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Frequency Band-Importance Functions for Auditory and Auditory- Visual Speech Recognition Ken W. Grant Walter Reed Army Medical Center Washington, D.C.

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Presentation on theme: "Frequency Band-Importance Functions for Auditory and Auditory- Visual Speech Recognition Ken W. Grant Walter Reed Army Medical Center Washington, D.C."— Presentation transcript:

1 Frequency Band-Importance Functions for Auditory and Auditory- Visual Speech Recognition Ken W. Grant Walter Reed Army Medical Center Washington, D.C

2 Background Speech recognition involves broadband listening. Speech recognition involves broadband listening. Information is not uniformly distributed across the frequency spectrum. Information is not uniformly distributed across the frequency spectrum. –different cues (spectral and temporal) of different relative value reside at different frequencies. –in general, more importance is placed at mid- frequencies around Hz. –probably related to place-of-articulation cues (F2/F3 transitions)

3 Background (continued) How can we determine the relative importance or weights that listeners place on various frequency regions? How can we determine the relative importance or weights that listeners place on various frequency regions? Doherty and Turner, 1996; Turner et al., 1998 Doherty and Turner, 1996; Turner et al., 1998 –correlational procedure (Lutfi, 1995; Richards and Zhu, 1994) applied to speech recognition. –partition speech into a number of spectral bands. –perturb each band so that amount of information in each band can be correlated with a listeners performance.

4 Correlation Method for Speech Band 1Band 2Band 3Band 4 Frequency (Hz)

5 Background (continued) Are the relative importance of different frequency regions altered by the presence of visual speech cues? Are the relative importance of different frequency regions altered by the presence of visual speech cues? Past results using isolated spectral bands of speech show that low-frequency speech provides more benefit to speechreading than other spectral regions (Grant and Walden, 1996). Past results using isolated spectral bands of speech show that low-frequency speech provides more benefit to speechreading than other spectral regions (Grant and Walden, 1996).

6 Background (continued) From Grant and Walden (1996). JASA, 100,

7 Background (continued) Evidence from electrophysiological studies show that visual speech cues fundamentally alter the way the auditory cortex responds to sound input (Calvert, 1977; van Wassenhove et al., 2005). Evidence from electrophysiological studies show that visual speech cues fundamentally alter the way the auditory cortex responds to sound input (Calvert, 1977; van Wassenhove et al., 2005). –reduction in N1-P2 amplitude. –latency shift in N2 peak for highly visible consonants.

8 Visual Speech Alters Neural Processing of Auditory Speech CPz From van Wassenhove, Grant, and Poeppel (2005). PNAS, 102,

9 Goals Determine relative importance of different frequency regions for auditory and auditory-visual speech. Determine relative importance of different frequency regions for auditory and auditory-visual speech. Minimize band-on-band interactions by partitioning the speech signal into widely spaced narrow bands. Minimize band-on-band interactions by partitioning the speech signal into widely spaced narrow bands.

10 Spectral Slits - Sentences From Greenberg, Arai, and Silipo (1998). Proc. ICSLP, Sydney, Dec %60%13% Slit Number CF (Hz) 2%9%9%4% Slit Number CF (Hz)

11 Spectral Slits - Consonants 91%76%63% Slit Number CF (Hz) 21%22%48%50% Slit Number CF (Hz)

12 Spectral Slits - Consonants 8.2%7.4%8.6%7.6% Slit Number CF (Hz) Individual band scores are too high for AV testing. AV scores would be at ceiling.Individual band scores are too high for AV testing. AV scores would be at ceiling. Different amounts of masking noise needed for each band.Different amounts of masking noise needed for each band. Goal in selecting noise levels was to:Goal in selecting noise levels was to: –make each band roughly equal in intelligibility. –make the the combination of all 4 bands roughly 40% intelligibile.

13 Correlation Method for Speech Frequency (Hz)

14 Band Number Normalized Band Importance A = 44.3% A = 70.9% Band Importance (Audio Alone)

15 Band Number Normalized Band Importance A = 44.3% AV = 78.1% Band Importance (A versus AV) A = 70.9%

16 Discussion – Audio Alone Frequency-importance functions for auditory alone conditions show that listeners consistently weighted band 2 the greatest. Frequency-importance functions for auditory alone conditions show that listeners consistently weighted band 2 the greatest. Relative importance changed slightly when the overall intelligibility of the auditory condition was increased. Relative importance changed slightly when the overall intelligibility of the auditory condition was increased. –band 2 still given the greatest weight. –relative weight for bands 3 and 4 are swapped.

17 Discussion – Audiovisual When visual speech cues are present, listeners place more importance on low frequencies. When visual speech cues are present, listeners place more importance on low frequencies. Results are consistent with past studies using isolated spectral bands of speech. Results are consistent with past studies using isolated spectral bands of speech. –low-frequency speech provides cues for voicing which is highly complementary with speechreading. –mid-to-high-frequency speech provides cues for place of articulation which is highly redundant with speechreading.

18 Conclusions - Questions For robust speech recognition, information must be extracted from many different spectral regions. For robust speech recognition, information must be extracted from many different spectral regions. The presence or absence of visual speech cues alters the importance of different spectral regions for the listener. The presence or absence of visual speech cues alters the importance of different spectral regions for the listener. For listening conditions where low-frequency speech cues are compromised (noise, reverberation, hearing loss), enhancement of the low frequencies of speech may be advantageous, especially in situations where visual cues are available. For listening conditions where low-frequency speech cues are compromised (noise, reverberation, hearing loss), enhancement of the low frequencies of speech may be advantageous, especially in situations where visual cues are available.


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