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Chapter 26 Review and Discussion.

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1 Chapter 26 Review and Discussion

2 What led to the creation of new states in Africa
What led to the creation of new states in Africa? Also tell me about kingdom of Zulu? New states were founded by African leaders in response to internal conditions, and not by European or other outside pressures. Serious droughts created conflict over grazing and farming lands Shaka Zulu Shaka’s military leadership brought neighboring groups under centralized control. Built the most powerful and most feared fighters in southern Africa Succeeded in creating a new national identity as well as new kingdom The Zulu in turn fostered the creation of other states—states that were formed in opposition to the power of the Zulu.

3 What was the nature of European contact with North Africa between 1800 and 1870?
Contacts with Europeans varied from peaceful relations to full-scale invasions. Egypt Napoleon’s occupation made Egyptian leaders aware of the need to modernize and militarize the country’s military and government to meet future European threats. However, over-reliance on cotton exports and too rapid expansion of industry created an Egyptian state indebted to and partly controlled by the British. Algeria was initially friendly with France and supplied Napoleon with grain for his Egyptian invasion in 1798. French failure to accede to Algerian demands for repayment resulted in the French invasion in 1830 and the occupation of Algeria was completed by 1848.

4 British and the Americans
What led to the end of the Slave trade? How did West Africans react to the end of the Atlantic slave trade? British and the Americans were among the first to prevent their citizens from engaging in the importation of slaves Slave revolts and humanitarian reforms led to the end of the slave trade Spanish and Portugal continued the flow of Africans to the Americas. Africa African reaction was gradual, as was the suppression of the slave trade itself. Suppression began in 1808 and continued until the trade finally ended in 1867. West Africans substituted numerous “legitimate” exports to replace slaves, particularly palm oil (most successful export), gold, and ivory. also used slaves internally slave labor contributed significantly to the transport of palm oil. Thus, the end of the slave trade led to many changes in West Africa.

5 What was the nature of the “secondary empires” in eastern Africa in the nineteenth century?
Eastern empires The effects of the slave trade, agriculture, and ivory exports established new East African empires. They are referred to as “secondary empires” because of their close trading connection to existing European empires. Created and controlled by Arabs and Africans, these East African empires came into being partly as a result of the suppression of the West African slave trade. Eastern slave trade Reacting to British pressure, slave traders moved around the Cape of Good Hope into eastern Africa. Although twice as many African slaves were sold through the well-established North African and Middle Eastern trade than exported to the Americas, the numbers were still substantial. Slavery within eastern Africa also remained significant, with 700,000 slaves working on clove plantations. Those agricultural plantations and the ivory trade resulted in the establishment of new and strengthened African states.

6 After the establishment of the British East India Company (EIC) in 1600, it took Great Britain over 250 years to gain complete control of India. Explain how Britain extended its control there. The British struggle for power in India had several phases. Britain needed to defeat the Dutch and French interests and to overcome Indian and Mughal resistance. EIC used hired Indian troops, sepoys, to establish its power It secured Indian territory region by region, either by forming alliances with Indian rulers or by asserting direct control with military force. Indian tax revenues and company profits combined to finance EIC efforts. By 1818, the EIC controlled a large Indian empire Transformed the economy by exporting agricultural production and decreasing industrial output The British supported and created new customs and “traditions,” which were meant to maintain the social and political hierarchies and thus consolidated British power. Aftermath of the 1857 Sepoy uprising Britain had complete control, confirmed by Queen Victoria’s proclamation in 1858.

7 Why is the rebellion of 1857-1858 a turning point in the history of modern India.
Government Formed a centralized government and national consciousness, Mughal and EIC rule ended and a British governor-general took control. Indians were promised equal protection under the law. The elite Indian Civil Service (mostly educated British administrators) controlled government administration and the judiciary. Economic growth Indians enjoyed the economic growth that accompanied tremendous improvements in transportation and infrastructure. The British government invested heavily in the upgrading of harbors, waterways, and roads; it also felled forests to expand agriculture. Steamboats, telegraphs, and railroads expanded at rapid rates, and the economy boomed. Drawbacks Some Indian craft workers lost their jobs in the face of rising British imports, and the new centralized government was dominated by British interests.

8 Describe the changes that took place between 1750 and 1850 in the British Overseas Empire? Why was Australia and New Zealand different from other overseas empire? Technological advances and economic changes in ships and shipping, together with the rise of free trade and the decline of mercantilism, altered the British Empire in fundamental ways. Goal This new empire building was focused on dominating trade and promoting trade overseas. British Cape Colony in southern Africa served as a base for long-distance trade to India. Australia and New Zealand were different from Britain’s African and Indian colonies in that they were intended as areas of European settlement. resembled the former British colonies in North America (Exp: Displacing the indigenous people) As settler colonies, Australia and New Zealand were allowed more political freedom and independence than colonies in Africa or India. In granting Australia and New Zealand more autonomy, Britain hoped to retain the loyalty of these settlers.

9 After the freeing of their slaves , how did British and other plantation colonies fill their needs for labor? Where did the laborers come from? Need for labor After emancipation, plantation colonies continued to need new laborers. Many emancipated workers refused to return to the plantations. Indentured servants Many Africans, Chinese, Indians, and Pacific Islanders were recruited and signed contracts ranging from five to seven years as indentured laborers. They came in the hopes of bettering their economic and social status Some Africans who were recruited for work on plantations had been rescued from slave ships by the Royal Navy’s antislavery squadrons. Most indentured laborers came from India—a British colony—and were sent to British colonies and those of other nations around the world. Crucial to the movement of such large numbers of workers was the development of larger and faster ships.

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