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PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Getting Started Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Personality.

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Presentation on theme: "PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Getting Started Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Personality."— Presentation transcript:

1 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Getting Started Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Personality Development in Adulthood Focus on Adjusting Course and Concluding Aims This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any image; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.

2 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… How Does the Individual Traverse Middle Adulthood? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Who Adjusts Course? Who Changes the Most? (Block, 1971) In a longitudinal study of the Berkeley Guidance and Oakland Growth Studies, Block used a Q-sort measure of adjustment to compare changers and non- changers between adolescence and adulthood. Those most stable: More intellectually successful More emotionally successful More socially successful Better adjusted

3 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… How Does the Individual Traverse Middle Adulthood? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Who Adjusts Course? Who Changed? (Block, 1971) Those who were less mature, and underwent further maturation (late bloomers). Individuals who are more deviant are pressured to change: Others want them to approach the biosocial norm. Still, their personalities did not necessarily become more pleasant. Sometimes, the person looks different because norms change: Women labeled rebellious in the period , looked more adjusted in the period of the late 1960s, after the beginning of the womens movement.

4 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… How Does the Individual Traverse Middle Adulthood? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Who Adjusts Course? Ryffs Model of Well Being High Environmental Mastery Low Personal Growth ConserversAchieversHigh Personal Growth DepletedSeekers Low Environmental Mastery

5 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… How Does the Individual Traverse Middle Adulthood? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Who Adjusts Course? Examples of three types (from Helson & Srivastava) Cathy: ConserverSarah: SeekerAndrea: Achiever *Married young to man approved by family *Supported his career problems by going to work in people-oriented job *Quit after 20 years of high competence because people disrespectful *Much sought out by church & commun. groups *Described by interviewer as unusually perceptive, but with tendency to disengage abruptly *Dropped out of graduate school when unexpectedly became pregnant *Worked at becoming more sociable *In helping profession, where must work around bureaucracy *Hopes to write great American novel *Did not want to marry or have children *Straight from college to professional school *Continued career progress but drank heavily *Overcame drinking at age 40 *Married a charming and successful man, good relations with his children *Retired, and had second career as volunteer

6 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… How Does the Individual Traverse Middle Adulthood? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Who Adjusts Course? Traversing Middle Adulthood: Helson Study AchievsConservsSeekersDepleted Life Satisfaction Convent. Adjust Polit. Liber Occup. Creativity Satis. with job secur./ben

7 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where is Personality Headed in the Conclusion of Life? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Good Functioning –One definition of a good personality is simply freedom from psychopathology. Freud: To Love and to Work DSM-IV [free from] Social and occupational dysfunction –Is that enough?

8 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where is Personality Headed in the Conclusion of Life? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Adding Strengths –Another approach is to identify positive personality traits –The individual is assessed depending upon the number of such positive characteristics. –Some examples include: Subjective Well-Being: A person s positive emotional and intellectual evaluation that he or she is experiencing a good life, that that he or she is likable, and that the life he or she lives is satisfying (Diener, Lucas, & Oishi, 2002, p. 63).

9 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where is Personality Headed in the Conclusion of Life? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Adding Strengths More examples of positive traits: –Resilience: A person s capacity to adjust and adapt positively in the face of significant challenges, bad luck, and risk (Masten & Reed, 2002, p. 74) –Creativity (Simonton, 2002, p. 192). A person s independent, nonconformist perspective, coupled with wide interests and openness to new experiences, and cognitive flexibility –Humility: A person s ability to accurately assess his or her strengths and weaknesses, to acknowledge his or her limitations in social contexts, and to de-emphasize her or his self in social settings (Tangney, 2002, p. 411).

10 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where is Personality Headed in the Conclusion of Life? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Strengths, and Weaknesses, in Context There are issues with counting strengths Some strengths contradict one another –…creativity and loyalty… –...empathy and fairness... –…courage and realistic caution... Other strengths can be weaknesses in some contexts –Optimism –Courage Some weaknesses can be strengths: –Defensive Pessimism

11 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where is Personality Headed in the Conclusion of Life? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Strengths, and Weaknesses, in Context Defensive Pessimism defined (25% most extreme in this regard): –Set low standards for themselves –Consider all the possible negative outcomes –Are highly anxious –Perform so as to cope with negative possible outcomes Perform as well as optimists – and better than when they (pessimists) use more optimistic approaches.

12 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where is Personality Headed in the Conclusion of Life? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Optimal Types Self-Actualized Person A global ability to perceive reality, be flexible, and appreciate the world (my interpretation) Prevalence: Non-existent before age 35 or so

13 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where is Personality Headed in the Conclusion of Life? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Optimal Types Characteristics of Maslows Self- Actualized Person Efficient Reality Perception Acceptance Spontaneity Problem Centering Detachment

14 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where is Personality Headed in the Conclusion of Life? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Optimal Types Characteristics of Maslows Self- Actualized Person (cont.) Autonomy (Gilligan: Relatedness?) Freshness of Appreciation Peak Experiences Special Relationships

15 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where is Personality Headed in the Conclusion of Life? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Optimal Types Characteristics of Maslows Self- Actualized Person (cont.) Gemeinschaftsgefuhl (helping the world) Democratic Character Unhostile Humor

16 PART 4: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY DEV… Where is Personality Headed in the Conclusion of Life? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach ~ end ~


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