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Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 11 Cognition Problem Solving and Creativity Chapter 11.

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Presentation on theme: "Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 11 Cognition Problem Solving and Creativity Chapter 11."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 11 Cognition Problem Solving and Creativity Chapter 11

2 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 11 Introduction problem solving—used when you want to reach a certain goal, but the solution is not immediately obvious and obstacles block your path initial state goal state obstacles thinking—requires you to go beyond the information you were given, so you can reach a goal transformation of knowledge

3 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 11 Understanding the Problem understanding the problem—construct a mental representation of the problem, based on the information provided in the problem and your own previous experience

4 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 11 Understanding the Problem Paying Attention to Important Information identifying and then attending to the most relevant information Bransford and Stein (1984) algebra story problems distracting negative thoughts effective problem solvers read the description of a problem very carefully, paying particular attention to inconsistencies

5 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 11 Understanding the Problem Methods of Representing the Problem Symbols translating words into symbols oversimplification misremembering the problem Matrices matrix—chart showing all possible combinations of items most useful for complex, stable, categorical information

6 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 11 Understanding the Problem Methods of Representing the Problem Diagrams instructions for assembling objects hierarchical tree diagram graphs Visual Images

7 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 11 Understanding the Problem Situated Cognition: The Importance of Context situated-cognition approach—our ability to solve a problem is tied into the specific context in which we learned to solve that problem abstract intelligence or aptitude tests often fail to measure real-life problem solving

8 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 11 Understanding the Problem Situated Cognition: The Importance of Context real-life cognition more complex than traditional cognitive approach information-rich environments social information ecological validity transfer failure

9 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 11 Problem-Solving Strategies algorithm always produces a solution sometimes inefficient exhaustive search—try all possible answers heuristic general rule strategy in which you ignore some alternatives and explore only those alternatives that seem especially likely to produce a solution costs and benefits of using heuristics

10 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 11 Problem-Solving Strategies The Analogy Approach analogy approach—using a solution to a similar, earlier problem to help in solving a new problem cross-cultural research creative breakthroughs

11 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 11 Problem-Solving Strategies The Analogy Approach The Structure of the Analogy Approach determining the real problem problem isomorphs surface features structural features failure to see analogies

12 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 11 Problem-Solving Strategies The Analogy Approach Factors Encouraging Appropriate Use of Analogies hints on comparing problems can reveal structural similarities trying several structurally similar problems before the target problem training to sort problems into categories

13 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 11 Problem-Solving Strategies The Means-Ends Heuristic means-ends heuristic identify the "ends" you want and then figure out the "means" to reach them divide into subproblems reducing the difference between the initial state and the goal state for each subproblem can be used in either forward or backward direction

14 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 11 Problem-Solving Strategies The Means-Ends Heuristic Research on the Means-Ends Heuristic Greeno (1974)—Hobbits-and-Orcs problem organizing a sequence of moves to solve a subproblem sometimes the solution requires temporarily increasing the distance to the goal

15 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 11 Problem-Solving Strategies The Means-Ends Heuristic Computer Simulation computer simulation—computer program that will perform a task the same way that a human would Newell and Simon's General Problem Solver difficulties with ill-defined problems—problems where the goal is not obvious Anderson's ACT model and "cognitive tutors"

16 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 11 Problem-Solving Strategies The Hill-Climbing Heuristic hill-climbing heuristic—when you reach a choice point, choose the alternative that seems to lead most directly toward your goal state useful when only the immediate next step can be seen less direct alternative may have greater long-term benefits encourages short-term goals, rather than long- term solutions

17 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 11 Problem-Solving Strategies Individual Differences: Cross-Cultural Comparisons in Problem-Solving Strategies Güss and Wiley (2007) students in U.S., Brazil, India questionnaire on preferences in problem-solving strategies frequency of use effectiveness ease of use

18 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 11 Cross-Cultural Comparisons in Problem-Solving Strategies

19 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 11 Factors That Influence Problem Solving bottom-up processing top-down processingExpertise expertise—consistent exceptional performance on representative tasks for a particular area Knowledge Base Memory memory skills of experts tend to be very specific chess experts' memory is better only if the information fits a particular schema

20 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 11 Factors That Influence Problem Solving Expertise Problem-Solving Strategies experts more likely to use the means-ends heuristic effectively experts more likely to emphasize structural features when using the analogy approach Speed and Accuracy parallel processing serial processing

21 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 11 Factors That Influence Problem Solving Expertise Metacognitive Skills experts better than novices at monitoring their own problem solving experts better at judging the difficulty of the problem, allocating time, recovering from errors experts underestimate the amount of time novices will require to solve a problem in the experts' area of specialization

22 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 11 Factors That Influence Problem Solving Mental Set mental set—using the same solution from previous problems, even though the problem could be solved by a different, easier method overactive top-down processing Luchin's water-jar problem fixed mindset growth mindset

23 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 11 Factors That Influence Problem Solving Functional Fixedness functional fixedness—assign stable uses to an object and fail to think about the features of the object that might be useful in helping solve a problem Duncker's candle problem emergencies cross-cultural studies

24 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 11 Factors That Influence Problem Solving In Depth: Stereotypes and Problem Solving our stereotypes can influence our beliefs about our own abilities gender stereotypes

25 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 11 Factors That Influence Problem Solving In Depth: Stereotypes and Problem Solving The Nature of Stereotype Threat struggling with a popular stereotype may cause additional anxiety that may lead to less effective problem solving stereotype threat—if you belong to a group that is hampered by a negative stereotype—and you think about your membership in that group—your performance may suffer

26 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 11 Factors That Influence Problem Solving In Depth: Stereotypes and Problem Solving Research with Asian American Females Shih and coauthors (1999) compare the effects of two competing stereotypes using three groups of Asian American women

27 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 11 Factors That Influence Problem Solving In Depth: Stereotypes and Problem Solving Research with Asian American Females Shih and coauthors (1999) (continued) 1.Ethnicity-emphasis condition: One group of participants were asked to indicate their ethnicity and then answer several questions about their ethnic identity. Then they took a challenging math test. These women answered 54% of the questions correctly.

28 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 11 Factors That Influence Problem Solving In Depth: Stereotypes and Problem Solving Research with Asian American Females Shih and coauthors (1999) (continued) 2.Control-group condition: A second group of participants did not answer any questions beforehand. They simply took the challenging math test. These women answered 49% of the questions correctly.

29 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 11 Factors That Influence Problem Solving In Depth: Stereotypes and Problem Solving Research with Asian American Females Shih and coauthors (1999) (continued) 3.Gender-emphasis condition: A third group of participants were asked to indicate their gender and then answer several questions about their gender identity. Then they took the challenging math test. These women answered only 43% of the questions correctly.

30 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 11 Factors That Influence Problem Solving In Depth: Stereotypes and Problem Solving Research with Asian American Females Ambady and coauthors (2001) found similar pattern among Asian American girls reminding them of their gender resulted in a decline in problem-solving scores reminding them of their ethnicity did not

31 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 11 Factors That Influence Problem Solving In Depth: Stereotypes and Problem Solving Research with European American Females O'Brien and Crandall (2003) math test identified as "known to show gender differences" vs. "known to show no gender differences" Johns and coauthors (2005) providing a brief description of stereotype threat greatly reduced gender differences in math-test scores

32 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 11 Factors That Influence Problem Solving In Depth: Stereotypes and Problem Solving Potential Explanations arousal/anxiety and working memory thought suppression reduces working memory capacity interfere with the ability to construct problem- solving strategies

33 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 11 Stereotypes and Problem-Solving

34 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 11 Factors That Influence Problem Solving Insight Versus Noninsight Problems insight problem—seems impossible until sudden solution appears noninsight problem—gradual solution The Nature of Insight gestalt psychologists vs. behaviorists begin with inappropriate assumptions that need to be discarded incubation

35 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 11 Factors That Influence Problem Solving Insight Versus Noninsight Problems Metacognition During Problem Solving Janet Metcalfe (1986)—people's confidence builds gradually for noninsight problems, but shows a sudden leap in solving insight problems "feeling-of-warmth" scale considering previous similar problems as well as the possibility that a different approach might be required thinking "outside the box"

36 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 11 Metacognition During Problem-Solving Figure 11.4 “Warmth Ratings” for Answers That Were Correct, as a Function of Time of Rating Prior to Answering.

37 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 11 Creativity similarities to and differences from other forms of problem solvingDefinitions novelty, originality need to reach some goal useful and appropriate creativity—finding solutions that are novel, high quality, and useful ordinary vs. exceptional thinking

38 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 11 Creativity Approaches to Creativity Divergent Production measure creativity in terms of the number of different responses made moderate correlations between divergent production and other judgments of creativity

39 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 11 Creativity Approaches to Creativity Investment Theory of Creativity "buy low and sell high” produce a creative idea when no one else is interested, then once the idea is popular, move on to a new creative project

40 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 11 Creativity Approaches to Creativity Investment Theory of Creativity (continued) Characteristics of “Wise Creative Investors” intelligence knowledge motivation encouraging environment appropriate thinking style appropriate personality

41 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 11 Creativity Task Motivation and Creativity curiosity intrinsic motivation—desire to work on a task for its own sake extrinsic motivation—desire to work on a task to earn a promised reward The Relationship Between Intrinsic Motivation and Creativity people are most likely to be creative when they are working on a task that they truly enjoy

42 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 11 Creativity Task Motivation and Creativity The Relationship Between Extrinsic Motivation and Creativity students tend to produce less creative projects if they are working on these projects for external reasons extrinsic motivation reduces creativity when it controls you or limits your options extrinsic factors that provide useful information can enhance creativity

43 Algorithms vs Experts - Stereotypes and Problem-Solving U.S. Navy Air Threat Assessment – Liebhaber & Feher, 2002 Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 11

44 Algorithms vs Experts - Stereotypes and Problem-Solving Information to Consider 1. 1.Origin10. Coordinated 2. 2.IFF mode11. Maneuvers 3. 3.Intelligence12. Wings clean 4. 4.Airlane13. Range 5. 5.Altitude14. Course 6. 6.ES15. Own Support 7. 7.Speed16. Visibility 8. 8.CPA17. Weapon envelope 9. 9.Feet wet Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 11 Algorithm - Weigh all of the data.

45 Algorithms vs Experts - Stereotypes and Problem-Solving What Experts Consider 1. 1.Origin 2. 2.IFF Mode 3. 3.Intelligence 4. 4.Altitude 5. 5.Airlane 6. 6.ES Cognition 7e, Margaret MatlinChapter 11 Heuristic - Evaluate “important” data. Experts have schemas for types of aircraft they are likely to encounter. Very efficient and effective, but prone to many biases. See Ch. 12.


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