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Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Decision Making and Relevant Information.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Decision Making and Relevant Information."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Decision Making and Relevant Information

2 Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1. Use the five-step decision-making process 2. Distinguish relevant from irrelevant information in decision situations 3. Explain the concept of opportunity cost and why managers should consider it when making insourcing-versus-outsourcing decisions 4. Know how to choose which products to produce when there are capacity constraints 5. Explain how to manage bottlenecks 11-2

3 Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 6. Discuss the factors managers must consider when adding or dropping customers or business units 7. Explain why book value of equipment is irrelevant to managers making equipment- replacement decisions 8. Explain how conflicts can arise between the decision model a manager uses and the performance-evaluation model top management uses to evaluate managers 11-3

4 Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Managers usually follow a decision model for choosing among different courses of action.  A decision model is a formal method of making a choice that often involves both quantitative and qualitative analyses.  Management accountants analyze and present relevant data to guide managers’ decisions.  Managers use the five-step decision-making process presented in Chapter 1 to make decisions. 11-4

5 Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 11-5

6 Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  Relevant information has two characteristics:  It occurs in the future  It differs among the alternative courses of action.  Relevant costs are expected future costs.  Relevant revenues are expected future Revenues.  Past costs (historical costs) are never relevant and are also called sunk costs. 11-6

7 Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  Quantitative factors are outcomes that can be measured in numerical terms.  Qualitative factors are outcomes that are difficult to measure accurately in numerical terms, such as satisfaction.  Qualitative factors are just as important as quantitative factors even though they are difficult to measure. 11-7

8 Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  Past (historical) costs may be helpful as a basis for making predictions. However, past costs themselves are always irrelevant when making decisions.  Different alternatives can be compared by examining differences in expected total future revenues and expected total future costs.  Not all expected future revenues and expected future costs are relevant. Expected future revenues and expected future costs that do not differ among alternatives are irrelevant and, hence can be eliminated from the analysis. The key question is always, What difference will an action make?  Appropriate weight must be given to qualitative factors and quantitative nonfinancial factors. 11-8

9 Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 11-9

10 Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  Costs that have already occurred and cannot be changed are classified as sunk costs.  Sunk costs are excluded because they cannot be changed by future actions

11 Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  Incremental cost—the additional total cost incurred for an activity.  Differential cost—the difference in total cost between two alternatives.  Incremental revenue—the additional total revenue from an activity.  Differential revenue—the difference in total revenue between two alternatives.  Note that incremental cost and differential cost are sometimes used interchangeably in practice

12 Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  One-time-only special orders  Short-run pricing decisions  Insourcing vs. outsourcing (Make-or-Buy)  Product-mix with capacity constraints  Bottlenecks, Theory of Constraints, and Throughput-Margin Analysis  Customer profitability and Relevant Costs  Branch/segment: adding or discontinuing  Equipment replacement 11-12

13 Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  Accepting or rejecting special orders when there is idle production capacity and the special orders have no long-run implications.  Decision rule: Does the special order generate additional operating income?  Yes—accept  No—reject  Compares relevant revenues and relevant costs to determine profitability

14 Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

15 Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  Managers should avoid two potential problems in relevant–cost analysis: 1. Avoid incorrect general assumptions such as that “All variable costs are relevant and all fixed costs are irrelevant.” Even in our simple example, we had irrelevant, variable marketing costs. 2. Be aware that unit-fixed-cost data can potentially mislead managers in two ways. (See next slide for details) 11-15

16 Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Unit-fixed-cost data can be misleading in two ways: 1. Fixed costs per unit may include costs that are irrelevant to a particular decision or may be irrelevant in total for a particular decision, and 2. Unit fixed costs are accurate only for that particular level of output. For this reason, managers often use total fixed costs rather than per unit data especially when output levels are a variable for a particular decision

17 Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. A special order decision is, in many respects, a short-run pricing decision. Sometimes, the decision is simply about setting an acceptable price. Remember the decision rule? Any price above incremental costs will improve operating income; however, consideration must be given to capacity constraints, current market conditions, customer demand, competition, etc

18 Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  Outsourcing is purchasing goods and services from outside vendors.  Insourcing means you’ll produce the good (or provide the service) within the organization.  Decisions about whether to insource or outsource are called Make-or-Buy decisions.  Opportunity Costs are the contribution to operating income forgone by not using a limited resource in its next-best alternative use

19 Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  Decision rule: Select the option that will provide the firm with the lowest cost, and therefore the highest profit.  Same as special order: choose the alternative that maximizes operating income

20 Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

21 Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

22 Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  Opportunity Cost is the contribution to operating income forgone by not using a limited resource in its next-best alternative use.  Opportunity Costs are not recorded in financial accounting systems because historical record keeping is limited to transactions involving alternatives that managers actually selected rather than alternatives that they rejected.  One type of opportunity cost is the carrying cost of inventory: the operating income forgone by tying up money in inventory and not investing it elsewhere

23 Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  Nonquantitative factors may be extremely important in an evaluation process for each of the decisions we cover here, yet do not show up directly in calculations:  Quality requirements  Reputation of outsourcer  Employee morale  Logistical considerations—distance from plant, and so on  For make/buy decisions, buying can be risky, especially if sourcing internationally

24 Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Product-mix decisions are decisions managers make about which products to sell and in what quantities.  Decision rule (with a constraint):  Choose the product that produces the highest contribution margin per unit of the constraining resource (not the highest contribution margin per unit of the product)

25 Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Product AProduct B Selling Price$10.00$30.00 Variable Cost per unit$ 6.00$15.00 Contribution Margin/unit$ 4.00$15.00 Contribution Margin percentage40%50% Machine Hours Required per unit Contribution Margin/machine hour$ 8.00$ CONCLUSION: Produce product A to maximize profitability.

26 Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  A bottleneck is a phenomenon where the performance or capacity of an entire system is limited by a single or limited number of components or resources. The term bottleneck is taken from the 'assets are water' metaphor. As water is poured out of a bottle, the rate of outflow is limited by the width of the conduit of exit—that is, bottleneck. By increasing the width of the bottleneck one can increase the rate at which the water flows out of the neck at different frequencies. Such limiting components of a system are sometimes referred to as bottleneck points

27 Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  The Theory of Constraints (TOC) describes methods to maximize operating income when faced with some bottleneck and some nonbottleneck operations. The TOC defines these three measures:  Throughput margin  Investments  Operating costs The objective of the TOC is to increase throughput margin while decreasing investments and operating costs. The TOC focuses on managing bottleneck operations

28 Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  Four steps to manage bottleneck operations:  1. Recognize that bottleneck operations determines the contribution margin of the entire system.  2. Identify the bottleneck operations.  3. Subordinate all nonbottleneck operations to the bottleneck operation.  4. Take actions to increase the efficiency and capacity of the bottleneck operation

29 Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  When the cost object is a customer, managers must decide about adding or dropping the customer.  Decision rule: Does adding or dropping a customer add operating income to the firm?  Yes—add or don’t drop  No—drop or don’t add  Decision is based on incremental income of the customer, not how much revenue a customer generates

30 Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

31 Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

32 Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  Decision rule: Does adding or discontinuing a branch or segment add operating income to the firm?  Yes—add or don’t discontinue  No—discontinue or don’t add  Decision is based on incremental income of the branch or segment, not how much revenue the branch or segment generates

33 Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  Sometimes difficult due to amount of information at hand that is irrelevant:  Cost, accumulated depreciation, and book value of existing equipment  Any potential gain or loss on the transaction—a financial accounting phenomenon only.  Decision rule: Select the alternative that will generate the highest operating income

34 Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

35 Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

36 Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

37 Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  Despite the quantitative nature of some aspects of decision making, not all managers will choose the best alternative for the firm.  Managers will consider how the company will judge his or her performance after the decision is implemented.  Many managers consider it unethical to take actions that make their own performance look good when these actions are not in the best interests of the firm

38 Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  The decision model analysis (step 4) can dictate one decision but in the real world, would the manager want to follow it?  An important factor is the manager’s perception of whether the decision model is consistent with how the company will judge his or her performance after the decision is implemented (the performance evaluation model in step 5)

39 Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. TERMS TO LEARNPAGE NUMBER REFERENCE Book valuePage 448 Business function costsPage 429 ConstraintPage 455 Decision modelPage 425 Differential costPage 433 Differential revenuePage 434 Full costs of the productPage 429 Incremental costPage 433 Incremental revenuePage

40 Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. TERMS TO LEARNPAGE NUMBER REFERENCE InsourcingPage 432 Linear programming (LP)Page 456 Make-or-buy decisionsPage 432 Objective functionPage 455 One-time-only special orderPage 428 Opportunity costPage 436 OutsourcingPage 432 Product-mix decisionsPage 440 Qualitative factorsPage 428 Quantitative factorsPage

41 Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. TERMS TO LEARNPAGE NUMBER REFERENCE Relevant costsPage 426 Relevant revenuesPage 426 Sunk costsPage 427 Theory of constraints (TOC)Page 441 Throughput marginPage

42 Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 42


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