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Personality, 9e Jerry M. Burger © 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for.

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Presentation on theme: "Personality, 9e Jerry M. Burger © 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for."— Presentation transcript:

1 Personality, 9e Jerry M. Burger © 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

2 Chapter 11 The Humanistic Approach: Theory, Application, and Assessment © 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

3 Chapter Outline Roots of humanistic psychology Key elements of the humanistic approach Carl Rogers Abraham Maslow Psychology of optimal experience © 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use

4 Chapter Outline Application: Person-centered therapy and job satisfaction Assessment: Q-Sort technique Strengths and criticisms of the humanistic approach © 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use

5 Roots of Humanistic Psychology Existential philosophy Addresses the meaning of human existence, role of free will, and uniqueness of each human being Existential psychotherapy focuses on existential anxiety Ideas promoted by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow © 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use

6 Key Elements of the Humanistic Approach People are responsible for what happens to them Personal responsibility People become fully functioning individuals when they live their lives as it happens Here and now Therapists provide therapeutic atmosphere that allows clients to help themselves Experience of the individual People are motivated to progress toward some ultimately satisfying state of being Personal growth © 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use

7 Carl Rogers Believed in every individual’s potential to for a fulfilling and happy life Fully functioning person: People who strive and reach an optimal sense of satisfaction in their lives Anxiety is the result of acquiring knowledge that does not coincide with the impression one has about oneself © 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use

8 Carl Rogers When faced with extreme threatening information, one relies on defenses Distortion and denial Conditional positive regard: Atmosphere when admiration is gained when accepted behavior is portrayed Leads to denial of one’s weaknesses Resolved through unconditional positive regard © 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use

9 Abraham Maslow Motives identified by Maslow Deficiency motives: Results from a lack of needed object Satisfied when obtained Growth needs: Not satisfied by finding the object of need Satisfied by expressing the motive © 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use

10 Hierarchy of Needs Categories of needs identified and arranged by Maslow Physiological needs - Hunger, thirst, air, and sleep Must be satisfied before moving to higher level needs Safety needs - Security, stability, protection, structure, order, and freedom from chaos Prominent when the future is unpredictable © 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use

11 Motivation and the Hierarchy of Needs Belongingness and love needs D-love - Need to satisfy the emptiness people experience without it B-love - Experienced and grows as a result of being in the relationship Esteem needs Need to perceive oneself as competent and achieving Need for self-actualization Satisfied when people identify their true self and reach full potential © 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use

12 Figure Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs © 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use

13 Misconceptions About Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Assumption that lower needs must be satisfied before turning to higher needs Description that need hierarchy is universal Means of satisfying a particular need varies across cultures Oversimplification that any behavior is motivated by a single need Behavior is the result of multiple motivations © 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use

14 Study of Psychologically Healthy People Maslow believed that knowing self- actualized people can provide lessons others can follow for fulfilling their true potential Types of psychologically healthy individuals Nonpeakers - Have a clear direction in life Peakers - Less conventional and more concerned with abstract notions © 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use

15 Optimal Experience Moments in which a person’s attention is entirely focused on a activity Referred to as flow Components Activity is challenging and skilful One’s attention is completely absorbed by the activity Activity has clear goals © 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use

16 Optimal Experience Presence of clear feedback Concentration can only be on the current task Achievement of personal control Loss of self-consciousness Loss of sense of time © 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use

17 Application: Person-Centered Therapy Application of Rogerian therapy makes clients more fully functioning and happier Involves creating a proper relationship with clients Open and genuine Unconditional positive regard Reflection - Helping clients understand their own thoughts and feelings © 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use

18 Application: Job Satisfaction Occupations should provide opportunities for personal growth and satisfaction of higher order needs Jobs can satisfy people’s need for belongingness, self-esteem, and respect for others © 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use

19 Application: Job Satisfaction Eupsychian management Rearranging an organization to help employees satisfy higher level needs Careers provide an avenue for personal growth © 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use

20 Assessment: Q-Sort Technique Basic procedure used to assess a wide variety of psychological concepts California Q-Sort Requires the client to sort a deck of 100 self- descriptive cards into nine categories according to his/her real and ideal self Allows the clients to describe themselves © 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use

21 Assessment: Q-Sort Technique Clients whose real and ideal selves are unrelated have zero correlation Negatively correlated if real and ideal selves are at opposite sides Real–ideal self correlations increase as clients move through client-centered psychotherapy © 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use

22 Figure Changing Real and Ideal Self Q-Sorts for a 40-Year-Old Female Client Source: From Rogers, C., International Journal of Social Psychiatry, June 1955; vol. 1: pp. 31–41, Copyright © Reprinted by Permission of SAGE. © 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use

23 Strengths of the Humanistic Approach Emphasis on the healthy side of personality Several aspects have been adopted by therapists from other theoretical perspectives Growth of encounter groups © 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use

24 Strengths and Criticisms of the Humanistic Approach Humanistic psychology adopted in education, communication, and business Organizations promote job satisfaction by taking care of employees’ higher needs Teachers and parents have adopted Rogers’ suggestions for education and child rearing © 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use

25 Criticisms of the Humanistic Approach Reliance on the concept of free will to explain human behavior Key concepts are poorly defined Self-actualization Fully functioning Limited applicability of psychotherapy techniques Naive assumptions about human nature © 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use


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