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Are You Aware? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 7: The Conscious Self Are You.

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Presentation on theme: "Are You Aware? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 7: The Conscious Self Are You."— Presentation transcript:

1 Are You Aware? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 7: The Conscious Self Are You Aware? Theme and Variation on Topic 7. The Conscious Self This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any image; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.

2 Are You Aware? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 7: The Conscious Self The Lecture and the Book… Chapter 7: The Conscious Self 1.What is the Conscious Self? 2.What Does it Mean for the Self to Be Conscious? 3.Does the Self Possess Free Will? 4.Are there Alternatives to the Conscious Self? 5.How is the Conscious Self Expressed? Lecture 7: Are You Aware? –The Self as Knower –Freuds Ego –Consciousness Definition Evolution –Conscious Flow –Determinism and Free Will –(If time) Unconscious selves

3 Are You Aware? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 7: The Conscious Self Example 1: The Self-as-Knower (W. James) Self-as-Known: Model of Self Self-as-Knower: Awareness –Imagine losing… your memories before this morning sensations of your legs, sensations of your body –How much can you lose, and still be a knower? Can we place agency within the Self-as-Knower? Models of the Self Self as Known Conscious Awareness Self as Knower

4 Are You Aware? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 7: The Conscious Self Freuds Ego The seat of consciousness, for Freud Part of three structures also including the –Id – primitive desires –Superego – social dictates Ego SuperegoId

5 Are You Aware? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 7: The Conscious Self Focus on Freuds Ego Consciousness an internal sense organ Defense Mechanisms protect consciousness from painful thoughts The Preconscious and Rational Thought the ego contains learned information and operates with it in rational terms Access to Motility the ego develops from the body homunculus (the sensory-motor portion of the cerebral cortex that control movement). The ego gives the green or red light to acting in the world

6 Are You Aware? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 7: The Conscious Self Definition of Consciousness Earliest Definition: We both know – as partners in a bridge game know... Later Conception: Two parts of the mind know…

7 Are You Aware? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 7: The Conscious Self Evolution of Consciousness Julian Jaynes believed there were no indications of self-reflection before 400 B.C.E. Before that, people heard voices inside their heads, and believed those voices came from gods. Temple erected to the god Apollo

8 Are You Aware? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 7: The Conscious Self Evolution of Consciousness Modern consciousness evolved when people recognized the internal voices were part of their own minds (as opposed to from gods) People began monitoring, controlling and modifying those internal voices …as well as distracting themselves from them (see photo to right)

9 Are You Aware? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 7: The Conscious Self The Flow Experience …Is a means of structuring consciousness …Its characteristics –Complete concentration –Low self-consciousness –Merging of action and awareness –Timelessness –Clear goals

10 Are You Aware? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 7: The Conscious Self The Flow Experience -- Bringing it About Stressed, Anxious Unchallenged, Bored Low Skill Level High High Challenge Low

11 Are You Aware? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 7: The Conscious Self The Conscious Self Focus on Free Will, Voluntary Action This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any image; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.

12 Are You Aware? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 7: The Conscious Self Is the Self Determined? Or… …can a ghost in the machine make changes?

13 Are You Aware? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 7: The Conscious Self The Sense of Free Will in Decisions Will and Five Types of Decisions (James, W. Vol 2, Chapter on Will, pp ) The reasonable type decision. Matters settle themselves. We wake up, and things seem clear… We…sense… being free in seeing what is right.

14 Are You Aware? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 7: The Conscious Self The Sense of Free Will… 2.Ending hesitation due to outside forces. No way seems better than the other. We grow tired of the inconclusiveness…When outside forces say we must decide, we decide…one way or another, almost at chance. 3.Ending hesitation from within. We can no longer stand trying to figure out the best course of action. Decide now!!! we say – however reckless, and decide we do.

15 Are You Aware? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 7: The Conscious Self The Sense of Free Will… 4.Changes of heart… We suddenly become serious, our conscience awakens (or in some cases we become light and frivolous). Either way, the true answer seems clear. 5.…we ourselves by our own willful act inclined the beam…the feeling of effort accompanies these…dreary resignation…[or the realization that by] murdering one alternative…[how much] he is making himself lose…the sense of inward effort.

16 Are You Aware? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 7: The Conscious Self Determinism vs. Free Will in Religion Calvinism –God is sovereign and chooses things –Because all people have sin, salvation is according to Gods choice –God chooses who is saved, and did so before the creation of the world Arminianism –God wants all people to be saved –Gods election of people to salvation is a product of their religious faith –Salvation will occur if people are sufficiently faithful to the tenets of Christianity

17 Are You Aware? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 7: The Conscious Self Determinism vs. Free Will in Science Deterministic psychology –Freud: Everything is determined by the major parts of the mind: e.g., conscious, unconscious, preconscious –Skinner: Everything is determined by the nature of the organism in interaction with outside control… Free-will position –Pelletier: Indeterminism in physics permits mental events to operate independently of the brain and to influence the brains events –Sir John Eccles: The mind creates fields of spatio-temporal influence.

18 Are You Aware? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 7: The Conscious Self Determinism vs. Free Will Zeno of Citium, the Stoic Philosopher (not to be confused with Zeno of Elias) cited in Chaplin & Krawiec Systems and Theories of Psychology, 1979, pp Believed that everything is fated, determined One day, Zeno discovered a slave who was stealing from him. The slave said According to your very teachings, it was determined that I would steal. Therefore, I am not personally responsible. Zeno replied: It has also been determined that I will beat you.

19 Are You Aware? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 7: The Conscious Self The Ethical Tradition in Western Civilization There exists self-determinism in conduct This conflicts with certain aspects of science Yet, until science proves there is strict determinism, self-determinism – that is, free will, remains viable. From Chaplin & Krawiec (1979), Theories of Psychology pp )

20 Are You Aware? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 7: The Conscious Self Freedom from the Free Will Debate Libets finger raising experiment: –Instruction: Say when you will raise your finger –A negative electrical shift in the brain arises related to raising a finger –300 to 400 milliseconds later, participants said they were going to start People dont know when they exert will! From Chaplin & Krawiec (1979), Theories of Psychology pp )

21 Are You Aware? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 7: The Conscious Self Freedom from the Free Will Debate Wegners cursor control study –Confederate and participant co-controlled cursor –Participant stops on an image by choice –Sometimes the confederate controls it; sometimes not People dont know when they control the cursor!

22 Are You Aware? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 7: The Conscious Self The Conscious Self Focus on Unconscious Alternatives This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any image; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.

23 Are You Aware? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 7: The Conscious Self Are there Unconscious Agencies… Are there some parts of personality that are: –Unconscious –Yet still exert free will? An agency is a part of personality that exerts free will. Usually, agencies are superparts combining many functional areas of personality.

24 Are You Aware? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 7: The Conscious Self Freuds Concept of the Id The it dreams Source of all mental energy Primary process –Dreams –Fantasies –Elicits pleasures –Source of energy Unconscious Mental Energy Sexual desire; Aggressive desire Dreams and Fantasies Play out and experiment with desires Aims of Desire the id identifies what it wants; this information is communicated to the ego

25 Are You Aware? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 7: The Conscious Self The superego Originates around age 3-5 Instills cultural values Developed through identification with parents, and fear of their punishment (Older explanation: Oedipal/Electra complexes) Sometimes conscious, sometimes not Conscience Ego-Ideal (Ideal Self)

26 Are You Aware? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 7: The Conscious Self Alters and Dissociative Identity Disorder The presence of two or more distinct identities or personality states, each with its own relatively enduring pattern of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and self At least two of these identities or personality states recurrently take control of the persons behavior Inability to recall important personal information that is too extensive to be explained by ordinary forgetfulness.

27 Are You Aware? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 7: The Conscious Self Alters and Dissociative Identity Disorder Relationships Among Personalities Called alternate personalities or subpersonalities Switching – sudden and dramatic (growling, twitching, blinking) Various Relationships –Mutually cognizant (all know one another) –Mutually amnestic (no awareness of each other) –One-way amnestic –Etc.

28 Are You Aware? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 7: The Conscious Self A Case Study of Dissociative Identity Disorder Presenting problem: –A mother, Julie, and her son, age 9, are the clients. –The child had been under performing at school and poor social relations Early History of Therapy –Five weeks of family therapy proceed and some progress appears to be occurring

29 Are You Aware? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 7: The Conscious Self On Week 6, Julie says, Doctor, there is someone Id like to introduce to you. The therapist expected her to go to waiting room and introduce someone. Instead, the woman closed her eyes, frowned, and opened eyes saying, I wish Julie would stop smoking, I hate the taste of tobacco. -- Introduced self as Jerrie; Later in hour, introduced Jenny, as 3rd personality. A Case Study of Dissociative Identity Disorder

30 Are You Aware? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 7: The Conscious Self Birth to 3: Original personality : Jenny –Ages 3-7: Physical Welfare neglected; sexually molested by neighbor Age 3: Jenny Invents Jerrie, a tough masculine figure able to cope. –Age 8: parents gave her away as incorrigible Age 8: Jenny Invents Julie, who is more sensitive and less vulnerable to cruelty; Julie knows Jenny, but not Jerrie. A Case Study of Dissociative Identity Disorder

31 Are You Aware? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 7: The Conscious Self Age 18: Jerrie and Julie alternate as external personalities; Jenny is always inside. Age 24: Jerrie marries; adopts Adam from husbands previous marriage A Case Study of Dissociative Identity Disorder

32 Are You Aware? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 7: The Conscious Self JennyJulieJerrie Frightened, shy, vulnerable. Felt she had created two Frankensteins now out of her control; hoped to integrate Julie and Jerrie as best mother for Adam. Best mother, but rather stubborn and very strong individually. Heavy smoker. Julie took LSD and then let Jerrie out to victimize her. Tough, able to cope, homosexual, dressed in masculine fashion. Sophisticated, sure, accomplished in the business world. Doesnt smoke or do drugs. A Case Study of Dissociative Identity Disorder

33 Are You Aware? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 7: The Conscious Self Jerrie told Adam there were two personalities who had contributed to his misery. Adam: Mother is two people who keep going in and out, but both of them love me. He was relieved rather than disturbed. Julie admitted herself to a psychiatric hospital with suicidal depression, but Jerrie talked her way out, and that was the last seen of them. A Case Study of Dissociative Identity Disorder

34 Are You Aware? Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 7: The Conscious Self ~ end ~


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