2 AEROPLANE The Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) defines an “Aeroplane” as follow:Power driven, heavier-than-air-aircraft, deriving it’s lift inflight from aerodynamic reactions on surfaces that remainfixed under given condition of flight.
3 AIRFRAME Airframe is the term used to describe the structure of an aeroplane. It includes the fuel tanks and lines,fuselage, wings, flight controls, tail assembly, andlanding gear.It does not include flight instruments andaero-engine installed on the aeroplane.
4 Parts of an Aeroplane* Fuselage. Central body of the airframe , designed to accommodate the crew, passengers,cargo etc. It is the structural body of the aeroplane. The wings, tail, landing gear andengine are attached to it.* Wings. Surfaces that create lift. One pair of wings (monoplane) two (biplane) or three (triplane) They may be attached in various position on the fuselage;top (high wing), bottom (low wing) middle (mid wing)* Tail section : Consist of fixed vertical stabilizer (fin), rudder, elevator. It provideslongitudinal stability and flight control* Propulsion : Power plant that provide thrust, equipped with propeller or jet aero-engine* Landing gear: To support the weigh of the aeroplane on the ground and allow formovement, steering, and braking on the ground.
5 From the very beginning of aviation builders have strived to build aeroplanes with lightweight yet strong materials.The fundamental of aeroplane construction has not change since thevery beginning of aviation. Innovation and evolution reflect thetechnology available at the time* Wings camber development* The quest to reduce drag* Innovation in flight control* Advancement in propulsion system
7 Humans took to the air for the first time in 1783. The flight occurred on November 21, in Paris, Francein a hot air balloon.The hot air balloon weight 850 Kg and carried two people.It lift off and took flight over Paris at an altitude of 1000meters. It left Paris behind and landed in a hilly area.Distance covered was 9 kilometers.
8 First Flight of an Aeroplane OctoberClement Ader. Avion III
9 With the backing of the French War office, Ader developed and constructed the Avion III. Equipped with two four blades propeller each powered by a steamengine of 30 hp. After extensive taxi tests Ader attempted a flight at Satory onOctober Eye witness stated the Avion rolled, took off and before theofficial commission, flew a distance of more than 300 yards (300 m). Thecommission was not impressed and withdrew its funding but kept the resultssecret. After the Wright brothers made their flight, the commission released reporton Ader's flights, stating that they were successful.
11 The Levasseur Antoinette aeroplane is one of the most well known designs from the early days of aviation. With this type several records were flown including the first cross-country flight to occur in Europe (Germany) and the first time an aeroplane reached 1000 m in altitude (3300 Feet ASL).* High angle of attack leading edge of the wing* Max take off weight : lbs.* Max power rating : 54 hp.* V8 air-cooled aero-engine* Tri-cycle landing gear (skid at the front and skid at the tail)* Wooden front fuselage
13 The Morane-Saulnier N was a French monoplane fighter aeroplane of WW1 The Morane-Saulnier N was a French monoplane fighter aeroplane of WW1 .The Type entered service in April 1915 with Aeronautique Militaire, the Royal Flying Corps and the Imperial Russian Air Force* Monoplane* Engine enclose behind aerodynamic cowling to reduce drag* Large metal spinner to streamline the aeroplane and reduce drag* Max speed: 144 km/h (provided by 80 hp air-cooled radial engine)* Max Altitude: feet in 10 minutes* Full deflection Elevators. No ailerons: used wing warping* Rounded fuselage to streamline the aeroplane and reduce drag
16 The SPAD S.VII was a highly successful biplane produced by Societe Pour L’Aviation et ses Deriver (SPAD) during WW1. It equipped several units ofthe French Air Force, Royal Flying Corps and Italian Air Force.* Biplane* Struts mounted at mid-point of wing reducing drag.* Fuselage made of a wooden frame covered with fabric.* Engine cowling covered with steel sheeting and cooling vents to reduce drag* Max speed 205 km/h* Powered by a 150 hp air-cooled aero-engine* Service ceiling of feet ASL* Fully moveable flight control: ailerons, elevators and rudder
18 The Fokker D.VII quickly proved itself to be a formidable aeroplane. Innovation included triangular fixed vertical fin in front of the rudder forstability. Baron Richthofen praised it as a great aeroplane. It offered excellentperformance and was safe and easy to fly.* Biplane* Biplane with upper wing ailerons, and removal of most of the wing andfuselage rigging (cables and bracing) to reduce drag* Powered by BMW ( hp) or Mercedes air-cooled aero-engine* Max speed 186 km/h* Service ceiling feet ASL* Rate of climb 800 feet per minute
20 The Potez 53 was a racing aeroplane built in France to compete in the 1933 Coupe Deutsch de la Muerthe. This low-wing aeroplane ofconventional design included an enclosed cockpit for the pilot. The firstPotez 53 built to compete in the 1933 Cup won first place covering the 2 000kilometers closed circuit course at an average speed of 323 km/h (201 mph).* Constant speed propeller (variable pitch)* Powered by an air-cooled radial engine of 350 horsepower* Max speed of 450 km/h (280 mph)* Low wing cantilever construction* Fully retractable landing gear (tailskid retracted into the fuselage)* Streamlined fuselage (flushed rivets) to reduce drag* For the first time wings equipped with full flaps
22 The Sud Aviation SE 210 Caravelle was the first short/medium-range jet airliner and the second jet-powered passenger aeroplane to fly in the world (1955).The Caravelle would become the most successful European first-generation jetlinersever. Selling throughout Europe, the United States (20 to United Airlines) and to 80airlines world-wide. The Caravelle pioneered rear-mounted engine and clean-wingdesign that has since been used on a wide variety of aeroplane including today’sCanadair Regional Jet.* First jetliners with thrust reverser and wing spoilers* First jetliner to introduce the LEX (leading edge extension). Fillet added to thefront of the wing to provide useable airflow at high AOA* First jetliner with swept wing design (delay onset of shock wave at high speed)* First jetliner to be equipped with an operational AUTOLAND (1958 – Air France)* Max speed 845 km/h (approximately 480 knots)* Service ceiling of feet ASL* Crew of 3 and seating pax depending on model
24 The Aérospatiale-BAC Concorde aircraft was a turbojet-powered supersonic passenger airliner. Produced by Anglo-French government collaboration. Firstflown in 1969 Concorde entered service in 1976 and continued for 27 years (until2003) Concorde flew regular transatlantic flights from London and Paris to New-York and Washington. Flying these routes at record speeds in less than half the timeof other airliners (2 hours 50 min) . An aeroplane 30 years ahead of his time settingnumerous world record unbroken today.* Thin-winged delta shape with four turbo-jet engine* Max cruise speed of Mach 2.02 (2 140 km/h or mph. twice speed of sound)* Max cruise altitude of feet ASL* First civil airliner to have an analogue fly-by-wire flight control system.* Droop nose section for visibility on approach and landing* Variable inlet ramps controlled by digital computers* Thrust-by-wire engines, predecessor of today’s FADEC-controlled engines