8 Question of the Day5-11During translation, the ____ moves along the mRNA and builds the amino acid chain with the help of ____ molecules.
9 MutationsMutation – random error or change in a DNA sequence that may affect the whole chromosome or just one geneWhat can cause a mutation? Copying errors by the polymerase, UV radiation, chemicals, virusesAre mutations always bad? NO. Beneficial mutations can lead to evolutionary change.
10 Point Mutation – a change to a single base pair in DNA This kind of error usually changes only one amino acid
11 MutationsFrameshift Mutation – a mutation in which a base or bases are added or deleted from the DNA sequenceThis would cause every codon to be different after that addition / deletion
12 Mutation Examples: Deletions – part of chromosome is lost Insertions – part of the chromosome breaks off and rejoins it’s sister chromatid
13 MutationsNondisjunction – failure of homologous chromosomes to separate properly during meiosis Trisomy – when a gamete (sex cell) has an extra chromosomeSo in humans there would be 47 chromosomesIf the extra chromosome is # 21 in humans = down syndrome
24 = process of making mRNA from DNA Replication = process of making DNA copyDNA= process of making mRNA from DNA= single stranded nucleic acidC_____________= process of making mRNA from DNAProteinD__________= organelle that translatesProtein