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POWERPOINT ® LECTURE SLIDE PRESENTATION by ZARA OAKES, MS, The University of Texas at Austin Additional text by J Padilla exclusively for Physiology 31.

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Presentation on theme: "POWERPOINT ® LECTURE SLIDE PRESENTATION by ZARA OAKES, MS, The University of Texas at Austin Additional text by J Padilla exclusively for Physiology 31."— Presentation transcript:

1 POWERPOINT ® LECTURE SLIDE PRESENTATION by ZARA OAKES, MS, The University of Texas at Austin Additional text by J Padilla exclusively for Physiology 31 at ECC Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY AN INTEGRATED APPROACH FOURTH EDITION DEE UNGLAUB SILVERTHORN UNIT 2 PART A 11 Efferent Division: Autonomic and Somatic Motor Control

2 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings About this Chapter  Autonomic division  Antagonistic controls  Somatic motor division  CNS control of skeletal muscles through neuromuscular junctions ****** Review the overall organization of the NS

3 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Autonomic Division: Homeostasis  Antagonistic branches  Parasympathetic  “Rest and digest”  Restore body function  Sympathetic  “Fight or flight”  Energetic action

4 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Autonomic Division: Homeostasis Figure 11-1

5 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 11-2 Autonomic Pathways  Coordination of homeostatic responses  Autonomic  Endocrine  Behavioral

6 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Autonomic Control Centers  Hypothalamus  Water balance, temperature, and hunger  Pons  Respiration, cardiac, and urinary  Medulla  Respiration Figure 11-3

7 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Two Efferent Neurons in Series Autonomic pathways Figure 11-4

8 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Two Efferent Neurons in Series  CNS- tracts coming from brain to spinal cord  Preganglionic neuron- exits spinal cord and goes to ganglion  Ganglion- sympathetic chain ganglion runs along vertebral colum  Postganglionic neuron- runs down spinal nerve  Target tissue- can be muscle or gland

9 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sympathetic versus Parasympathetic Figure 11-7

10 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 11-5 Antagonistic Control Autonomic sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways Notice the mention of antagonistic responses & receptors involved

11 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sympathetic vs Parasympathetic

12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings III. Nerves- these are bundles of axons (nerve fibers) that are myelinated or unmyelinated. Each axon is surrounded by an endoneurium, groups of nerves are bundles into nerve fascicles surrounded by perineurium and the whole nerve is surrounded by epineurium. *Know the difference between neuron, nerve fiber, and nerve. Nerves are found in the PNS

13 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sympathetic versus Parasympathetic  Spinal cord exit  Neurotransmitters  Receptors

14 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sympathetic versus Parasympathetic

15 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Autonomic Targets  Smooth muscle  Cardiac muscle  Exocrine glands  Endocrine glands  Lymphoid tissue  Adipose tissue

16 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Autonomic Neuron Structure  Neuroeffector junction - synapse between a postganglionic autonomic neuron and target cell  Postganglionic axon - exits spinal cord to target cell  Varicosities - instead of axon terminals, there are multiple branches and varicosities along the axon over the surface of the target cell

17 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Synapses in Autonomic Neurons  Neurotransmitter released to ECF  No synaptic cleft  Impact  Large area  Slow acting  Long duration

18 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Review of Efferent Pathways Summary of the efferent pathways of the peripheral nervous system Figure ACh Somatic motor pathway Parasympathetic pathway Ganglion Nicotinic receptor Nicotinic receptor CNS AUTONOMIC PATHWAYS ACh CNS Adrenal medulla Adrenal cortex E Sympathetic pathways Ganglia Ach= acetylcholine E= epinephrine NE= norepinephrine  1 receptor  2 receptor Blood vessel E Autonomic effectors: Smooth and cardiac muscles Some endocrine and exocrine glands Some adipose tissue KEY  receptor Skeletal muscle ACh Muscarinic receptor Nicotinic receptor ACh NE Adrenal sympathetic pathway

19 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Review of Efferent Pathways Figure (1 of 5) Somatic motor pathway CNS Ach= acetylcholine E= epinephrine NE= norepinephrine KEY Skeletal muscle Nicotinic receptor ACh

20 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Review of Efferent Pathways Figure (2 of 5) ACh Somatic motor pathway Parasympathetic pathway Ganglion Nicotinic receptor CNS AUTONOMIC PATHWAYS Ach= acetylcholine E= epinephrine NE= norepinephrine Autonomic effectors: Smooth and cardiac muscles Some endocrine and exocrine glands Some adipose tissue KEY Skeletal muscle ACh Muscarinic receptor Nicotinic receptor ACh

21 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Review of Efferent Pathways Figure (3 of 5) ACh Somatic motor pathway Parasympathetic pathway Ganglion Nicotinic receptor Nicotinic receptor CNS AUTONOMIC PATHWAYS ACh CNS Sympathetic pathways Ganglia Ach= acetylcholine E= epinephrine NE= norepinephrine Autonomic effectors: Smooth and cardiac muscles Some endocrine and exocrine glands Some adipose tissue KEY  receptor Skeletal muscle ACh Muscarinic receptor Nicotinic receptor ACh NE

22 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Review of Efferent Pathways Figure (4 of 5) ACh Somatic motor pathway Parasympathetic pathway Ganglion Nicotinic receptor Nicotinic receptor CNS AUTONOMIC PATHWAYS ACh CNS Sympathetic pathways Ganglia Ach= acetylcholine E= epinephrine NE= norepinephrine  1 receptor Autonomic effectors: Smooth and cardiac muscles Some endocrine and exocrine glands Some adipose tissue KEY  receptor Skeletal muscle ACh Muscarinic receptor Nicotinic receptor ACh NE

23 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Review of Efferent Pathways Figure (5 of 5) ACh Somatic motor pathway Parasympathetic pathway Ganglion Nicotinic receptor Nicotinic receptor CNS AUTONOMIC PATHWAYS ACh CNS Adrenal medulla Adrenal cortex E Sympathetic pathways Ganglia Ach= acetylcholine E= epinephrine NE= norepinephrine  1 receptor  2 receptor Blood vessel E Autonomic effectors: Smooth and cardiac muscles Some endocrine and exocrine glands Some adipose tissue KEY  receptor Skeletal muscle ACh Muscarinic receptor Nicotinic receptor ACh NE Adrenal sympathetic pathway

24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sympathetic versus Parasympathetic

25 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Visceral sensory neurons- Receptors in the viscera are free dendritic ends that send afferent signals caused by stretching, temperature and chemical changes, and irritation. Integration translates these signals into hunger, fullness, pain, or nausea. Visceral sensation may be hard to localize. Sometimes pain is called referred pain. A problem with an organ like the heart may send pain down the arm (not an area where the heart is located.)  A map of referred pain: these are skin or body regions that present pain when there is visceral pain. The organ and site of referred pain are innervated by the same nerve. Referred Pain- Visceral Sensory Division

26 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Somatic Motor Division  Skeletal muscle- target effector  Body movement- main function, voluntary or a reflex  Appendages- fine and gross motor skills  Locomotion- movement of body at different speeds

27 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Somatic Motor Division  Single neuron  CNS origin  Myelinated  Terminus  Branches  Neuromuscular junction Figure (1 of 4)

28 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Neuromuscular Junction: Overview  Terminal boutons- insulate the site of the neuromuscular juction and secrete supportive growth factors  Synaptic cleft- space between the axon terminal and the sarcolemma  Acetylcholine- neurotransmitter released involves calcium and binds to nicotinic receptors  Motor end plate- folds on the sarcolemma of the muscle  On muscle cell surface  Nicotinic receptors

29 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure (1 of 3) Anatomy of the Neuromuscular Junction

30 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Anatomy of the Neuromuscular Junction Figure (2 of 3)

31 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Anatomy of the Neuromuscular Junction Figure (3 of 3)

32 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Mechanism of Signal Conduction  Axon terminal (of presynaptic cell)  Action potential signals acetylcholine release  Motor end plate – series of folds in the plasma membrane of the postsynaptic cell  Two acetylcholine bind  Opens cation channel  Na + influx – K+ efflux  Membrane depolarized  Stimulates fiber contraction as a result in increased intracellular calcium concentration

33 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 11-13a Events at the Neuromuscular Junction

34 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 11-13b Events at the Neuromuscular Junction Notice that both Na and K use the same channel unlike those of neurons

35 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Somatic and Autonomic Divisions

36 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Summary  Autonomic division  Role in homeostasis  Sympathetic and parasympathetic branches  Regulate glands, smooth and cardiac muscles  CNS control centers  Antagonistic regulation

37 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Summary  Somatic division  Efferent motor neurons control skeletal muscles  Single long myelinated neuron from CNS  Neuromuscular junction structure and mechanism


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