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1 © 2003 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Session Number Presentation_ID Intelligent Ethernet and EtherNet/IP Deployments Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Presentation on theme: "1 © 2003 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Session Number Presentation_ID Intelligent Ethernet and EtherNet/IP Deployments Cisco Systems, Inc."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 © 2003 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Session Number Presentation_ID Intelligent Ethernet and EtherNet/IP Deployments Cisco Systems, Inc.

2 222 © 2003 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID Why Ethernet? From just 500Kbps10,100, Gig, 10 Gig From limited Many management managementoptions ProprietaryCommon standards From isolation WW connectivity Ethernet... the everlasting advantage of simplicity and total cost of ownership Challenge on the Factory Floor Solution Ethernet From single vendorMultiple vendors

3 333 © 2003 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID Intro to Networking World: Understanding the OSI Model NO.NAMEENCAPS / PDUDEVICES PROTOCOLS NOTES 7 Application Raw Data Software PCs Crayons, Pictures, Writing, Sound Checks availability with comm. partner Ideas, Thoughts 6 Presentation.doc.xls.midi.ppt.jpg.bmp.gif.mp3.ascii.ebcdic Syntax, Compressio n, Formatting Standardized format 5 Session NFS SQL NetBios RPC Establish, manage and terminate sessions Negotiate a session set up 4 Transport Segment TCP UDPWindowing, Buffering Reliable or unreliable 3 Network Packet Routers, PCs IP IPXLogical Addressing, Best path Routed or routing protocols 2 Data Link Frame Bridges, Switches FR, TR, ATM, FDDI, Ethernet, SDLC, ISDN, SNA BIA address, Flow Control MAC address 1 Physical Bits Hubs, Repeaters Cables, Connectors, NIC Cards Like Morse Code

4 444 © 2003 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID Media Transmission Chart NAMEACRONYMLENGTHDATA RATESTANDARD Twisted PairTP100 M10 MBPS802.3 Shielded Twisted PairSTP10 MBPS Coax - Thick500 M10 MBPS Coax - Thin185 M Fast EthernetTP (UTP) Fast E 100 M100 MBPS802.3 Fiber - Multimode2000 M Fiber - Singlemode15000 M Gigabit EthernetGig E

5 555 © 2003 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID Sender Data Link Network Transport Session Presentation Application Physical Receiver Data Link Network Transport Session Presentation Application Physical How the OSI Model Works MEDIA

6 666 © 2003 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID Ethernet – Original Implementations PC APC BPC C PC FPC G PC D PC HPC J PC E Ethernet was originally designed as a bus topology

7 777 © 2003 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID Basic Ethernet Implementation PC APC BPC C PC FPC G PC D PC HPC J PC E Whoever transmits owns the wire! Broadcast Domain

8 888 © 2003 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID Basic Ethernet Implementation PC APC BPC C PC FPC G PC D PC HPC J PC E So, What Happens When Two Data Streams Are Sent At The Same Time? Broadcast Domain and aCollision Domain

9 999 © 2003 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID Ethernet Collisions PC APC BPC C PC FPC G PC D PC HPC J PC E PCs B and D Transmit Simultaneously Broadcast Domain and aCollision Domain

10 10 © 2003 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID Ethernet Collisions PC APC BPC C PC FPC G PC D PC HPC J PC E If both transmit at the same time, there is a Collision Broadcast Domain and aCollision Domain Collision

11 11 © 2003 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID Ethernet Collisions PC APC BPC C PC FPC G PC D PC HPC J PC E When there is a collision, both sides back off (stop, wait a for a random time segment, and re- transmit) Back Off Broadcast Domain and aCollision Domain

12 12 © 2003 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID Random Backoff and Re-Transmission PC APC BPC C PC FPC G PC D PC HPC J PC E Both sides re-transmit successfully Re-send 5 ms. Re-send 7 ms.

13 13 © 2003 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID Watch out for COLLISION DOMAINS What makes up a collision domain? Half Duplex Transmission Ethernet Hubs (creates a shared bus) Avoid designs that create a COLLISION Domain -- Data transmission is not predictable – NOT DETERMINISTIC Deploying Ethernet in a collision domain architecture is NOT acceptable for Manufacturing Control applications!!!

14 14 © 2003 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID Deploying Deterministic Ethernet Networks FULL DUPLEX Ethernet vs. HALF DUPLEX Ethernet Switches vs. Hubs Intelligent Switching vs. basic Switching

15 15 © 2003 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID Half versus Full Duplex transmission Half Duplex One station transmits, other listens. While transmitting, you do not receive, as no one else is transmitting. If someone else transmits while you are transmitting, then a collision occurs Any Receive-while-Transmit condition is considered a collision NON-DETERMINISTIC Full Duplex (standardized in 802.3x) Transmit and receive at the same time. Transmit on the transmit pair, and receive on the receive pairs. No collision detection, backoff, retry, etc Collision Free. No CS, no MA, no CD. Only relationship to HD is frame format & encoding/signaling method DETERMINISTIC

16 16 © 2003 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID Switches vs. Hubs Ethernet 10 One device sending at a time Hub All nodes share 10 Mbps Layer 1 Domain Ethernet Switch Each node has 10 Mbps Backbone Switched Ethernet 10 Multiple devices sending at the same time Layer 2 Domain

17 17 © 2003 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID Shared Ethernet 10 Each node has 10 Mbps Switched Ethernet 100 Ethernet has progressed exponentially since it was first introduced Cost Performance Shared Media vs. Switches Collisions vs. Determinism Requirements for an scalable industrial networking solution go even farther Intelligent Ethernet switches enable personalized bandwidth per port Ethernet Switching Delivers Determinism

18 18 © 2003 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID A C B Mbps Forwards packets based on a forwarding table Forwards based on the MAC (Layer 2) address Operates at OSI Layer 2 Learns a stations location by examining source address Sends out all ports when destination address is broadcast, multicast, or unknown address Forwards when destination is located on different interface Interface Stations AX BX 3 LAN Switch Operation

19 19 © 2003 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID Motors, Drives, Actuators Robotics Sensors and other Input/Output Devices Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) Human Machine Interface (HMI) PC Based Controllers Back-Office Mainframes and Servers (ERP, MES, CAPP, PDM, etc.) Device Level Network Ethernet Office Applications, Internetworking, Data Servers, Storage Corporate IT Network Central NMS Pager Handheld Scanner Wireless Video Apps Video Feed Industrial Ethernet is Extended to the Control Layer

20 20 © 2003 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID Challenges of Implementing Ethernet Ethernet Evolution Intelligent Services in the Network Agenda Availability, QoS, and Security Summary

21 21 © 2003 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID Benefits Enhanced Productivity and Efficiency Reduced Costs Remote Diagnostics Streamlined Network Infrastructure Scalability Challenges Determinism: Is the Control Data always on time? Uptime: Is my network as resilient? Access Control: Are authorized entities the only ones accessing the control traffic and data? The Benefits and Challenges of Ethernet

22 22 © 2003 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID Industrial Ethernet deployments must focus on three key areas for scalable deployments Availability: Insure that network resources are resilient and scalable Quality of Service: Provides assurance of low latency and delay of the Control Data Security: Protect the factory floor data and network resources from threats and/or unauthorized access By implementing these functions, Industrial Networks will institute a solid foundation for supporting incremental applications and solutions Challenges to Implementing Ethernet Can be Addressed

23 23 © 2003 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID Challenges of Implementing Ethernet Ethernet Evolution Intelligent Services in the Network Agenda Availability QoS Security Summary

24 24 © 2003 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID Ring Topology Distribution Core Access Dual Homed Tree Network Design Traditional Redundant Network Designs

25 25 © 2003 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID Logical Industrial Ethernet Template Access/Client Layer- IGMP Snooping will be employed to control multicast Producer/Consumer communication model Distribution/Access Layer D, 802.1W and 802.1S will be employed to ensure layer 2 convergence <= 50ms. VLAN 102 VLAN 103 VLAN 104 VLAN 105 VLAN 101 Core Layer- RMON, CDP,NTP and SNMP will be employed to aid in management. In all instances where applicable a QOS template should be engineered and deployed. A minimum configuration to classify traffic at the access layer must be employed to ensure a QOS template in the future. Backbone Network Cell Zone Cell

26 26 © 2003 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID IEEE 802.1w standard providing sub-second redundant link resilience (Non Timer Based) Eliminate forwarding delay on point-to-point links using explicit handshaking protocol Learning Forwarding Blocking Forwarding 20 sec Listening 15 sec Blocking 802.1d802.1w (p2p link) < 1 sec Proposal-Agreement Handshake What is 802.1w? Inter-Switch Determinism

27 27 © 2003 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID Most Proprietary convergence schemes disable or cannot support Spanning Tree Disabling Spanning Tree can cause loops in the network. Control Networks can now rely on a standards base method for sub-second convergence Backward compatible with 802.1D (Spanning Tree Protocol) allowing for a direct connection with traditional data networks IEEE 802.1w in Control Networks

28 28 © 2003 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID Mbps Producer-Consumer Multicast Traffic Unicast Traffic No. of Control Devices Mbps Traditional Multicast Unicast Traffic Multicast Traffic No. Multicast Users Traditional vs. Producer-Consumer M ulticast Models

29 29 © 2003 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID A Layer 2 switch will flood multicast packets to all ports within the same VLAN by default An Intelligent switch will Snoop or intercept IGMP Joins and Leaves received on interfaces from hosts Traffic is forwarded only to those ports which have Joined the multicast group Traffic continues to be forwarded until the client issues a Leave Message at which time the switch will stop forwarding traffic on that port. When all nodes have left the particular group, the multicast router will prune off the traffic IGMP Snooping and Intelligent Ethernet

30 30 © 2003 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID Without IGMP Snooping hosts (I/O Devices) can be overwhelmed by traffic not addressed to them In a Consumer-Producer Model traffic grows exponentially with the number of hosts unless multicasts are constrained IGMP Snooping provides scalability for Consumer-Producer Data Models by limiting the amount of multicast traffic Performance benefits of the Consumer- Producer model are maintained (all consumers have equal access to data) Mbps Producer-Consumer Multicast Traffic Unicast Traffic No. of Control Devices Multicast with IGMP Snooping IGMP Snooping Summary

31 31 © 2003 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID Challenges of Implementing Ethernet Ethernet Evolution Intelligent Services in the Network Agenda Availability QoS Security Summary

32 32 © 2003 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID Data Collection Mission-Critical (Control) Back Office Configuration (File Transfer) Classification Policing Congestion avoidance What Is Quality of Service (QoS)? QoS enables determinism in Industrial Ethernet deployments

33 33 © 2003 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID Aggregation Speed Mismatch 10 Mbps 1000 Mbps Points of substantial speed mismatch and points of aggregation If a buffer fills it is not possible to place new traffic into it DROPS! Increasing the size of the buffer can help avoid drops but introduces delay Why QoS? Congestion, Control Operational Determinism

34 34 © 2003 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID Control Video Data (Best-Effort) Voice Bandwidth Low to Moderate Moderate to High Low Random Drop Sensitivity High Low High Moderate Delay Sensitivity High Low Moderate to High Jitter Sensitivity High Low High Not All Traffic Is Created Equal

35 35 © 2003 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID Application Device Profiles L2 Data Link L1 Physical IPV4 ToS L3 Network L4 Transport Physical Layer EtherNet MAC/LLC IP TCPUDP Message Routing, Connection Management Data Management Services Explicit Messages, I/O Messages Application Object Library Semi- conductor ValvesDrivesRobotsOther FieldbusSpecific QoSParameters 802.1Q/p CoS Quality of Service and the OSI Model

36 36 © 2003 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID Classification Policing/ Metering Marking Queue/ Schedule Congestion Control INGRESS ACTIONSEGRESS ACTIONS Distinguish Traffic by examining L2-L4 labels and QoS fields. CoS changed depending on trust state at port. Ensure conformance to a specified rate DSCP-CoS or CoS- DSCP mapping 4 queues/port with Priority scheduling QoS classification based on Layer 2/3/4 attributes: Destination MAC Address Ethertype Source / Destination IP Address TCP / UDP Source or Destination Port Number Aggregate QoS Model for Industrial Ethernet

37 37 © 2003 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID An Example: EtherNet/IP ModelUDP ARPIPRARP ICMP OSPF TCP FTPHTTP BOOTP DHCP SMTPSNMP IGMP IGRP IEEE Ethernet Application Data Link Physical Network Transport UDP IP TCP CIP Explicit Messaging Real-time I/O Control Priority on Control Traffic (UDP Port 2222) guarantees that there will not be delay or jitter affecting any control functions such as interlocking Control traffic can be tagged at L2 or L3 depending on the existing network architecture

38 38 © 2003 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID QoS enables low-latency of Control Traffic guaranteeing a deterministic behavior for critical control data L2-L4 packet inspection and tagging should be used to establish traffic priorities Buffer management is a key part of QoS As networks evolve to support more services QoS becomes even more critical QoS is an essential component for scalable deployments QoS Benefits Industrial Network Deployment

39 39 © 2003 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID Challenges of Implementing Ethernet Ethernet Evolution Intelligent Services in the Network Agenda Availability QoS Security Summary

40 40 © 2003 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID Security in IP Networks Any IP network that does not implement the appropriate security mechanism is susceptible to intrusion Intrusion by malicious entities can potentially bring down a network and capture key competitive information Large scale secure EtherNet/IP networks are successfully deployed today in numerous critical services (financial, medical, process control, etc.) Intelligent Ethernet Switches support security features that work at different layers to identify, prevent, and alert malicious or unauthorized activities on the data network

41 41 © 2003 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID Intelligent Ethernet and Security Security Filters Inspection and classification of L2-L4 packets can insure that only the authorized MAC and IP addresses go through the switch. L4 port inspection can insure that only the authorized applications are running. Port Security Provides a means to ensure the appropriate user is on the network by limiting access based on MAC addresses 802.1x authentication Protects network access by allowing RADIUS server to authenticate user allowing/disallowing access to the network

42 42 © 2003 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID MAC Address Notification Provides an alert to a management station so that network administrators know when and where users came on to the network and can take appropriate actions AAA control and central Management SNMPv3 Provides network security by encrypting administrator traffic during SNMP session to configure/troubleshoot switch Secure Shell (SSH) Encrypts administration traffic during Telnet sessions while configuring or troubleshooting switches Intelligent Ethernet and Security

43 43 © 2003 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID Challenges of Implementing Ethernet Ethernet Evolution Intelligent Services in the Network Agenda Availability, QoS, and Security Summary

44 44 © 2003 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID Intelligent Ethernet Enables Reduced operational and capital expense by leveraging a single, common network infrastructure Connectivity and real-time decision making in a secure environment Network availability and reliability While maintaining industrial grade networking and connectivity

45 45 © 2003 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID 45 © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID


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