Optimization of BiV Pacing

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Optimization of AV and VV Delays
Lumax 540 CRM Training and Education Optimization of AV and VV Delays

Optimization of BiV Pacing
A-V Delay V-V Delay

AV Delay Optimization Goals Ensure BiV pacing
Improve diastolic filling Reduce mitral regurgitation Cardiac Output 

AV Delay Optimization AV too long Close to intrinsic PR (fusion)
Loss of CRT AV too short Premature mitral valve closure Hemodynamic compromise

AV Delay Optimization Methods Empirical Calculation Echocardiography
Pulse pressure

AV Delay Optimization Aortic Pressure in percent LV dP/dtmax
RV LV BiV Aortic Pressure in percent LV dP/dtmax in percent 16 24 12 18 8 12 4 6 PR - 30 ms PR - 30 ms -4 -6 -12 -8 A-V Delay A-V Delay Auricchio et al., Circulation 1999

AV Delay Optimization Calculation (PR interval) - 30 ms AVopt = 2
Example for As-Vs = 220 ms AVopt = (220-30)/2 = 95 ms Auricchio et al., Circulation 1999

AV Delay Optimization Limitations of Calculation Methods
LV lead in anterior vein RBBB Intrinsic PR > 300 ms AV block II°/III°

AV Delay Optimization Doppler Echocardiography
Flow Velocity at Mitral Valve Aortic Velocity Time Integral

Echocardiography 4 Chamber View Apical Position

Apical 4-Chamber View

Doppler-Echocardiography
Fd = Doppler frequency f0 = Ultrasound frequency (e.g., 2.4 MHz) V = Blood flow velocity  = Angle between sound beam and direction of blood flow c = Speed of sound in human tissue (1,530 m/s) 2 V cos  Fd = f0 c

Doppler-Echocardiography
Blood flow velocity Spectral analysis 1.5 1.0 0.5

Mitral Valve Doppler Echo
LV Ejection Filling ECG Doppler Sample Volume

Pulsed Wave Doppler Echo
4 Chamber View E/A Ratio Mitral Valve

Pulsed Wave Doppler Echo
ECG E A Velocity (cm/s) Time (50mm/s)

AV Delay Optimization Doppler Echo
Transmitral Flow Velocity  LV filling pressure E wave Early diastolic passive filling of the left ventricle A wave Late diastolic active filling of the left ventricle  atrial contribution

Normal Heart Cycle R P T P P Q S A A A E IVC IVR E IVC IVR E Aortic
Flow Aortic Flow Isovolumic Contraction Isovolumic Relaxation LVFT Left Ventricular Filling Time

Left Bundle Branch Block
R1 R2 R1 R2 P Q T T A A A A E

LBBB: Late MV Closure R1 R2 R1 R2 P Q T P P Mitral Valve Closure MVC A
IVC* IVC* Aortic Valve Opening AVO * IVC = Isovolumic Contraction

LBBB: Late End of LV Systole
R1 R2 R1 R2 P Q T P P MVC MVC A A A IVC IVC Aortic Flow Aortic Flow AVO Aortic Valve Closure Ejection LV Systole

LBBB: Late Start of LV Filling
R1 R2 R1 R2 P Q T P Q T P MVC MVO* A A A IVC IVR* Aortic Flow Aortic Flow AVO AVC * MVO = Mitral Valve Opening ** IVR = Isovolumic Relaxation

LBBB: Fusion of E and A R1 R2 R1 R2 P Q T P Q T P A A A E E E Aortic
Flow Aortic Flow Short LV Filling Time 250 ms at HR 65/min

LBBB: Resynchronization
R1 R2 R1 R2 P Q T P Q T P MVC A A A E IVC IVR E E Aortic Flow Aortic Flow Pre Ejection Period (PEP)

Biventricular Pacing BiV BiV BiV AVD T T P P P MVC MVC A A A E IVC E
Aortic Flow Aortic Flow Pro- longed LV Filling Time PEP 325 ms at HR 65/min

AV Optimization Short AV Delay Long AV Delay Ritter Formula Forced MVC
QA QA A wave truncation Spontaneous MVC A A E E Ritter Formula

AVopt = AVshort + [(AVlong - AVshort) - (QAshort - QAlong)]
AV Delay Optimization Ritter Formula "The Difference of the Differences" AVopt = AVshort + [(AVlong - AVshort) - (QAshort - QAlong)] Programmed AV Delays AVshort = short AV (25% of PR) AVlong = long AV (75% of PR) Measured QA Intervals QAshort = QA at short AV QAlong = QA at long AV Ritter et al., PACE 1995

Transmitral Flow At short AV delay AVshort = 50 ms QAshort = 128 ms
Begin Q A E 128 ms

Transmitral Flow At long A-V delay AVlong = 160 ms QAlong = 48 ms Q A

AV Delay Optimization Result Programmed AV Delays AVshort = 50 ms
AVlong = 160 ms Measured QA Intervals QAshort = 128 ms QAlong = 48 ms "The Difference of the Differences" AVopt = AVshort + [(AVlong - AVshort) - (QAshort - QAlong)] AVopt = 50 + [(160-50)-( )] = 50 + ( ) AVopt = 80 ms

AV Delay Optimization Short AV Long AV Optimal AV

AV Delay Optimization Doppler Echocardiography
Flow Velocity at Mitral Valve Aortic Velocity Time Integral

Doppler Echo Apical Five Chamber View

Doppler Echo Aortic Flow Velocity Kruck, Biamino 1988

Aortic Flow Velocity LBBB A A A Aortic Flow Aortic Flow Time Velocity

Aortic Flow Velocity Biventricular Pacing AVD A E Aortic Flow Aortic
Time Velocity

Velocity Time Integral
Integral = Area under the curve VTI = AVO AVC V * dt (cm) Fehske 1988

Velocity Time Integral
Ejection time Time vmax vmean Vmax = 1.58 m/s Vmean = 1.09 m/s ET = 288 ms VTI = Vmean * ET VTI = 0.31 m Velocity (m/s) ECG

AV Delay Optimization Velocity Time Integral VTI = 12.7 cm
Dr. Uhrig, Vivantes Urban Hospital Berlin

VTI Method Derived Parameters Stroke Volume SV = VTI * A
VTI = Velocity Time Integral A = Aortic Valve Area Cardiac Output CO = SV * HR HR = Heart Rate Fehske 1988

VTI Method Objective Identify optimal AV delay at max. VTI Procedure
CW Doppler of aortic outflow tract Decrement AV delay by 20 ms down to ≥ 80 ms Limitations Doppler signal quality Breathing modulations Intrinsic error %

AV Delay Optimization 30 Pts. after CRT implantation NYHA III-IV, LVEF < 35%, SR BiV on atrial sensed beats AV optimization on LV dp/dt max Comparison to Ritter formula, diastolic filling time (DFT), LV VTI, E/A VTI Jansen et al., Am J Cardiol 2006

LV dP/dt max LV Pressure (mmHg) dP/dt (mmHg/s)
Jansen et al., Am J Cardiol 2006

Compliance with LV dP/dt max. measurements
Good Good to reasonable % Jansen et al., Am J Cardiol 2006

AV Delay Optimization Methods Empirical Calculation Echocardiography
Pulse pressure

Pulse Pressure Method Objective
Identify AV delay that provides maximal difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure Procedure Arterial line to measure central aortic pressure accurately

Pulse Pressure Method Intrinsic Paced Pressure P Vp Time Pressure P R
Aorta LV PEP Time Auricchio et al., PACE 1998

Pulse Pressure Method BiV Pacing 110 Aortic Pressure (mmHg) 85 60
LV IEGM Time (s) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

AV Delay Optimization Summary Pulse pressure: hemodynamic testing
Calculation: initial programming Doppler Echo: non-responders

Optimization of BiV Pacing
A-V Delay V-V Delay

V-V Delay Optimization
AV AV AV AS AS AS VV VV LVP RVP LVP RVP RVP LVP VV = 0 LV first RV first

V-V Optimization 41 pts. with CHF after CRT-PM AV delay optimization
RV-/LV pre-activation: 0, 12, 20, 40, 80 ms Endpoints: Cardiac output, mitral regurgitation from echo Bordachar et al., JACC 2004

V-V Optimization Echocardiographic Parameters
M-mode: septal-to-posterior wall motion delay (SPWMD) Doppler: Interventricular mechenical delay (IVMD) Tissue Doppler: Intra LV delay onset (LV onset) Intra LV delay peak (LV peak) SD from 12 segments intra LV delay peak (SD LV peak)) Delayed longitudinal contraction (DLC) Bordachar et al., JACC 2004

V-V Optimization Correlation to Hemodynamics Cardiac Output
Mitral Regurgitation Parameter LV peak SD LV peak LV onset DLC SPWMD IVMD -0.67 -0.64 -0.48 -0.41 -0.24 0.68 0.63 0.51 0.24 0.06 Bordachar et al., JACC 2004

V-V Optimization 41 CHF pts. with CRT-PM No. of pts. 80 40 20 12 12 20
12 20 40 80 ms LV first RV first Bordachar et al., JACC 2004

V-V Optimization 166 DCM pts. with CRT (Doppler Echo) No. of pts. 80
At Implant 3 months No. of pts. 80 40 20 20 40 80 ms LV first RV first Delurgio et al., NASPE 2002

V-V Optimization V-V Optimization van Gelder et al., Am J Cardiol 2004
AF SR ischemic SR non-ischemic V-V Optimization van Gelder et al., Am J Cardiol 2004

Optimizing BiV Pacing

Optimizing BiV Pacing RV only LV only BiV BiV LV first I V1