2Table 11.1: The Violent Crime Clock Based on Federal Bureau of Investigations statistics
3Is This an Act of Aggression? Accidentally injuring someone.Working tenaciously to try to sell a product to a customer.Biting someone on the neck.Swinging a stick at someone but missing.Hurling insults at someone.Deliberately failing to prevent harm.Murdering for money.Hiring someone to break a competitor’s kneecaps.Hitting others while in a rage.
4What Is Aggression?By 1983, there were more than 250 different definitions of aggression.Aggression is defined as behavior that is intended to harm another individualHow do we know someone’s intentions?Aggressive behavior can come in many different forms.
5Language of Aggression Violence refers to extreme acts of aggression.Anger consists of strong feelings of displeasure in response to a perceived injury.Hostility is a negative, antagonistic attitude toward another person or group.
6Types of AggressionInstrumental Aggression: Harm is inflicted as a means to a desired end.Emotional Aggression: Harm is inflicted for its own sake.Are these distinct categories or endpoints on a continuum?
8Figure 11.1: Violence Around the World Based on Federal Bureau of Investigations statistics
9Culture and Aggression Cultures differ with respect to:The forms violence typically takesPeople’s attitudes toward various kinds of aggressionCultures differ in aggression involving children.However, some societies are known for their nonviolence.
11Subcultures Within a Country Aggression varies within particular societies as a function of:AgeClassRaceRegion
12Putting Common Sense to the Test… True or False?In virtually every culture, males are more violent than females.Answer: True…Let’s see why!
13Putting Common Sense to the Test… True or False?For virtually any category of aggression, males are more aggressive than females.Answer: False… Let’s see why!
14Gender and AggressionUniversal findings that men are more violent than women.Differences stable over time and place.Challenges to the notion that men are more aggressive than females.Boys tend to be more overtly aggressive.Girls often are more indirectly, or relationally, aggressive.
17Is Aggression Innate? Instinct Theories Freud: We have a death instinct.Lorenz: Aggression is an innate, instinctual motivation.Problem with instinct theories is their reliance on circular reasoning.
18Is Aggression Innate? Evolutionary Psychology Similarities between Lorenz’s instinct theory and evolutionary psychology.Emphasis placed on genetic survival rather than survival of the individual.Accounts for inhibition of aggression against genetically related others.
19Is Aggression Innate? Evolutionary Psychology (cont.) Why gender differences?Males aggress to achieve and maintain status.Females aggress to protect offspring.What about the historical and cultural diversity of human aggression?Response: Evolutionary and social factors are compatible and complementary.
20Is Aggression Innate? Behavior Genetics Is an aggressive personality type due to genes?Mixed overall results on the heritability of aggression.
21Figure 11.3: Fingers, Testosterone, and Aggression Based on Bailey and Hurd, 2005.
22Is Aggression Innate? The Role of Testosterone Are there specific biological factors that influence aggression?Strong positive correlation between testosterone levels and aggression.But correlation is not causation!
23Is Aggression Innate? The Role of Serotonin The neurotransmitter serotonin appears to restrain impulsive acts of aggression.Low levels of serotonin associated with high levels of aggression.Boosting serotonin can dampen aggressiveness.But is the lack of serotonin an innate cause of aggression?
24Putting Common Sense to the Test… True or False?Children who are spanked or otherwise physically disciplined (but not abused) for behaving aggressively tend to become less aggressive.Answer: False… Let’s see why!
25Is Aggression Learned?Aggressive behavior is strongly affected by learning.Aggression can be positively as well as negatively reinforced.Positive reinforcement: Aggression produces desired outcomes.Negative reinforcement: Aggression prevents or stops undesirable outcomes.
26Punishment and Aggression Punishment is most likely to decrease aggression when it:Immediately follows the aggressive behaviorIs strong enough to deter the aggressorIs consistently applied and perceived as fair and legitimate by the aggressorProblems with using punishment to reduce aggressive behaviors.
27Social Learning Theory Behavior is also learned through the observations of others.Bandura et al.’s (1961) inflatable doll study.Aggression most likely to increase if models are rewarded and not punished for their aggressive behaviors.
28Social Learning Theory (cont.) By watching aggressive models, people:Learn specific aggressive behaviorsDevelop more positive attitudes and beliefs about aggression in generalConstruct aggressive “scripts”Nonaggressive models decrease aggressive behavior.
29Socialization and Gender Differences Males and females are rewarded differently for aggression.Also have different modelsSocial roles have a strong influence on gender differences in physical aggression.Continuity of aggression is less true of females than males.
30Socialization and Cultural Differences Socialization of aggression varies across cultures.e.g., Cultural differences in machismoA culture of honor emphasizes honor and status, particularly for males, and the role of aggression in protecting that honor.Promotes violent behavior
32Putting Common Sense to the Test… True or False?Blowing off steam by engaging in safe but aggressive activities (such as sports) makes people less likely to aggress later.Answer: False… Let’s see why!
33Frustration: Aggression as a Drive Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis:Frustration always elicits the motive to aggress.All aggression is caused by frustration.The motive to aggress is a psychological drive that resembles a physiological drive.Can lead to displacement.Catharsis is the reduction of this motive.
34Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis: Does the Research Support It? Frustration is related to aggression.But frustration does not always produce aggressive inclinations.There are other causes of aggression besides frustration.Is displacement a valid concept?
35Catharsis Viewed as a two-step sequence Aggression reduces the level of physiological arousal.Because arousal is reduced, become less angry and less likely to aggress further.Sounds logical, but is it a myth?
36Problems with Catharsis Imagined aggression or the observation of aggressive models is more likely to increase arousal and aggression than reduce it.Actual aggression can lower arousal levels.But if aggressive intent remains, “cold-blooded” aggression can still occur.Also, if it feels good, more likely to act aggressively again.
37Problems with Catharsis (cont.) Feelings of hostility and anger may persist, and possibly increase.Even relatively low levels of aggression can loosen restraints against more violent behavior.
38Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis Revised (Berkowitz, 1989) Frustration is but one of many unpleasant experiences that can lead to aggression by creating negative, uncomfortable feelings.It is the negative feelings, not frustration itself, that can trigger aggression.Negative feelings can also result from a wide variety of noxious stimuli.
39Figure 11.5: The Link Between Heat and Violence From C.A. Anderson (1989) "Temperature and Aggression: Ubiquitous Effects of Heat on Occurrence of Human Violence," Psychological Bulletin, 106, Copyright (c) 1989 by the American Psychological Association. Adapted with permission.
40Figure 11.6: Temper and Temperature in Baseball From A.S. Reifman, R.P. Larrick, and S. Fein, "Temper and Temperature on the Diamond: The Heat-Aggression Relationship in Major-League Baseball," Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Vol. 17, pp Copyright (c) 1991 by Sage Publications, Inc. Reprinted by permission of Sage Publications, Inc.
41Influences on Aggression Type of emotion (positive or negative)Intensity of arousalRole of excitation transferArousal Affect Model: Aggression is influenced by:Type of emotion produced by a stimulus
43Cognitive Neoassociation Analysis Theory that feelings and thoughts interact.Unpleasant experiences create negative affect.Negative affect stimulates associations connected with anger and fear.How one responds to these automatic thoughts and emotions is influenced by higher level cognitive processing.
44Automatic Cognition: Situational Cues Weapons Effect: The tendency for the presence of guns to increase aggression.Potential aggression-enhancing situational cues are associated with:Successful aggression, orThe negative affect of pain or unpleasantness
45Figure 11.8: Guns, Testosterone, and Hot Sauce: Evidence for the Weapons Effect
46Higher Order Cognition: Cognitive Control Deliberate, thoughtful consideration of the situation can influence aggression.Aggression can be reduced because of mitigating information.Information the person should not be held fully responsible for aggressive actions.Some people exhibit a hostile attribution bias.
47Alcohol and Aggression Alcohol, like high arousal, can impair the cognitive control of aggression.How does alcohol increase aggression?Alcohol reduces anxiety, which lowers inhibitions against aggression.Intoxication causes alcohol myopia, a disruption in the way we process information.
50Putting Common Sense to the Test… True or False?Exposure to TV violence in childhood is related to aggression in later life.Answer: True… Let’s see why!
51The Extent of Media Violence By the end of elementary school, a typical American child will have seen:8,000 murdersMore than 100,000 other acts of violence2003 study found 534 separate episodes of prime-time violence during a 2 week period.The most violent TV shows are targeted to children (e.g., cartoons).
53Immediate Effects of Media Violence Aggressive models increase aggressive behavior among children and adults.Models can be live or on film.Violent imagery in the music industry associated feelings of hostility and aggressive thoughts.Playing violent video games can increase aggressive thoughts and behaviors.
54Long-Term Effects of Media Violence Exposure to TV violence at ages 6-9 positively correlated with aggression as adults.No gender differenceCross-cultural study found relationship between early viewing of TV violence and later aggression.
55How Does Exposure to Media Violence Have Long-Term Effects? Influences values and attitudes toward aggression.Through habituation become desensitized to violence.Depictions of violence can change values and attitudes through cultivation.
57Pornography and Aggression Positive correlation for men between exposure to pornography and reported sexually aggressive behaviors and attitudes.But what is pornography?Often a matter of personal opinion.Pornography refers to explicit sexual material, regardless of its moral or aesthetic qualities.
58Nonviolent Pornography Arousal-affect model revisited.Nonviolent pornography can increase men’s aggression against women.But only when restraints that ordinarily inhibit male-to-female aggression are reduced.Little support for direct causal link between pornography use and sexual aggression.
59Violent PornographyAdding violence to pornography increases possibility of harmful effects.Brings together high arousal, negative emotional reactions, and aggressive thoughts.Male-to-female aggression is markedly increased after exposure to violent pornography.
62Sexual Aggression Among College Students Of the 3,187 females surveyed on 32 college campuses:Over 25% reported having experienced either an attempted or completed rape since age 14.Over 50% of these assaults occurred during a date.Majority of college women and about a third of college men say they have experienced coercive sexual contact.
63Factors Associated with Sexual Aggression Among College Students GenderMen are more likely to engage in coercive behavior in order to obtain sex.Alcohol consumptionAttitudes toward rape and toward women
64Figure 11.14: Alcohol and Perception of Sexual Aggression Marx et al., 1999.
65Putting Common Sense to the Test… True or False?Men are much more likely than women to aggress against their spouses or partners.Answer: False… Let’s see why!
66Physical Aggression Between Partners Partner abuse is a worldwide phenomenon.Higher levels of wife-to-husband violence reported than husband-to-wife abuse.Consequences of aggression between partners tend to be much more damaging to women.Violence between partners caused by multiple factors.
67Child AbuseEstimated over a million children are physically abused and over 150,000 are sexually abused.Most severe abuse is often inflicted by parents and caretakers.Boys suffer more physical abuse than girls do.Mothers are more likely to physically abuse their children.Girls suffer more sexual abuse than do boys.Fathers are more likely to sexually abuse their children.
68Putting Common Sense to the Test… True or False?Adults who as children were abused by their parents are less likely to inflict abuse on their own children than are other adults.Answer: False… Let’s see why!
69The Cycle of Family Violence Intergenerational transmission of domestic violence.But this cycle refers to a greater tendency, not an absolute certainty.
71Reducing Aggression: Situational and Sociocultural Factors Reduce stressors such as frustration, discomfort, and provocation.Teach and model nonviolent responses to frustrations and social problems.Emphasize cooperation over competitiveness.Change cost-reward payoffs associated with aggression.
72Reducing Aggression: Media Effects Censorship?Education may be most effective approach.Increase critical viewing skills.
73Reducing Aggression: Intimate Violence Sex education programs that:Emphasize desirability of being respectful and considerate towards one’s partner.Debunk rape myths.Increase sensitivity.Provide family members with educational and employment opportunities to reduce family violence.