Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Getting Started Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Personality.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Getting Started Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Personality."— Presentation transcript:

1 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Getting Started Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Personality Development in Adulthood Focus on Love, Work, and Health This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any image; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.

2 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… What Is the Nature of Adult Development? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Stage Theories Stages 6 through 8 of Eriksons Eight Stages Stage and Age:PersonalSocial Intimacy vs. Isolation Young Adulthod Forming intimate relationships versus existing alone and in isolation Occupations; organizations Generativity vs. Stagnation Adulthood Creation of a new family; contributing to society vs. repeating life on a day-to-day basis with little growth and giving Occupation; family Ego Integrity vs. Despair Maturity Positive sense of self as giving, productive vs. inability to accept his or her life Family; occupation; institutions

3 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… What Is the Nature of Adult Development? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach A Portion of Levinsons Adult Stage Model StageAgesDevelopmental tasksPossible Outcomes Entering the adult world 22-28Test out links between valued self and society *Explore possibilities/ keep options open *Create a stable life structure *create loose structure w/o stability, not rooted *loose at beginning and firm up commitments *commit strongly early and question it later Age 30 transition 28-33*Work out flaws and limits of early adult life *Revise entry into adulthood before too late *excitement: getting oneself together *smooth beginning, with enrichment *Crisis: life intolerable; difficult to change; divorce, threat to own life

4 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… What Are Young Adults Like? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Finding a Desirable Partner Do the number of relationships matter? Do people learn from them? …There is no relationship betweem dating relationships and success in marriage. Success at dating can be defined in many different ways –Number of relationships –Commitment to a single relationship –Intimacy in a relationship

5 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… What Are Young Adults Like? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Finding a Desirable Partner Matters are different for men and women. Relationships Divide into Different Levels: –Early Dating: Most superficial desires –Commitment: Value correspondence –Marriage/Domestic Partners: Serious role congruence (can you work as a team)

6 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… What Are Young Adults Like? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Finding a Desirable Partner Men write about their occupational status and education They seek attractive, youthful partners Women write about their attractiveness & youth They seek men of high occupational status and education

7 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… What Are Young Adults Like? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Finding a Desirable Partner People choose as mates those who are more similar to them than other random people. Particularly true of: –Religion –Social habits (e.g., drinking) –Sensation seeking –Conceptions of marriage –Family background –Intelligence (r =.49)

8 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… What Are Young Adults Like? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach In Search of Good Work Holland Occupational Hexagram Realistic: farmers, mechanics, surveyors Investigative: biologists, chemists Artistic: writers, actors, interior decorators Social: social workers, teachers, therapists Enterprising: salespeople, politicians, reporters Conventional: book-keepers, accountants, engineers

9 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… What Are Young Adults Like? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach In Search of Good Work Similar occupational types are nearby Different types are opposite one another A good mnemonic is: RIASEC Types of Occupations Conventional (Organizing Things) Realitic (Things, not People) Investigative (Ideas, Math, Science) Artistic (Imagining & Creating) Social (People, not Things) Enterprising (People & Ideas, Not Things)

10 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… What Are Young Adults Like? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach In Search of Good Work Types of Occupations Conventional (Organizing Things) Realitic (Things, not People) Investigative (Ideas, Math, Science) Artistic (Imagining & Creating) Social (People, not Things) Enterprising (People & Ideas, Not Things) The greatest predictor of job satisfaction is…a persons overall sense of satisfaction Beyond that, however, people with personalities that match their occupation are still more satisfied Gottfredson & Holland, 1990

11 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… How Does the Individual Traverse Middle Adulthood? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Staying Married SuperfactorsMenWomen Positive emotion-.07*-.15** Negative emotion-.11*-.12** Constraint.11**-.11** from Jockin, McGue, & Lykken (1996)

12 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… How Does the Individual Traverse Middle Adulthood? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Staying Married Specific FactorsMenWomen Well being.05*.02* Social potency-.21**-.18** Achievement ** Alienation-.10**-.14** Control.06.12** Harm Avoidance.09**.15** Traditionalism.16**.25** from Jockin, McGue, & Lykken (1996)

13 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… How Does the Individual Traverse Middle Adulthood? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Staying Married...one might speculate that personality in married couples...explains about a quarter of the variance in divorce risk. This is not an overly imposing figure, perhaps. But in the light of the myriad social, economic, and psychological factors that bear on the probability of a life outcome such as divorce, such a contribution to variance seems considerable (Jockin, McGue, & Lykken, 1996, p. 296).

14 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… How Does the Individual Traverse Middle Adulthood? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Finding Occupational Success Average intelligence quotient of people in a given occupation correlates r =.80 with the prestige of the occupation IQ forms a floor for an occupation. That is, people below the floor cannot do it. No occupation has a ceiling – people of high IQ are found in all occupations.

15 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… How Does the Individual Traverse Middle Adulthood? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Finding Occupational Success Best (non-ability) Predictor of Success at Work Across All Occupations Among the Big Five (Barrick & Mount, 1981): –Extroversion-Introversion –Emotionality (Neuroticism)-Stability –Openness Closedness –Friendliness-Hostility –Conscientiousness-Carelessness*** r =.17, for objective measures

16 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… How Does the Individual Traverse Middle Adulthood? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Finding Occupational Success Large, longitudinal, New Zealand sample (Caspi, Elder, & Bem, 1987) Studied Children with high and low levels of temper tantrums, rated by mothers at ages 8, 9, and 11 In the military (70% entered military), achieved lower rank on average By age 50, less occupational success –In fact, those from a middle-class background were downwardly mobile Nearly twice the divorce rate (40 vs. 22%)

17 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… How Does the Individual Traverse Middle Adulthood? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Finding Occupational Success; Specifics There are also specific factors for occupations Example: Optimism and Electioneering –Candidates who employ an optimistic style in their campaigning won in 18 of 22 presidential elections from 1900 to 1984.

18 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… How Does the Individual Traverse Middle Adulthood? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Finding Occupational Success Adlai Stevensons Nomination Acceptance Speech: That my heart has been troubled, that I have not sought the nomination, that I could not seek it in good conscience, that I would not seek it in honest self-appraisal, is not to say I value it the less.! Eisenhower, Nomination Acceptance Speech: Ladies and gentlemen, you have summoned me on behalf of millions of your fellow Americans to lead a great crusade -- for freedom in America and freedom in the world. Both quoted in Simonton, (1994, p. 253).

19 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… How Does the Individual Traverse Middle Adulthood? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Finding Occupational Success Optimism and Electioneering: Concerns… Of course, happy people tend to process information more superficially than sadder people. So, voters get a certain kind of candidate…

20 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… How Does the Individual Traverse Middle Adulthood? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Finding Occupational Success Assuming a decent intelligence (above 110 for many matters; 120 for scientific work), hard work over many years seems most essential.

21 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… How Does the Individual Traverse Middle Adulthood? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Personality and Health Some suggestive findings: –Hostility and heart disease Type A pattern: competitiveness, hostility, impatience, achievement striving, loud, explosive speech style; may be associated with heart disease Depression may be associated with heart disease, but findings remain controversial. –Difficulty coping with stress Leads to greater likelihood of colds and transient infections –People with negative affect report more symptoms, but no health differences (e.g., longevity) have been reliably detected.

22 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where is Personality Headed in the Conclusion of Life? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach ~ end ~


Download ppt "PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Getting Started Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Personality."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google