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United States Fire Administration Chief Officer Training Curriculum Operations Module 11: Structural Collapse Simulation Exercise.

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Presentation on theme: "United States Fire Administration Chief Officer Training Curriculum Operations Module 11: Structural Collapse Simulation Exercise."— Presentation transcript:

1 United States Fire Administration Chief Officer Training Curriculum Operations Module 11: Structural Collapse Simulation Exercise

2 United States Fire Administration Ops 11-2 Objectives  Identify various resource levels, types, and capabilities used for structural collapse incidents  Determine types and levels of structural collapse risks  Determine levels of capability for a structural collapse incident  Establish incident objectives

3 United States Fire Administration Ops 11-3 Objectives (continued)  Determine strategies  Select tactics  Identify and request resources  Establish an appropriate ICS organization to manage a structural collapse incident

4 United States Fire Administration Ops 11-4 Overview  Basic knowledge of factors involved in a structural collapse incident  Appreciation for the complexity of structural collapse incidents  Practice of command skills required to manage structural collapse incidents  Appreciation for the need for effective incident management

5 United States Fire Administration Ops 11-5 Collapse Caused by Fire  Localized or catastrophic  Life hazard to: –Firefighters –Civilians  Operations may have to continue – Firefighting strategy may or may not have to change –Collateral damage to rigs, exposures, fire extension –Water from firefighting adding weight

6 United States Fire Administration Ops 11-6 Localized Collapse Localized collapse –Minor—part of a ceiling assembly –Substantial—a roof, ceiling or floor assembly Catastrophic collapse –Fire damage causes structural members to fail –Heating of structural members leads to collapse –Explosions or backdrafts damage structural elements

7 United States Fire Administration Ops 11-7 Vehicle Accidents  Structural damage usually localized –Can involve bearing walls or supports –Hazards of other weakened building components –Damage to building utilities –May cause fire  Victims  Extrication problems

8 United States Fire Administration Ops 11-8 Building Alterations  Approved alterations (permit posted) –Alterations done with approved plans but done incorrectly –Pre-existing but unknown weaknesses  “Owner approved” alterations –Alterations done without permits –Structural members removed –Bearing walls removed  Demolition

9 United States Fire Administration Ops 11-9 Natural Hazards  Earthquake  Wind –Tornadoes –Hurricanes or typhoons –Trees down into building  Precipitation –Rain –Snow

10 United States Fire Administration Ops Low Probability/High Risk  Complex rescues  Dangerous rescues  Time-critical situations  Interaction of different levels of rescue capability

11 United States Fire Administration Ops Rescuer Hazards Potential threats include:  Physical  Medical  Environmental  External  Psychological

12 United States Fire Administration Ops Unsafe Conditions  Unstable building/secondary collapse  Confined space  Flammable or toxic hazard  Oxygen-deficient atmosphere  Ignition source  Sharp, unstable, or irregular surface

13 United States Fire Administration Ops Safety Considerations  Preplanning and training  Use of ICS  Establishment of a Safety Officer, safety plan, and Rapid Intervention Crew  Use of a personnel accountability system  Require appropriate protective clothing and equipment

14 United States Fire Administration Ops Response Operations  Search for live victims  Rescue live victims—realize time a critical factor for survival  Consider risk/benefit factors –Structural stability/instability  Consider safety factors  Continue firefighting operations

15 United States Fire Administration Ops Recovery Operations  Remove deceased victims and personal property  Realize time is not critical  Use additional safety precautions (when possible)  Use critical incident stress management  Work with law enforcement and coroner in investigation and recovery operations  Stabilize and secure the site

16 United States Fire Administration Ops Levels of Capability/Resources  Local fire department  FEMA National US&R Task Forces  Spontaneous volunteers  Other agencies

17 Private Sector Resources Community Emergency Response Team (CERT)

18 Private Sector Resources Search Dogs and Handlers

19 Private Sector Resources Private Contractors

20 Private Sector Resources Structural Engineers

21 Private Sector Resources Industry Teams

22 United States Fire Administration Ops US&R Resource Types  US&R Task Force  Type I (Heavy)—concrete, steel, confined space  Type II (Medium)—heavy timber, masonry  Type III (Light)—basic rope rescue  Type IV (Basic)—surface rescue

23 US&R Task Force

24 Type 1: Heavy Rescue Company—Heavy Rescue Capability

25 Type 2: Truck Company—Medium Rescue Capability

26 Type 3: Engine Company—Light Rescue Capability

27 United States Fire Administration Ops Coordinating with Other Agencies  The incident (IC and agency representative(s))  Department dispatch center or department operating center  Local Emergency Operations Center (EOC)  County EOC  State multi-agency coordination system and EOC  Federal coordinating system  City level (mayor)

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33 United States Fire Administration Ops Operational Considerations  Time  Location  Occupancy (hazards, type, multiple)  Height and area (six sides)  Size of collapse area and structural hazards  Fire and hazardous materials problems

34 United States Fire Administration Ops Operational Considerations (continued)  Exposures  Utilities (gas, water, electricity)  Weather  Victims  Traffic  Rail

35 United States Fire Administration Ops  Personnel  Incident command  Communications  Medical  Safety  Special equipment Operational Considerations (continued)

36 United States Fire Administration Ops Operational Considerations (continued)  Construction equipment  Shoring materials  Information updates  Staging areas  Responder rest, recovery, and relief  Secondary collapse

37 United States Fire Administration Ops Life Safety and Personnel Considerations  Collapse hazards: –Structural failure –Nonstructural failure –Nonstructural damage –Environmental conditions “Low occurrence/high-risk incidents injure and kill firefighters.”

38 United States Fire Administration Ops Personnel Accountability  IC must ensure an accountability system in place early during initial response  Accurate information must be provided on assignments and locations of: –Companies –Crews –Personnel

39 United States Fire Administration Ops Scene Safety  Provide leadership and organization  Obtain accurate information and develop plan  Make safety top priority  Assign ISO and Rapid Intervention Crew (RIC)  Provide appropriate protective measures and safety equipment

40 United States Fire Administration Ops Scene Safety (continued)  Rotate crews and provide rehabilitation  Plan for contingencies  Monitor, isolate, confine, contain, and mitigate hazards  Communicate and use chain of command  Hold periodic briefings  Plan for injuries and stress management

41 United States Fire Administration Ops Question... “What actions should the IC take when managing the scene of a structural collapse?”

42 United States Fire Administration Ops Initial Response

43 United States Fire Administration Ops Expanded Response Task Force 1 Strike Team Ambulance (Medical) US&R Strike Team (Search A US&R (Rescue) (Search) (Medical) B (Scene) Law (Scene) Law Enforcement (Traffic) Law Enforcement Law Works Incident Safety Staging Information Officer (Rescue) Engine (Support) (Medical) Ambulance Division Task Force 2 (Rescue) Strike Team Engine Ambulance Division Law Enforcement Enforcement (Traffic) Group Debris Removal Public Commander Officer RIC

44 United States Fire Administration Ops Detailed IAP  Developed for each operational period  Essential elements include: –Specific detailed objectives –Tactics (to meet objectives) –Resource assignments –Incident organization –Maps –Plans for communications, medical, safety, and traffic

45 United States Fire Administration Ops Operational Periods  Planned time periods needed to achieve objectives  May require shorter operational periods due to rapidly changing incidents

46 United States Fire Administration Ops Logistical Support Long-term needs:  Lighting  Large food/water supply  Major equipment, repair, supply function  Special equipment acquisitions  Other support functions (specific to a structural collapse incident)

47 United States Fire Administration Ops Incident Facilities  Multiple staging areas  Large base for personnel and equipment support  Supply and equipment distribution system  Expanded Incident Command Post (ICP)  Larger triage and treatment areas  Morgue  Decontamination area

48 Staging Air Operations Division A B Fire Suppression Group US&R Group #1 US&R Group #2 Search & Rescue Branch Scene Security Group Traffic Control Group Evacuation Group Law Enforcement Branch Heavy Equipment Group Public Utilities Debris Removal Public Works Branch Medical Group Patient Transportation Group Multi- casualty Branch Office Division Restaurant Division Recon Group Exposure Branch Operations Section Situation Status Resource Status Unit Documentation Unit Victim Locator Unit US&R Technical Specialist Planning Section Communication Unit Medical Unit Food Unit Logistics Section Time Unit Procurement Unit Finance/ Administration Section Incident Command Fire Law Enforcement Liaison Safety Information RIC

49 United States Fire Administration Ops Extended ICS Organization During a multibranch response: During a multibranch response:  The IC assigns Logistics and Finance/ Administration Chiefs  Operations has established five branches  Planning, Logistics, and Finance/ Administration have several operational units

50 United States Fire Administration Ops Interaction with EOC  Activated to support response agencies and coordinate multi-agency operations  Local government EOCs are central point for coordination within and outside jurisdiction  Field level coordination may go through dispatch

51 United States Fire Administration Ops  May be managed using five primary ICS functions  IC normally interacts with EOC OSC  ICS section chiefs may interact directly with EOC section chiefs Interaction with EOC (continued)

52 United States Fire Administration Ops Activity 11.1: Structural Collapse: Large Tree Down into an Apartment Building Activity 11.1: Structural Collapse: Large Tree Down into an Apartment Building

53 United States Fire Administration Ops Module Summary  Perform risk-hazard analysis to determine resource requirements  Perform scene assessment to develop response plan  Expand response as incident grows


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