2What led to the creation of new states in Africa What led to the creation of new states in Africa? Also tell me about kingdom of Zulu?New stateswere founded by African leaders in response to internal conditions, and not by European or other outside pressures.Serious droughts created conflict over grazing and farming landsShaka ZuluShaka’s military leadership brought neighboring groups under centralized control.Built the most powerful and most feared fighters in southern AfricaSucceeded in creating a new national identity as well as new kingdomThe Zulu in turn fostered the creation of other states—states that were formed in opposition to the power of the Zulu.
3What was the nature of European contact with North Africa between 1800 and 1870? Contacts with Europeans varied from peaceful relations to full-scale invasions.EgyptNapoleon’s occupation made Egyptian leaders aware of the need to modernize and militarize the country’s military and government to meet future European threats.However, over-reliance on cotton exports and too rapid expansion of industry created an Egyptian state indebted to and partly controlled by the British.Algeriawas initially friendly with France and supplied Napoleon with grain for his Egyptian invasion in 1798.French failure to accede to Algerian demands for repayment resulted in the French invasion in 1830 and the occupation of Algeria was completed by 1848.
4British and the Americans What led to the end of the Slave trade? How did West Africans react to the end of the Atlantic slave trade?British and the Americanswere among the first to prevent their citizens from engaging in the importation of slavesSlave revolts and humanitarian reforms led to the end of the slave tradeSpanish and Portugalcontinued the flow of Africans to the Americas.AfricaAfrican reaction was gradual, as was the suppression of the slave trade itself.Suppression began in 1808 and continued until the trade finally ended in 1867.West Africanssubstituted numerous “legitimate” exports to replace slaves, particularly palm oil (most successful export), gold, and ivory.also used slaves internallyslave labor contributed significantly to the transport of palm oil. Thus, the end of the slave trade led to many changes in West Africa.
5What was the nature of the “secondary empires” in eastern Africa in the nineteenth century? Eastern empiresThe effects of the slave trade, agriculture, and ivory exports established new East African empires.They are referred to as “secondary empires” because of their close trading connection to existing European empires. Created and controlled by Arabs and Africans, these East African empires came into being partly as a result of the suppression of the West African slave trade.Eastern slave tradeReacting to British pressure, slave traders moved around the Cape of Good Hope into eastern Africa. Although twice as many African slaves were sold through the well-established North African and Middle Eastern trade than exported to the Americas, the numbers were still substantial.Slavery within eastern Africa also remained significant, with 700,000 slaves working on clove plantations. Those agricultural plantations and the ivory trade resulted in the establishment of new and strengthened African states.
6After the establishment of the British East India Company (EIC) in 1600, it took Great Britain over 250 years to gain complete control of India. Explain how Britain extended its control there.The British struggle for power in India had several phases.Britain needed to defeat the Dutch and French interests and to overcome Indian and Mughal resistance.EICused hired Indian troops, sepoys, to establish its powerIt secured Indian territory region by region, either by forming alliances with Indian rulers or by asserting direct control with military force.Indian tax revenues and company profits combined to finance EIC efforts.By 1818, the EIC controlled a large Indian empireTransformed the economy by exporting agricultural production and decreasing industrial outputThe British supported and created new customs and “traditions,” which were meant to maintain the social and political hierarchies and thus consolidated British power.Aftermath of the 1857 Sepoy uprisingBritain had complete control, confirmed by Queen Victoria’s proclamation in 1858.
7Why is the rebellion of 1857-1858 a turning point in the history of modern India. GovernmentFormed a centralized government and national consciousness, Mughal and EIC rule ended and a British governor-general took control.Indians were promised equal protection under the law.The elite Indian Civil Service (mostly educated British administrators) controlled government administration and the judiciary.Economic growthIndians enjoyed the economic growth that accompanied tremendous improvements in transportation and infrastructure.The British government invested heavily in the upgrading of harbors, waterways, and roads; it also felled forests to expand agriculture.Steamboats, telegraphs, and railroads expanded at rapid rates, and the economy boomed.DrawbacksSome Indian craft workers lost their jobs in the face of rising British imports, and the new centralized government was dominated by British interests.
8Describe the changes that took place between 1750 and 1850 in the British Overseas Empire? Why was Australia and New Zealand different from other overseas empire?Technological advances and economic changesin ships and shipping, together with the rise of free trade and the decline of mercantilism, altered the British Empire in fundamental ways.GoalThis new empire building was focused on dominating trade and promoting trade overseas.British Cape Colony in southern Africa served as a base for long-distance trade to India.Australia and New Zealandwere different from Britain’s African and Indian colonies in that they were intended as areas of European settlement.resembled the former British colonies in North America (Exp: Displacing the indigenous people)As settler colonies, Australia and New Zealand were allowed more political freedom and independence than colonies in Africa or India. In granting Australia and New Zealand more autonomy, Britain hoped to retain the loyalty of these settlers.
9After the freeing of their slaves , how did British and other plantation colonies fill their needs for labor? Where did the laborers come from?Need for laborAfter emancipation, plantation colonies continued to need new laborers.Many emancipated workers refused to return to the plantations.Indentured servantsMany Africans, Chinese, Indians, and Pacific Islanders were recruited and signed contracts ranging from five to seven years as indentured laborers.They came in the hopes of bettering their economic and social statusSome Africans who were recruited for work on plantations had been rescued from slave ships by the Royal Navy’s antislavery squadrons.Most indentured laborers came from India—a British colony—and were sent to British colonies and those of other nations around the world.Crucial to the movement of such large numbers of workers was the development of larger and faster ships.