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Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter Chapter 11: Managing People for Service Advantage
Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter Overview of Chapter 11 1.Importance of Service Employees 2.Frontline Work Is Difficult and Stressful 3.Cycles of Failure, Mediocrity, and Success 4.Human Resources Management: How to Get It Right? 5.Service Leadership and Culture
Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter Importance of Service Employees
Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter Service Personnel: Source of Customer Loyalty and Competitive Advantage Frontline is an important driver of customer loyalty Anticipating customer needs Customizing service delivery Building personalized relationships Customer’s perspective: Encounter with service staff is most important aspect of a service Firm’s perspective: Frontline is an important source of differentiation and competitive advantage. It is… A core part of the product the service firm The brand
Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter Frontline in Low-Contact Services Many routine transactions are now conducted without involving frontline staff, e.g., ATMs (Automated Teller Machines) IVR (Interactive Voice Response) systems Websites for reservations/ordering, payment, etc. Though technology and self-service interface is becoming a key engine for service delivery, frontline employees remain crucially important “Moments of truth” drive customer’s perception of the service firm
Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter Frontline Work Is Difficult and Stressful
Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter Boundary Spanning Roles Boundary spanners link inside of organization to outside world. Ex)??? Multiplicity of roles often results in service staff having to pursue both operational and marketing goals Consider management expectations of service staff: Delight customers Be fast and efficient in executing operational tasks Do selling, cross selling, and up-selling Enforce pricing schedules and rate integrity
Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter Role Stress in Frontline Employees Three main causes of role stress: Person versus Role: Conflicts between what jobs require and employee’s own personality and beliefs Organizations must instill “ professionalism ” in frontline staff Organization versus Client: Dilemma whether to follow company rules or to satisfy customer demands This conflict is especially acute in organizations that are not customer oriented Role Conflict Client versus Client: Conflicts between customers that demand service staff intervention
Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter Emotional Labor “The act of expressing socially desired emotions during service transactions” (Hochschild, The Managed Heart) Performing emotional labor in response to society’s or management’s display rules can be stressful Good HR practices emphasize selective recruitment, training, counseling, and strategies to alleviate stress
Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter Cycles of Failure, Mediocrity, and Success
Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter Cycle of Failure (1) (Fig 11.4) Source: Schlesinger and Heskett Customer turnover Failure to develop customer loyalty No continuity in relationship for customer Customer dissatisfaction Employees can’t respond to customer problems Employees become bored Employee dissatisfaction; poor service attitude Repeat emphasis on attracting new customers Low profit margins Narrow design of jobs to accommodate low skill level Use of technology to control quality High employee turnover; poor service quality Payment of low wages Minimization of selection effort Minimization of training Emphasis on rules rather than service
Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter The employee cycle of failure Narrow job design for low skill levels Emphasis on rules rather than service Use of technology to control quality ― Question: Labor Cost and Labor Rate The customer cycle of failure Managers’ short-sighted assumptions about financial implications of low pay/high turnover human resource strategies Cycle of Failure (2) (Fig 11.5)
Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter Costs of short-sighted policies are ignored Loss of expertise among departing employees* Disruption to service from unfilled jobs Constant expense of recruiting, hiring, training* Lower productivity of inexperienced new workers Loss of revenue stream from dissatisfied customers who go elsewhere* Loss of potential customers who are turned off by negative word-of-mouth Higher costs of winning new customers to replace those lost— more need for advertising and promotional discounts Cycle of Failure (3) (Fig 11.5)
Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter Cycle Of Mediocrity (1) (Fig 11.5) Source: Heskett and Schlesinger
Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter Most commonly found in large, bureaucratic organizations Service delivery is oriented toward Standardized service Operational efficiencies Prevention of employee fraud and favoritism toward specific customers Cycle Of Mediocrity (2) (Fig 11.5)
Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter Job responsibilities narrowly and unimaginatively defined Successful performance measured by absence of mistakes Ex) South Korean Army Training focuses on learning rules and technical aspects of job—not on improving interactions with customers and co-workers Cycle of Mediocrity (3) (Fig 11.5)
Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter Cycle of Success (1) (Fig 11.6) Low customer turnover Customer loyalty Continuity in relationship with customer High customer satisfaction Extensive training Employee satisfaction, positive service attitude Repeat emphasis on customer loyalty and retention Higher profit margins Broadened job designs Lowered turnover, high service quality Above average wages Intensified selection effort Train, empower frontline personnel to control quality Source: Heskett and Schlesinger
Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter Longer-term view of financial performance; firm seeks to prosper by investing in people Attractive compensation packages attract better job applicants More focused recruitment, intensive training, and higher wages make it more likely that employees are: Happier in their work Provide higher quality, customer-pleasing service Cycle of Success (2) (Fig 11.6)
Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter Broadened job descriptions with empowerment practices enable frontline staff to control quality and facilitate service recovery Regular customers more likely to remain loyal because: Appreciate continuity in service relationships Have higher satisfaction due to higher quality Cycle of Success (3) (Fig 11.6)
Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter Human Resources Management— How to Get It Right?
Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter How to Manage People for Service Advantage? Hire the right people Enable these people Motivate and energize your people Staff performance involves both ability and motivation How can we get able service employees who are motivated to productively deliver service excellence?
Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter The Wheel of Successful HR in Service Firms (Fig 11.7) Leadership that: Focuses the entire organization on supporting the frontline Fosters a strong service culture with passion for service and productivity Drives values that inspires, energizes and guides service providers 1. Hire the Right People 3. Motivate and Energize Your People 2. Enable Your People Be the preferred employer & compete for talent market share Intensify the selection process Empower frontline Build high performance service delivery teams Extensive training Utilize the full range of rewards Service Excellence & Productivity
Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter Hire the Right People “ The old saying ‘ People are your most important asset ’ is wrong. The RIGHT people are your most important asset. ” Jim Collins
Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter Recruitment The right people are a firm’s most important asset: Take a focused, marketing-like approach to recruitment Clarify what must be hired versus what can be taught Clarify nature of the working environment, corporate values and style, in addition to job specs Ensure candidates have/can obtain needed qualifications Evaluate candidate’s fit with firm’s culture and values Match personalities, styles, energies to appropriate jobs “If people come for money, they will leave for money” - James Treybig (CEO of Tandem Computers)
Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter Select and Hire the Right People: (1) Be the Preferred Employer Create a large pool: “Compete for Talent Market Share” What determines a firm’s applicant pool? Positive image in the community as place to work Quality of its services The firm’s perceived status There is no perfect employee Different jobs are best filled by people with different skills, styles, or personalities Hire candidates that fit firm’s core values and culture Focus on recruiting naturally warm personalities for customer-contact jobs
Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter Observe behavior Hire based on observed behavior, not words you hear Best predictor of future behavior is past behavior Consider group hiring sessions where candidates are given group tasks Conduct personality tests Willingness to treat co-workers and customers with courtesy, consideration, and tact Perceptiveness regarding customer needs Ability to communicate accurately and pleasantly Select and Hire the Right People: (2) How to Identify Best Candidates
Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter Select and Hire the Right People: (3) Identifying Best Candidates Employ multiple, structured interviews Use structured interviews built around job requirements Use more than one interviewer to reduce “similar to me” biases Give applicants a realistic preview of the job Chance for candidates to “try on the job” Assess how candidates respond to job realities Allow candidates to self select themselves out of the job Manage new employees’ expectation of job
Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter Service employees need to learn: Organizational culture, purpose, and strategy Promote core values, get emotional commitment to strategy Get managers to teach “why,” “what,” and “how” of job Interpersonal and technical skills Both are necessary but neither alone is sufficient for optimal job performance Product/service knowledge Staff’s product knowledge is a key aspect of service quality Staff must explain product features and position products correctly 2. Train Service Employees
Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter Is Empowerment Always Appropriate? Empowerment is most appropriate when: Firm’s business strategy is based on competitive differentiation and on personalized, customized service Emphasis on extended relationships versus short-term transactions Use of complex and nonroutine technologies Business environment is unpredictable, consisting of surprises Managers are comfortable letting employees work independently for benefit of firm and customers Employees seek to deepen skills, like working with others, and are good at group processes
Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter Control concentrates four key features at top organization, involvement pushes them down 1.Power to influence work procedures and organizational direction (e.g., quality circles, self-managing teams) 2.Information about operating results and measures of competitive performance 3.Rewards based on organizational performance (e.g., bonuses, profit sharing, stock ownership) 4.Knowledge/skills that enable employees to understand and contribute to organizational performance Control versus Involvement Model of Management
Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter Suggestion involvement Employee make recommendation through formalized programs Job involvement Jobs redesigned Employees retrained, supervisors reoriented to facilitate performance High involvement Information is shared Employees skilled in teamwork, problem solving etc. Participate in management decisions Profit sharing and stock ownership Levels of Employee Involvement
Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter Build High-Performance Service Delivery Teams The Power of Teamwork in Services Facilitate communication among team members and knowledge sharing Higher performance targets Pressure to perform is high Creating Successful Service Delivery Teams Emphasis on cooperation, listening, coaching and encouraging one another Understand how to air differences, tell hard truths, ask tough questions Management needs to set up a structure to steer teams toward success
Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter Motivate and Energize the Frontline Use full range of available rewards effectively, including: Job content (Job Design) People are motivated and satisfied knowing they are doing a good job Feedback and recognition People derive a sense of identity and belonging to an organization from feedback and recognition Goal accomplishment Specific, difficult but attainable and accepted goals are strong motivators
Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter Service Leadership and Culture
Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter Service Leadership and Culture Service culture can be defined as: Shared perceptions of what is important Shared values and beliefs of why they are important Shared Accountability Charismatic/transformational leadership: Change frontline’s values, goals to be consistent with firm Motivate staff to perform their best Internal Marketing: Play a vital role in maintaining and nurturing a corporate culture Help ensure service delivery, working relationships, employee trust, respect, and loyalty
Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter Customer Base Middle Mgmt And Top Mgmt Support Frontline The Inverted Organizational Pyramid Fig Frontline Staff Top Mgmt Middle Mgmt Legend: = Service encounters, or “Moments of Truth” Traditional Organizational Pyramid Inverted Pyramid with a Customer and Frontline Focus Frontline Staff
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