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Module 10/11 Stream Surveys Stream Surveys – February 2004 Part 4 – Biological Assessment.

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Presentation on theme: "Module 10/11 Stream Surveys Stream Surveys – February 2004 Part 4 – Biological Assessment."— Presentation transcript:

1 Module 10/11 Stream Surveys Stream Surveys – February 2004 Part 4 – Biological Assessment

2 Developed by: Richards, Reed, Ruzycki Updated: February 2004 U3-m10/11d-s2 Objectives Students will be able to:  explain the role of periphyton in determining environmental conditions.  describe methods used to analyze periphyton samples.  explain why macroinvertebrates are used as indicators for water quality.  describe methods used to collect benthic macroinvertebrates.  explain how fish can be used to determine water quality.  categorize and provide examples of common fish types found in streams.  use the index of biological integrity to characterize fish communities in streams and lakes.

3 Developed by: Richards, Reed, Ruzycki Updated: February 2004 U3-m10/11d-s3 Stream assessments  Water quality  Habitat  Hydrologic  Biological  Watershed

4 Developed by: Richards, Reed, Ruzycki Updated: February 2004 U3-m10/11d-s4 Biological assessments

5 Developed by: Richards, Reed, Ruzycki Updated: February 2004 U3-m10/11d-s5 Biological assessments  Aquatic vegetation:  periphyton  macrophytes  Macroinvertebrate sampling  Fish

6 Developed by: Richards, Reed, Ruzycki Updated: February 2004 U3-m10/11d-s6 Stream organism diversity Just a general view of diversity – in Northern Minnesota  there may be roughly 40 species of fish,  species of macroinvertebrates,  and maybe 4000 species of algae.

7 Developed by: Richards, Reed, Ruzycki Updated: February 2004 U3-m10/11d-s7 Periphyton

8 Developed by: Richards, Reed, Ruzycki Updated: February 2004 U3-m10/11d-s8 Periphyton as indicators  Periphyton are used as indicators of environmental condition because they respond rapidly and are sensitive to a number of anthropogenic disturbances, including:  habitat degradation  nutrient enrichment  metals  herbicides  hydrocarbons  acidification

9 Developed by: Richards, Reed, Ruzycki Updated: February 2004 U3-m10/11d-s9 Periphyton Biomass Measurements  Ash-Free Dry Weight  Pigment Analysis  Biovolume Measurement

10 Developed by: Richards, Reed, Ruzycki Updated: February 2004 U3-m10/11d-s10 Periphyton – Sampling methods  One way to scrape a known area is to lay a plastic 35 mm slide (film removed) over the rock and scrape off the material within the slide area scrub area = 2.3cmX3.5cm=8cm2

11 Developed by: Richards, Reed, Ruzycki Updated: February 2004 U3-m10/11d-s11 Rocks don’t always look like they have much on them Nearly all the stuff scrubbed off this one was organic matter –most of it living algae S.Loeb and J.Reuter images Periphyton – Sampling methods

12 Developed by: Richards, Reed, Ruzycki Updated: February 2004 U3-m10/11d-s12 Material from a rock scrub contains macro and micro invertebrates, detritus, fungi, bacteria, as well as algae Periphyton – in situ sampling

13 Developed by: Richards, Reed, Ruzycki Updated: February 2004 U3-m10/11d-s13 Periphyton – III. Preservation methods  Lugols’s iodine can used if the algae of interest are soft bodied forms (i.e. blue-greens and green algae).  If interested only in diatoms, it may be best to preserve in 70% ethanol.  Freeze sediment samples if they are to be analyzed for surficial chlorophyll.

14 Developed by: Richards, Reed, Ruzycki Updated: February 2004 U3-m10/11d-s14 Here’s a portion of the previous sample after being deposited on a glass fiber filter in preparation for chlorophyll extraction or AFDW determination. Periphyton – sample prep

15 Developed by: Richards, Reed, Ruzycki Updated: February 2004 U3-m10/11d-s15 Periphyton – pigment analysis  Chlorophyll extraction:  Tear filter into several pieces  Place in a test tube  Add 10 mLs of 90% acetone  Extract overnight at 4 o C  Chlorophyll analysis  After hr extraction, centrifuge to settle filter debris  Read absorbance or fluorescence of the supernatant

16 Developed by: Richards, Reed, Ruzycki Updated: February 2004 U3-m10/11d-s16 Periphyton – biomass estimation Wet weight Dry weight (dried at 103–105 o C) Ash free dry weight (AFDW) Loss on ignition (LOI) Combust at o C Chlorophyll (extract as per phytoplankton) Particulate organic carbon and/or nitrogen (POC or PON) Muffle furnace

17 Developed by: Richards, Reed, Ruzycki Updated: February 2004 U3-m10/11d-s17 Once you have a measure of chlorophyll or AFDW you’ll need to calculate per unit area. Periphyton – biomass calculations

18 Developed by: Richards, Reed, Ruzycki Updated: February 2004 U3-m10/11d-s18 Aquatic macrophytes  Macrophytes can provide habitat in streams  Bioassessment usually includes  List of species present  An estimate of percent cover

19 Developed by: Richards, Reed, Ruzycki Updated: February 2004 U3-m10/11d-s19 Collecting benthic macroinvertebrates

20 Developed by: Richards, Reed, Ruzycki Updated: February 2004 U3-m10/11d-s20 Aquatic macroinvertebrates as indicators  Play important functional roles in stream ecosystems  Represent a fundamental link in the food web between organic matter resources (e.g., leaf litter, periphyton, detritus) and fishes.  Within specific biogeographical regions, assemblages respond in predictable ways to changes in stream environmental variables.  Because many have limited migration patterns or a sessile mode of life, they are particularly well suited for assessing site-specific effects.

21 Developed by: Richards, Reed, Ruzycki Updated: February 2004 U3-m10/11d-s21 Benthic Macroinvertebrates  Riverwatch protocol  Collection Devices  D-nets  Drift nets  Sweep nets

22 Developed by: Richards, Reed, Ruzycki Updated: February 2004 U3-m10/11d-s22 Macroinvertebrate sampling protocol 1. Locate a safe sampling site within a riffle in a wadable stream. 2. Using a kick net, disturb the substrate in the area upstream of the net for about 2 minutes. 3. Use arm's length as a guideline for area upstream of net to disturb. Empty sample ( a "kick") into a bucket. Repeat until 3 kicks are collected, each from a different location in the riffle.

23 Developed by: Richards, Reed, Ruzycki Updated: February 2004 U3-m10/11d-s23 Macroinvertebrate sampling protocol 4. Samples should all be pooled in the bucket (a "replicate"). Add enough water to fill the bucket about half full. 5. Thoroughly mix contents of bucket to suspend organisms in the water column. Quickly scoop a sample using a subsampler. Transfer this subsample to a white picking tray.

24 Developed by: Richards, Reed, Ruzycki Updated: February 2004 U3-m10/11d-s24 Macroinvertebrate sampling protocol 6. Add water to ice cube tray compartments. Separate similar critters from the white picking tray into ice cube compartments using taxonomic resources as ID references. Sort all organisms in your white picking tray, not just those that are obvious. 7. Continue to subsample the bucket (mix well each time) until at least 100 organisms have been counted (if you like, you're welcome to count more!)

25 Developed by: Richards, Reed, Ruzycki Updated: February 2004 U3-m10/11d-s25 Macroinvertebrate sampling protocol 8. If about 100 critters have been counted before emptying the bucket, examine the "leftovers" for any obvious organisms that escaped sampling, especially those that are not already represented in your count. Include these in the final count. 9. Sample additional locations in the riffle if more organisms are needed (collect additional "replicates"). 10. Count and record the number of individuals from each taxonomic group.

26 Developed by: Richards, Reed, Ruzycki Updated: February 2004 U3-m10/11d-s26 Sampling devices - nets Kick-net D-net Surber sampler drift-net

27 Developed by: Richards, Reed, Ruzycki Updated: February 2004 U3-m10/11d-s27  Dredges  Commonly used to grab a bottom sediment sample in lakes, estuaries and slower moving rivers  Collect soft sediments (mud and muck) for sieving out benthic organisms and also obtaining bulk sediment characteristics  Common types  Ekman  Peterson  Ponar  Quantitative corers  Box corers Sampling devices - dredges

28 Developed by: Richards, Reed, Ruzycki Updated: February 2004 U3-m10/11d-s28 Benthic invertebrates – sample processing  Separating organisms from organic matter and sediments  Sorting into taxonomic groups  Identifying to desired taxonomic level  Data entry

29 Developed by: Richards, Reed, Ruzycki Updated: February 2004 U3-m10/11d-s29 Benthic invertebrates – sample processing  Rinse the sample in a 500  m mesh sieve to remove and fine sediment.  Sticks and leaves can be visually inspected and then discarded.

30 Developed by: Richards, Reed, Ruzycki Updated: February 2004 U3-m10/11d-s30 Benthic invertebrates - Sub sampling  Spread the sample evenly across a pan marked with grids  Randomly select 4 squares, remove the material preserve in jars

31 Developed by: Richards, Reed, Ruzycki Updated: February 2004 U3-m10/11d-s31 Benthic invertebrates - identification  Most organisms are identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level  Lowest taxonomic level depends on the goals of the analysis, expertise, and available funds

32 Developed by: Richards, Reed, Ruzycki Updated: February 2004 U3-m10/11d-s32 Benthic invertebrates – data processing  Metric  An attribute with empirical change in value along a gradient of human influence  In other words, a measurement made to determine if humans have had an impact in a natural system.  Index  An integrative expression of site conditions across multiple metrics. An index of biological integrity is often composed of at least 7 metrics. (Karr and Chu 1997)

33 Developed by: Richards, Reed, Ruzycki Updated: February 2004 U3-m10/11d-s33 Benthic invertebrates - data metrics  Many metrics have been developed for aquatic invertebrates. Richness measures Composition measures Tolerance measures Trophic/habitat measures

34 Developed by: Richards, Reed, Ruzycki Updated: February 2004 U3-m10/11d-s34 Major groups of macroinvertebrates  Orders Coleoptera-the beetles The Crustaceans and Arachnida Diptera-the true flies Ephemeroptera-the mayflies Hemiptera-the true bugs Megaloptera-dobsonflies, alderflies, and fishflies Odonata-dragonflies and damselflies Plecoptera-the stoneflies Trichoptera-the caddisflies The worms

35 Developed by: Richards, Reed, Ruzycki Updated: February 2004 U3-m10/11d-s35 Macroinvertebrate keys  New York Dept Environmental Conservation   US EPA   Save our Stream  Study/Key/MacroKeyIntro.HTML Study/Key/MacroKeyIntro.HTML  Digital key to the aquatic insects of North Dakota   Duluth Streams 

36 Developed by: Richards, Reed, Ruzycki Updated: February 2004 U3-m10/11d-s36 Fish

37 Developed by: Richards, Reed, Ruzycki Updated: February 2004 U3-m10/11d-s37 Fish  Fish and other aquatic vertebrates can indicate stream quality  Extensive life history information is available for many species,  Because many fish are high order consumers, they often reflect the responses of the entire trophic structure to environmental stress  Fish provide a more publicly understandable indicator of environmental degradation  Fish generally have long life histories and integrate pollution effects over longer time periods and large spatial scales

38 Developed by: Richards, Reed, Ruzycki Updated: February 2004 U3-m10/11d-s38 Fish  Varieties  Collection Methods  Seines  Electroshocking  Backpack  Barge or boat

39 Developed by: Richards, Reed, Ruzycki Updated: February 2004 U3-m10/11d-s39 Electroshocking USFWS

40 Developed by: Richards, Reed, Ruzycki Updated: February 2004 U3-m10/11d-s40 Netting  Seines  Slide to be completed by 3/31/04

41 Developed by: Richards, Reed, Ruzycki Updated: February 2004 U3-m10/11d-s41 Major groups of fish  Petromyzontidae - lampreys  Acipenseridae – sturgeons  Amiidae – bowfin  Cyprinidae – minnows, dace, chubs, carp  Catostomidae – suckers  Ictaluridae – bullheads, catfish, madtoms  Esocidae – pike  Umbridae – mudminnows  Umbridae – salmon, trout, whitefish  Gasterosteidae – sticklebacks  Cottidae – sculpins  Moronidae – white perch, white bass  Centrarchidae – bass, sunfish  Centrarchidae – darters, perch, walleye

42 Developed by: Richards, Reed, Ruzycki Updated: February 2004 U3-m10/11d-s42 Fish – trophic designations  Piscivore  Herbivore  Omnivore  Insectivore  Filter feeder  Generalist  Invertivore

43 Developed by: Richards, Reed, Ruzycki Updated: February 2004 U3-m10/11d-s43 Fish: index of biotic integrity

44 Developed by: Richards, Reed, Ruzycki Updated: February 2004 U3-m10/11d-s44 Fish: index of biotic integrity  This index is a scientifically validated combination of measurements concerning fish communities in streams and rivers.  The components of a typical fish IBI fall into three broad categories: 1. fish species richness and abundance, 2. food chain composition and reproductive function, and 3. fish abundance and condition.

45 Developed by: Richards, Reed, Ruzycki Updated: February 2004 U3-m10/11d-s45 Fish: index of biotic integrity  An IBI is expressed as a single index value, based on the measurements of particular characteristics of the stream or river  Because the rivers and streams are physically, chemically and biologically diverse, the measured characteristics are compared to specific reference values for the type and location of river or stream.

46 Developed by: Richards, Reed, Ruzycki Updated: February 2004 U3-m10/11d-s46 Fish: index of biotic integrity  IBI values range from 0 to 100.  A low IBI value indicates the fish community is substantially different from a minimally disturbed stream in the same geographic area.  A high IBI value indicates the fish community is similar to a minimally disturbed stream in the same geographic region

47 Developed by: Richards, Reed, Ruzycki Updated: February 2004 U3-m10/11d-s47 Stream surveys - references  Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations Reports   National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data   Rapid bioassessment protocols for wadeable streams 


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