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Advanced Mixing Advanced Audio and Mixing with Greg Hill AVGenius.com Copyright © 2011 AV Genius, LLC
Sound and Acoustics The Speed of Sound is around 1115 ft/sec Calculate Wavelengths (speed / frequency) What Does Sound Do When it Encounters an Obstacle ? Refraction – Bend around obstacles Reflection - Bounces off like Light Occurs When Wavelength < Size of Obstacle Absorption = Difficulty of Transmission Porous Materials Absorb Energy Converted to Heat No Such Thing as Sound Proof Copyright © 2011 AV Genius, LLC
Sound and Acoustics 2 Diffusion Redistribution of Sound in all (random) directions Rough Surfaces Diffuse Sound Diffusion Sounds Good Reverb Consists of Reflections less than 0.1 Sec. (100 msec) apart Brain Retains Sound for about 0.1 Sec. (100 msec) Reflections longer than 100 msec is Echo or Delay For Most of Us, more like msec Copyright © 2011 AV Genius, LLC
Sound and Acoustics 3 How We Hear Fletcher Munson Curve Intelligibility Fundamental Freq. of Speech is Hz Reflections below 300 Hz affect the Most (vowels) Consonants are strongest at kHz Sounds Consist of at Least Two Freq. Ranges An Impact or Attack in 1-4 kHz range The Body or Fundamental in Hz Range Copyright © 2011 AV Genius, LLC
How to Make a Great Mix What is a Great Mix ? You hear everything Clear Separation of all parts from each other Nothing Sticks Out - unless its supposed to No Frequency Range Sticks Out Smooth, Balanced, and not Irritating You can Clearly Hear the Vocals If It Sounds Good, It IS Good. Vocals are the Most Important The Low End is Where its At ! Copyright © 2011 AV Genius, LLC
How to Make a Great Mix 2 The 4 Ways to Get Separation Volume Cant separate many instruments/voices Cant separate similar sounding instruments EQ The Most Effective and important Gives each instrument its own musical space Can remove low end clutter to reveal instruments Panning Only valid in stereo or surround PA Yours is probably mono - and should be Copyright © 2011 AV Genius, LLC
How to Make a Great Mix 3 The 4 Ways to Get Separation - 2 Effects Use Reverb and Delay to add space and Depth More effect moves sound further back Less effect or none brings sound forward Limited effect in live spaces Less effective than the other methods Attack is as Important as Body Frequency Compression can help remove Attack and leave Body Compression can help remove Body and leave Attack Sounds are masked by other Sounds Copyright © 2011 AV Genius, LLC
How to Make a Great Mix 4 You Can Learn to Mix Well by Practicing Make Your Mix Appropriate for the Style Mix During the Entire Service Copyright © 2011 AV Genius, LLC
EQ ! The Most Effective Way to Create Separation The Low End is Where Its At All Instruments Fundamental Freq. is Hz Hi Frequencies Fall off at Different points Instruments Consist of at Least 2 Main Frequencies: 1-5 kHz, Hz Octaves Hz = 2 Octaves Hz = 2+ Octaves Bottom 2 Octaves = 300 Individual Frequencies Top 2 Octaves = 5000 Individual Frequencies Copyright © 2011 AV Genius, LLC
EQ ! duex Cut Out Whats Bad - Especially Hz EQ Cuts Sound Better than and are More Effective than Boost Think Backwards - Remove What You Dont Want Always Try to Cut First - Not Boost The Cut Technique (on sweepable mid) Turn EQ Gain Up All the Way Sweep Frequency Control from Low to High Listen for What Sounds Bad (esp Hz) Listen for Whats Good, too If More than One, Pick the Lowest One Cut that Frequency by 3-4 dB 250 Hz and 500Hz are sound bad, a lot Copyright © 2011 AV Genius, LLC
EQ ! Tres Using Common words to describe Frequencies Use a table of words describing certain frequencies, to help develop the ability to EQ your mixes. Copyright © 2011 AV Genius, LLC
Advanced Mixing Compression Automatic Volume Control 4 Controls + One Threshold Ratio Attack Release Use to Control Peaks, or Leave Peaks Why Compression Sounds Warm(er) Be Careful with Ratios and Threshold - Especially with Cheap Ones ! Limiters Gates Drums Guitars Copyright © 2011 AV Genius, LLC
Advanced Mixing - 2 Difficult Instruments Acoustic Guitars Violins (Strings) Piano Choirs Dealing with a Difficult Room Get as much Absorption as You Can Use Directional PA to Your Advantage Use Very Close Micing, DI as much as Possible Fix the Low End ! Low End Reverb is the Biggest Problem Creative Routing AUXes are not Just Monitor Feeds (Stefan and the Aux 5 Sub) Group or Sub-Masters and Their Outputs Direct Outs What is The Matrix ? Copyright © 2011 AV Genius, LLC
AVGenius.com - SPECIAL AV Genius Amplify SPECIAL Churches - $ Good until July 2012 Hi-def, multiple logins Individual - $ Good until July 2012 standard-def, single login Copyright © 2011 AV Genius, LLC
Basics of Mixing Live Sound Mixing with Greg Hill AVGenius.com Copyright © 2011 AV Genius, LLC
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