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Folksonomies as Subject Access A Survey of Tagging in Library Online Catalogs and Discovery Layers IFLA Satellite Post-Conference: Beyond libraries – subject.

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Presentation on theme: "Folksonomies as Subject Access A Survey of Tagging in Library Online Catalogs and Discovery Layers IFLA Satellite Post-Conference: Beyond libraries – subject."— Presentation transcript:

1 Folksonomies as Subject Access A Survey of Tagging in Library Online Catalogs and Discovery Layers IFLA Satellite Post-Conference: Beyond libraries – subject metadata in the digital environment and semantic web August 2012, Tallinn Yan Yi Lee, Wagner College, NY, USA Sharon Q. Yang, Rider University, NJ, USA

2 Overview 1.Introduction – What is folksonomy? – Is folksonomy useful as subject access? 2.Survey-purpose and methodology 3.Findings and discussion 4.Conclusion

3 What is Folksonomy? Taxonomy + folk = folksonomy Classification of resources by users Describe resources in users’ own language Tags and tag clouds are folksonomy

4 Example of Tag Cloud Arcadia Public Library (Arcadia, California) - Feb12, 2012

5 Folksonomy as Subject Access? Past research compared LCSH with folksonomy in LibraryThing: – Up to 60% of the folksonomy duplicate LCSH. – A small percentage comprises useless tags – Tags use different terms than LCSH – Tags cover more aspect of a book’s subject – 20% to 30% can provide additional access to library collections

6 So the Questions are… How do library systems handle folksonomy? How do libraries handle folksonomy when given the capability? How do users handle folksonomy when given the opportunity?

7 Methodology Systems (Marshall Breeding’s Library Technology Guide) – Discovery layers (15) – OAPC of Integrated Library System (37) Libraries – Koha OPACs (307) Users – Koha OPACS (307)

8 Discovery Tools & Tagging The survey checked all the major discovery tools – 47% Discovery Tools allow users to add tags 40% can display Tag list 33% can display a tag cloud 27% can display both – 47% execute a new search – 20% narrow a search

9 15 Discovery Tools & Tagging Systems Allow Users to add tags Tag CloudTag list Tag to start a new search Tag to refine a search 1AquaBrowserYes 2AXIELL ARENANo 3BlacklightNo 4Biblio CommonsYesNoYes 5EBSCO Discover ServiceNo 6EncoreYes 7EndecaNo 8EnterpriseNo 9PrimoYes No 10ScriblioNo 11SummonNo 12SOPACYes NoYesNo 13VisualizerNo 14VuFindYesNoYes No 15WorldCat LocalYes No Total47%33%40%47%20%

10 Integrated Library Systems and Tagging The survey includes 37 Major Integrated Library Systems (ILSs) - Tagging function in ILS - Tag could or tag list in OPAC, or both - Tag to start a new search - Tag to refine a search result

11 37 ILSs & Tagging Library Automation SystemAllow Users to add tagsTag CloudTag List Tag to start a new search Tag to refine a search Agent VERSONo Aleph 500No AlexandriaNo AmlibNo ApolloNo AthenaNo AtriuumNo Carl.XNo Circulation PlusNo ConcourseNo DB/TextWorksNo DestinyNo DynixNo EOS WebNo EvergreenNo EvolveNo Genesis G3YesNo GLASNo

12 37 ILSs & Tagging - continued HorizonNo InfoCentreNo InnopacNo KohaYes NoYesNo Liberty3No Library SolutionNo LibraryWorldNo Mandarin M3No MillenniumNo OPALSNo PolarisNo PortfolioNo ResourceMateNo SpydusNo Unicorn (Symphony)No VirtuaNo VoyagerNo Vubis SmartNo Winnebago SpectrumNo Total5.41%2.70%0.00%2.70%0.00%

13 Integrated Library Systems and Tagging - continued Only 2 out of 37 ILSs allow Tagging – Koha & Genesis G3 (5% ILSs) Koha is the only ILS has tag cloud in the online catalog (OPAC) Koha uses tags to enhance subject access None ILS uses tags to refine search results

14 Libraries & Tagging Take Koha as an example ILS for the survey Koha - Open Source Integrated Library System, created in 1999 A survey of tagging activities in 307 Koha implementers public libraries - 62 academic libraries - 27 school libraries

15 Libraries & Tagging - continued All tags in Koha Tag Cloud are created by users Users can create tags in Koha for private or public Tags were proved by librarians before adding to Cloud for public External dictionary in Koha – a whitelist to verify terms added by users

16 Tagging in 307 Koha OPACs

17 Tagging in 307 Koha OPACs - continued Library Type Total Libraries Total Libraries (Tags Enabled) Percentage (Tags Enabled) Total Libraries (Tags Disabled) Percentage (Tags Disabled) Public % % Academic % % School % % All Libraries % %

18 Tagging in 307 Koha OPACs - continued 149 out of 307 libraries encourage users to add tags to OPACs (51%) – Academic libraries: nearly 58% enabled – Public libraries: 49% enabled – School libraries: 22% enabled

19 Users & Tagging How much did users take advantage of Tagging? Tag clouds grouped into 4 categories - Large cloud (over 50 tags) - Small cloud (Less than 50 tags) - Empty cloud (Tagging turned on, but no tags) - No cloud (Tagging turned off)

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21 Users & Tagging - continued

22 A Test of Tagging Tag Cloud in Wagner College Koha OPAC – a test (Sandbox) Tags are simple terms created by students in their own language Some tags are closer to subject headings Searching by tags only retrieve limited titles tag “microbiology” => 3 titles subject “microbiology” => 262 titles

23 Tag Cloud in Wagner College Koha OPAC

24 Conclusion - Think outside the box More systems need to include tagging capability in design (47% in discovery layers vs. 5% in ILS) All libraries should give users the opportunity to tag (49% enabled) Find innovative ways to encourage users to participate in tagging

25 Food for Thought More research is needed for 1.Why public library users are more active in tagging? 2.Better subject access to combine user contributed tagging and keyword extraction into one tag cloud? 3.How to link/map LCSH to user contributed tags?

26 Questions and Answers

27 Credits Breeding, M. (2012). Guides: Resources and content on relevant topics. In Library technology guides: Key resources in the field of library automation [This site has comprehensive listings of Integrated Library Systems and discovery tools]. Retrieved March 6, 2012, from Kwan, Y., & Lois Mai, C. (2009). Linking folksonomy to Library of Congress subject headings: an exploratory study. Journal Of Documentation, 65(6), Liu, C., Park, J., & Hu, X. (2010). User tags versus expert-assigned subject terms: A comparison Of LibraryThing tags and Library of Congress Subject Headings. Journal Of Information Science, 36(6), doi: / Rolla, P. J. (2009). User Tags versus Subject Headings: Can User-Supplied Data Improve Subject Access to Library Collections?. Library Resources & Technical Services, 53(3), Wetterstrom, M. (2008). The Complementarity of Tags and LCSH — A Tagging Experiment And Investigation into Added Value in a New Zealand Library Context. New Zealand Library & Information Management Journal, 50(4), Yi, K., & Chan, L. (2009). Linking folksonomy to Library of Congress subject headings: an exploratory study. Journal Of Documentation, 65(6),


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