several objections to this theory Less than one-sixth of the U.S. labor force is unionized and covered by long-term wage contracts; however, some nonunion workers get wages similar to those in union contracts, and other workers may have implicit contracts that act like long-term contracts
© 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 11-7 Appendix 11.A: Labor Contracts and Nominal- Wage Rigidity Nonneutrality of money –There are several objections to this theory (cont.) Some labor contracts are indexed to inflation, so the real wage is fixed, not the nominal wage; however, most contracts aren't completely indexed The theory predicts that real wages will be countercyclical, but in fact they are procyclical; however, if there are both aggregate supply shocks and aggregate demand shocks, real wages may turn out on average to be procyclical, but could still be countercyclical for demand shocks
Appendix 11.A Labor Contracts and Nominal-Wage Rigidity.
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. Chapter 12 Keynesian Business Cycle Theory: Sticky Wages and Prices.
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© 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 11-1 Chapter Outline Real-Wage Rigidity Price Stickiness Monetary and Fiscal Policy in the Keynesian.
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Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. Chapter 11 Market-Clearing Models of the Business Cycle.
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Chapter 8 Business Cycles. Copyright © 2005 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 8-2 Figure 8.1 A business cycle.
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Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. Chapter 7 Aggregate Demand, Aggregate Supply, and the Self-Correcting Economy.
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