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PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where Personality Leads Us Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach.

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Presentation on theme: "PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where Personality Leads Us Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach."— Presentation transcript:

1 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where Personality Leads Us Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Where Personality Leads Us… Theme and Variation on Topic 12. Personality Development in Adulthood This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any image; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.

2 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where Personality Leads Us Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach The Lecture and the Book… Chapter 12: Personality Development in Adulthood? 1.What is the Nature of Adult Development? 2.What Are Young Adults Like? 3.How Does the Individual Traverse Middle Adulthood? 4.Where is Personality Headed in the Concluding Parts of Life? Lecture 12: Where Personality Leads Us 1.Adult Stages 2.Dating, Career Choice 3.Marriage, Work Success, & Health 4.Adjusting 5.Optimal development

3 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where Personality Leads Us Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Stage Theories Stages 6 through 8 of Eriksons Eight Stages Stage and Age:PersonalSocial Intimacy vs. Isolation Young Adulthod Forming intimate relationships versus existing alone and in isolation Occupations; organizations Generativity vs. Stagnation Adulthood Creation of a new family; contributing to society vs. repeating life on a day-to-day basis with little growth and giving Occupation; family Ego Integrity vs. Despair Maturity Positive sense of self as giving, productive vs. inability to accept his or her life Family; occupation; institutions

4 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where Personality Leads Us Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach A Portion of Levinsons Adult Stage Model StageAgesDevelopmental tasksPossible Outcomes Entering the adult world 22-28Test out links between valued self and society *Explore possibilities/ keep options open *Create a stable life structure *create loose structure w/o stability, not rooted *loose at beginning and firm up commitments *commit strongly early and question it later Age 30 transition 28-33*Work out flaws and limits of early adult life *Revise entry into adulthood before too late *excitement: getting oneself together *smooth beginning, with enrichment *Crisis: life intolerable; difficult to change; divorce, threat to own life

5 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where Personality Leads Us Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Finding a Desirable Partner Do the number of relationships matter? Do people learn from them? …There is no relationship betweem dating relationships and success in marriage. Success at dating can be defined in many different ways –Number of relationships –Commitment to a single relationship –Intimacy in a relationship

6 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where Personality Leads Us Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Finding a Desirable Partner Matters are different for men and women. Relationships Divide into Different Levels: –Early Dating: Most superficial desires –Commitment: Value correspondence –Marriage/Domestic Partners: Serious role congruence (can you work as a team)

7 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where Personality Leads Us Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Finding a Desirable Partner Men write about their occupational status and education They seek attractive, youthful partners Women write about their attractiveness & youth They seek men of high occupational status and education

8 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where Personality Leads Us Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Finding a Desirable Partner People choose as mates those who are more similar to them than other random people. Particularly true of: –Religion –Social habits (e.g., drinking) –Sensation seeking –Conceptions of marriage –Family background –Intelligence (r =.49)

9 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where Personality Leads Us Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach In Search of Good Work Holland Occupational Hexagram Realistic: farmers, mechanics, surveyors Investigative: biologists, chemists Artistic: writers, actors, interior decorators Social: social workers, teachers, therapists Enterprising: salespeople, politicians, reporters Conventional: book-keepers, accountants, engineers

10 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where Personality Leads Us Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach In Search of Good Work Similar occupational types are nearby Different types are opposite one another A good mnemonic is: RIASEC Types of Occupations Conventional (Organizing Things) Realitic (Things, not People) Investigative (Ideas, Math, Science) Artistic (Imagining & Creating) Social (People, not Things) Enterprising (People & Ideas, Not Things)

11 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where Personality Leads Us Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach In Search of Good Work Types of Occupations Conventional (Organizing Things) Realitic (Things, not People) Investigative (Ideas, Math, Science) Artistic (Imagining & Creating) Social (People, not Things) Enterprising (People & Ideas, Not Things) The greatest predictor of job satisfaction is…a persons overall sense of satisfaction Beyond that, however, people with personalities that match their occupation are still more satisfied Gottfredson & Holland, 1990

12 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where Personality Leads Us Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Staying Married SuperfactorsMenWomen Positive emotion-.07*-.15** Negative emotion-.11*-.12** Constraint.11**-.11** from Jockin, McGue, & Lykken (1996)

13 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where Personality Leads Us Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Staying Married Specific FactorsMenWomen Well being.05*.02* Social potency-.21**-.18** Achievement-.07-.11** Alienation-.10**-.14** Control.06.12** Harm Avoidance.09**.15** Traditionalism.16**.25** from Jockin, McGue, & Lykken (1996)

14 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where Personality Leads Us Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Staying Married...one might speculate that personality in married couples...explains about a quarter of the variance in divorce risk. This is not an overly imposing figure, perhaps. But in the light of the myriad social, economic, and psychological factors that bear on the probability of a life outcome such as divorce, such a contribution to variance seems considerable (Jockin, McGue, & Lykken, 1996, p. 296).

15 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where Personality Leads Us Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Finding Occupational Success Average intelligence quotient of people in a given occupation correlates r =.80 with the prestige of the occupation IQ forms a floor for an occupation. That is, people below the floor cannot do it. No occupation has a ceiling – people of high IQ are found in all occupations.

16 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where Personality Leads Us Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Finding Occupational Success Best (non-ability) Predictor of Success at Work Across All Occupations Among the Big Five (Barrick & Mount, 1981): –Extroversion-Introversion –Emotionality (Neuroticism)-Stability –Openness Closedness –Friendliness-Hostility –Conscientiousness-Carelessness*** r =.17, for objective measures

17 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where Personality Leads Us Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Finding Occupational Success Large, longitudinal, New Zealand sample (Caspi, Elder, & Bem, 1987) Studied Children with high and low levels of temper tantrums, rated by mothers at ages 8, 9, and 11 In the military (70% entered military), achieved lower rank on average By age 50, less occupational success –In fact, those from a middle-class background were downwardly mobile Nearly twice the divorce rate (40 vs. 22%)

18 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where Personality Leads Us Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Finding Occupational Success; Specifics There are also specific factors for occupations Example: Optimism and Electioneering –Candidates who employ an optimistic style in their campaigning won in 18 of 22 presidential elections from 1900 to 1984.

19 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where Personality Leads Us Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Finding Occupational Success Adlai Stevensons Nomination Acceptance Speech: That my heart has been troubled, that I have not sought the nomination, that I could not seek it in good conscience, that I would not seek it in honest self-appraisal, is not to say I value it the less.! Eisenhower, Nomination Acceptance Speech: Ladies and gentlemen, you have summoned me on behalf of millions of your fellow Americans to lead a great crusade -- for freedom in America and freedom in the world. Both quoted in Simonton, (1994, p. 253).

20 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where Personality Leads Us Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Finding Occupational Success Optimism and Electioneering: Concerns… Of course, happy people tend to process information more superficially than sadder people. So, voters get a certain kind of candidate…

21 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where Personality Leads Us Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Finding Occupational Success Assuming a decent intelligence (above 110 for many matters; 120 for scientific work), hard work over many years seems most essential.

22 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where Personality Leads Us Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Personality and Health Some suggestive findings: –Hostility and heart disease Type A pattern: competitiveness, hostility, impatience, achievement striving, loud, explosive speech style; may be associated with heart disease Depression may be associated with heart disease, but findings remain controversial. –Difficulty coping with stress Leads to greater likelihood of colds and transient infections –People with negative affect report more symptoms, but no health differences (e.g., longevity) have been reliably detected.

23 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where Personality Leads Us Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Personality Development in Adulthood Focus on Adjusting Course and Concluding Aims This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any image; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.

24 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where Personality Leads Us Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Who Adjusts Course? Who Changes the Most? (Block, 1971) In a longitudinal study of the Berkeley Guidance and Oakland Growth Studies, Block used a Q-sort measure of adjustment to compare changers and non- changers between adolescence and adulthood. Those most stable: More intellectually successful More emotionally successful More socially successful Better adjusted

25 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where Personality Leads Us Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Who Adjusts Course? Who Changed? (Block, 1971) Those who were less mature, and underwent further maturation (late bloomers). Individuals who are more deviant are pressured to change: Others want them to approach the biosocial norm. Still, their personalities did not necessarily become more pleasant. Sometimes, the person looks different because norms change: Women labeled rebellious in the period 1945- 1960, looked more adjusted in the period of the late 1960s, after the beginning of the womens movement.

26 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where Personality Leads Us Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Who Adjusts Course? Ryffs Model of Well Being High Environmental Mastery Low Personal Growth ConserversAchieversHigh Personal Growth DepletedSeekers Low Environmental Mastery

27 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where Personality Leads Us Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Who Adjusts Course? Examples of three types (from Helson & Srivastava) Cathy: ConserverSarah: SeekerAndrea: Achiever *Married young to man approved by family *Supported his career problems by going to work in people-oriented job *Quit after 20 years of high competence because people disrespectful *Much sought out by church & commun. groups *Described by interviewer as unusually perceptive, but with tendency to disengage abruptly *Dropped out of graduate school when unexpectedly became pregnant *Worked at becoming more sociable *In helping profession, where must work around bureaucracy *Hopes to write great American novel *Did not want to marry or have children *Straight from college to professional school *Continued career progress but drank heavily *Overcame drinking at age 40 *Married a charming and successful man, good relations with his children *Retired, and had second career as volunteer

28 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where Personality Leads Us Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Who Adjusts Course? Traversing Middle Adulthood: Helson Study AchievsConservsSeekersDepleted Life Satisfaction.11.41.09-.61 Convent. Adjust -.53.45.19-.11 Polit. Liber. -.04-.58.74-.12 Occup. Creativity.22-.58.52-.16 Satis. with job secur./ben..34.20-.46-.08

29 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where Personality Leads Us Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Good Functioning –One definition of a good personality is simply freedom from psychopathology. Freud: To Love and to Work DSM-IV [free from] Social and occupational dysfunction –Is that enough?

30 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where Personality Leads Us Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Adding Strengths –Another approach is to identify positive personality traits –The individual is assessed depending upon the number of such positive characteristics. –Some examples include: Subjective Well-Being: A person s positive emotional and intellectual evaluation that he or she is experiencing a good life, that that he or she is likable, and that the life he or she lives is satisfying (Diener, Lucas, & Oishi, 2002, p. 63).

31 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where Personality Leads Us Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Adding Strengths More examples of positive traits: –Resilience: A person s capacity to adjust and adapt positively in the face of significant challenges, bad luck, and risk (Masten & Reed, 2002, p. 74) –Creativity (Simonton, 2002, p. 192). A person s independent, nonconformist perspective, coupled with wide interests and openness to new experiences, and cognitive flexibility –Humility: A person s ability to accurately assess his or her strengths and weaknesses, to acknowledge his or her limitations in social contexts, and to de-emphasize her or his self in social settings (Tangney, 2002, p. 411).

32 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where Personality Leads Us Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Strengths, and Weaknesses, in Context There are issues with counting strengths Some strengths contradict one another –…creativity and loyalty… –...empathy and fairness... –…courage and realistic caution... Other strengths can be weaknesses in some contexts –Optimism –Courage Some weaknesses can be strengths: –Defensive Pessimism

33 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where Personality Leads Us Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Strengths, and Weaknesses, in Context Defensive Pessimism defined (25% most extreme in this regard): –Set low standards for themselves –Consider all the possible negative outcomes –Are highly anxious –Perform so as to cope with negative possible outcomes Perform as well as optimists – and better than when they (pessimists) use more optimistic approaches.

34 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where Personality Leads Us Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Optimal Types Self-Actualized Person A global ability to perceive reality, be flexible, and appreciate the world (my interpretation) Prevalence: Non-existent before age 35 or so

35 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where Personality Leads Us Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Optimal Types Characteristics of Maslows Self- Actualized Person Efficient Reality Perception Acceptance Spontaneity Problem Centering Detachment

36 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where Personality Leads Us Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Optimal Types Characteristics of Maslows Self- Actualized Person (cont.) Autonomy (Gilligan: Relatedness?) Freshness of Appreciation Peak Experiences Special Relationships

37 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where Personality Leads Us Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Optimal Types Characteristics of Maslows Self- Actualized Person (cont.) Gemeinschaftsgefuhl (helping the world) Democratic Character Unhostile Humor

38 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where Personality Leads Us Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach ~ end ~

39 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where Personality Leads Us Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach ~ end ~


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