Presentation on theme: "AEROPLANE & AIRFRAME. AEROPLANE The Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) defines an Aeroplane as follow: Power driven, heavier-than-air-aircraft, deriving."— Presentation transcript:
AEROPLANE & AIRFRAME
AEROPLANE The Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) defines an Aeroplane as follow: Power driven, heavier-than-air-aircraft, deriving its lift in flight from aerodynamic reactions on surfaces that remain fixed under given condition of flight.
AIRFRAME Airframe is the term used to describe the structure of an aeroplane. It includes the fuel tanks and lines, fuselage, wings, flight controls, tail assembly, and landing gear. It does not include flight instruments and aero-engine installed on the aeroplane.
Parts of an Aeroplane * Fuselage. Central body of the airframe, designed to accommodate the crew, passengers, cargo etc. It is the structural body of the aeroplane. The wings, tail, landing gear and engine are attached to it. * Wings. Surfaces that create lift. One pair of wings (monoplane) two (biplane) or three (triplane) They may be attached in various position on the fuselage; top (high wing), bottom (low wing) middle (mid wing) * Tail section : Consist of fixed vertical stabilizer (fin), rudder, elevator. It provides longitudinal stability and flight control * Propulsion : Power plant that provide thrust, equipped with propeller or jet aero-engine * Landing gear: To support the weigh of the aeroplane on the ground and allow for movement, steering, and braking on the ground.
From the very beginning of aviation builders have strived to build aeroplanes with lightweight yet strong materials. The fundamental of aeroplane construction has not change since the very beginning of aviation. Innovation and evolution reflect the technology available at the time * Wings camber development * The quest to reduce drag * Innovation in flight control * Advancement in propulsion system
Humans took to the air for the first time in The flight occurred on November 21, 1783 in Paris, France in a hot air balloon. The hot air balloon weight 850 Kg and carried two people. It lift off and took flight over Paris at an altitude of 1000 meters. It left Paris behind and landed in a hilly area. Distance covered was 9 kilometers.
First Flight of an Aeroplane October Clement Ader. Avion III
With the backing of the French War office, Ader developed and constructed the Avion III. Equipped with two four blades propeller each powered by a steam engine of 30 hp. After extensive taxi tests Ader attempted a flight at Satory on October Eye witness stated the Avion rolled, took off and before the official commission, flew a distance of more than 300 yards (300 m). The commission was not impressed and withdrew its funding but kept the results secret. After the Wright brothers made their flight, the commission released report on Ader's flights, stating that they were successful.
1909 Levasseur Antoinette
The Levasseur Antoinette aeroplane is one of the most well known designs from the early days of aviation. With this type several records were flown including the first cross-country flight to occur in Europe (Germany) and the first time an aeroplane reached 1000 m in altitude (3300 Feet ASL). * High angle of attack leading edge of the wing * Max take off weight : lbs. * Max power rating : 54 hp. * V8 air-cooled aero-engine * Tri-cycle landing gear (skid at the front and skid at the tail) * Wooden front fuselage
1915 Morane-Saulnier Type N
The Morane-Saulnier N was a French monoplane fighter aeroplane of WW1.The Type entered service in April 1915 with Aeronautique Militaire, the Royal Flying Corps and the Imperial Russian Air Force * Monoplane * Engine enclose behind aerodynamic cowling to reduce drag * Large metal spinner to streamline the aeroplane and reduce drag * Max speed: 144 km/h (provided by 80 hp air-cooled radial engine) * Max Altitude: feet in 10 minutes * Full deflection Elevators. No ailerons: used wing warping * Rounded fuselage to streamline the aeroplane and reduce drag
1916 SPAD VII
The SPAD S.VII was a highly successful biplane produced by Societe Pour LAviation et ses Deriver (SPAD) during WW1. It equipped several units of the French Air Force, Royal Flying Corps and Italian Air Force. * Biplane * Struts mounted at mid-point of wing reducing drag. * Fuselage made of a wooden frame covered with fabric. * Engine cowling covered with steel sheeting and cooling vents to reduce drag * Max speed 205 km/h * Powered by a 150 hp air-cooled aero-engine * Service ceiling of feet ASL * Fully moveable flight control: ailerons, elevators and rudder
1918 Fokker D VII
The Fokker D.VII quickly proved itself to be a formidable aeroplane. Innovation included triangular fixed vertical fin in front of the rudder for stability. Baron Richthofen praised it as a great aeroplane. It offered excellent performance and was safe and easy to fly. * Biplane * Biplane with upper wing ailerons, and removal of most of the wing and fuselage rigging (cables and bracing) to reduce drag * Powered by BMW ( hp) or Mercedes air-cooled aero-engine * Max speed 186 km/h * Service ceiling feet ASL * Rate of climb 800 feet per minute
1934 POTEZ 53
The Potez 53 was a racing aeroplane built in France to compete in the 1933 Coupe Deutsch de la Muerthe. This low-wing aeroplane of conventional design included an enclosed cockpit for the pilot. The first Potez 53 built to compete in the 1933 Cup won first place covering the kilometers closed circuit course at an average speed of 323 km/h (201 mph). * Constant speed propeller (variable pitch) * Powered by an air-cooled radial engine of 350 horsepower * Max speed of 450 km/h (280 mph) * Low wing cantilever construction * Fully retractable landing gear (tailskid retracted into the fuselage) * Streamlined fuselage (flushed rivets) to reduce drag * For the first time wings equipped with full flaps
1955 SUD AVIATION CARAVELLE
The Sud Aviation SE 210 Caravelle was the first short/medium-range jet airliner and the second jet-powered passenger aeroplane to fly in the world (1955). The Caravelle would become the most successful European first-generation jetliners ever. Selling throughout Europe, the United States (20 to United Airlines) and to 80 airlines world-wide. The Caravelle pioneered rear-mounted engine and clean-wing design that has since been used on a wide variety of aeroplane including todays Canadair Regional Jet. * First jetliners with thrust reverser and wing spoilers * First jetliner to introduce the LEX (leading edge extension). Fillet added to the front of the wing to provide useable airflow at high AOA * First jetliner with swept wing design (delay onset of shock wave at high speed) * First jetliner to be equipped with an operational AUTOLAND (1958 – Air France) * Max speed 845 km/h (approximately 480 knots) * Service ceiling of feet ASL * Crew of 3 and seating pax depending on model
1969 Aérospatiale - BAC Concorde
The Aérospatiale-BAC Concorde aircraft was a turbojet-powered supersonic passenger airliner. Produced by Anglo-French government collaboration. First flown in 1969 Concorde entered service in 1976 and continued for 27 years (until 2003) Concorde flew regular transatlantic flights from London and Paris to New- York and Washington. Flying these routes at record speeds in less than half the time of other airliners (2 hours 50 min). An aeroplane 30 years ahead of his time setting numerous world record unbroken today. * Thin-winged delta shape with four turbo-jet engine * Max cruise speed of Mach 2.02 (2 140 km/h or mph. twice speed of sound) * Max cruise altitude of feet ASL * First civil airliner to have an analogue fly-by-wire flight control system. * Droop nose section for visibility on approach and landing * Variable inlet ramps controlled by digital computers * Thrust-by-wire engines, predecessor of todays FADEC-controlled engines