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9.3 Naming and Writing Formulas for Molecular Compounds 1 > Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 9 Chemical.

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Presentation on theme: "9.3 Naming and Writing Formulas for Molecular Compounds 1 > Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 9 Chemical."— Presentation transcript:

1 9.3 Naming and Writing Formulas for Molecular Compounds 1 > Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 9 Chemical Names and Formulas 9.1 Naming Ions 9.2 Naming and Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds 9.3 Naming and Writing Formulas for Molecular Compounds 9.4 Naming and Writing Formulas for Acids and Bases 9.5 The Laws Governing How Compounds Form

2 9.3 Naming and Writing Formulas for Molecular Compounds 2 > Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. What prefixes are used in chemistry? The word triathlon contains the prefix tri-, indicating the number 3. Prefixes are used in chemistry, too. CHEMISTRY & YOU

3 9.3 Naming and Writing Formulas for Molecular Compounds 3 > Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Binary Molecular Compounds What guidelines are used to write the name and formula of a binary molecular compound? Binary Molecular Compounds

4 9.3 Naming and Writing Formulas for Molecular Compounds 4 > Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Remember that binary ionic compounds are composed of the ions of two elements, a metal and a nonmetal. Binary molecular compounds are also composed of two elements, but both elements are nonmetals and are not ions. Binary molecular compounds are composed of molecules, not ions, so ionic charges cannot be used to write formulas or to name them. Binary Molecular Compounds

5 9.3 Naming and Writing Formulas for Molecular Compounds 5 > Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. When two nonmetallic elements combine, they often do so in more than one way, like carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and carbon monoxide (CO). These are very different compounds. Binary Molecular Compounds

6 9.3 Naming and Writing Formulas for Molecular Compounds 6 > Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Prefixes in the names of binary molecular compounds help distinguish compounds containing different numbers of atoms, such as CO and CO 2. Binary Molecular Compounds Naming Binary Molecular Compounds Prefixes Used in Naming Binary Molecular Compounds PrefixNumber mono-1 di-2 tri-3 tetra-4 penta-5 hexa-6 hepta-7 octa-8 nona-9 deca-10

7 9.3 Naming and Writing Formulas for Molecular Compounds 7 > Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Prefixes in the names of binary molecular compounds tell how many atoms of an element are present in each molecule of the compound. The prefix mono- would be used for the single oxygen atom in CO. The prefix di- would be used for the two oxygen atoms in CO 2. Binary Molecular Compounds Naming Binary Molecular Compounds

8 9.3 Naming and Writing Formulas for Molecular Compounds 8 > Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Use the prefixes listed in the table along with the guidelines on the next slides to name a binary molecular compound. Before you apply these steps, you have to confirm that the compound is a binary molecular compound. Binary Molecular Compounds Naming Binary Molecular Compounds

9 9.3 Naming and Writing Formulas for Molecular Compounds 9 > Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. To name a binary molecular compound, use the following guidelines. 1.Write the names of the elements in the order listed in the formula. Binary Molecular Compounds

10 9.3 Naming and Writing Formulas for Molecular Compounds 10 > Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. To name a binary molecular compound, use the following guidelines. 1.Write the names of the elements in the order listed in the formula. 2.Use prefixes appropriately to indicate the number of each kind of atom. Binary Molecular Compounds

11 9.3 Naming and Writing Formulas for Molecular Compounds 11 > Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. To name a binary molecular compound, use the following guidelines. 1.Write the names of the elements in the order listed in the formula. 2.Use prefixes appropriately to indicate the number of each kind of atom. If just one atom of the first element is in the formula, omit the prefix mono- for that element. Also, the vowel at the end of a prefix is sometimes dropped when the name of the element begins with a vowel. Binary Molecular Compounds

12 9.3 Naming and Writing Formulas for Molecular Compounds 12 > Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. To name a binary molecular compound, use the following guidelines. 1.Write the names of the elements in the order listed in the formula. 2.Use prefixes appropriately to indicate the number of each kind of atom. If just one atom of the first element is in the formula, omit the prefix mono- for that element. Also, the vowel at the end of a prefix is sometimes dropped when the name of the element begins with a vowel. 3.End the name of the second element with the suffix -ide. Binary Molecular Compounds

13 9.3 Naming and Writing Formulas for Molecular Compounds 13 > Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Following these guidelines, CO is named carbon monoxide and CO 2 is named carbon dioxide. Cl 2 O 8 consists of two chlorine atoms and eight oxygen atoms. The name is therefore dichlorine octoxide. Binary Molecular Compounds Naming Binary Molecular Compounds

14 9.3 Naming and Writing Formulas for Molecular Compounds 14 > Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Sample Problem 9.6 Naming Binary Molecular Compounds Name the following binary molecular compounds. a. N 2 O b. PCl 3

15 9.3 Naming and Writing Formulas for Molecular Compounds 15 > Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Solve Apply the concepts to this problem. Identify the elements in the compound and the number of atoms of each element in a molecule of the compound. a. N 2 O is composed of two nonmetals, nitrogen and oxygen. b. PCl 3 is composed of two nonmetals, phosphorus and chlorine. Sample Problem 9.6 2

16 9.3 Naming and Writing Formulas for Molecular Compounds 16 > Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Sample Problem 9.6 Solve Apply the concepts to this problem. Write the names of the elements in the order they are written in the formula. Include prefixes to show how many atoms of each element. Use the suffix -ide with the name of the second element. a. Each molecule of N 2 O has: 2 nitrogen atoms; 1 oxygen atom. N 2 O is dinitrogen monoxide. 2

17 9.3 Naming and Writing Formulas for Molecular Compounds 17 > Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Sample Problem 9.6 Solve Apply the concepts to this problem. Write the names of the elements in the order they are written in the formula. Include prefixes to show how many atoms of each element. Use the suffix -ide with the name of the second element. b. Each molecule of PCl 3 has: 1 phosphorus atom; 3 chlorine atoms. PCl 3 is phosphorus trichloride. 2 The prefix mono- is not used with the first element indicated in the formula.

18 9.3 Naming and Writing Formulas for Molecular Compounds 18 > Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. An interesting example is tetraphosphorus trisulfide, which is used in some matches. The name tetraphosphorus trisulfide has the prefixes tetra- and tri-, so the subscripts of phosphorus and sulfur must be 4 and 3, respectively. Thus, the formula for tetraphosphorus trisulfide is P 4 S 3. Binary Molecular Compounds Writing Formulas for Binary Molecular Compounds

19 9.3 Naming and Writing Formulas for Molecular Compounds 19 > Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Sample Problem 9.7 Writing Formulas for Binary Molecular Compounds Write formulas for the following binary molecular compounds. a. nitrogen trifluoride b. disulfur dichloride Note: The number 1 is never used as a subscript in a formula.

20 9.3 Naming and Writing Formulas for Molecular Compounds 20 > Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Sample Problem 9.7 The prefixes in the name indicate the subscript of each element in the formula. Write the symbols for the two elements with the appropriate subscripts.

21 9.3 Naming and Writing Formulas for Molecular Compounds 21 > Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Use the prefixes to determine how many atoms of each element are in the compound. Sample Problem 9.7 a. Each molecule of nitrogen trifluoride has: 1 nitrogen atom; 3 fluorine atoms. b. Each molecule of disulfur dichloride has: 2 sulfur atoms; 2 chlorine atoms.

22 9.3 Naming and Writing Formulas for Molecular Compounds 22 > Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Solve Apply the concepts to this problem. Construct the formula using the correct symbols and subscripts. Sample Problem 9.7 2 a. 1 nitrogen atom; 3 fluorine atoms b. 2 sulfur atoms; 2 chlorine atoms NF 3 S 2 Cl 2

23 9.3 Naming and Writing Formulas for Molecular Compounds 23 > Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. What are binary molecular compounds composed of? How is their composition different from binary ionic compounds?

24 9.3 Naming and Writing Formulas for Molecular Compounds 24 > Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. What are binary molecular compounds composed of? How is their composition different from binary ionic compounds? Binary molecular compounds are composed of two elements, which are nonmetals and are not ions. Binary ionic compounds are composed of the ions of two elements, a metal and a nonmetal.

25 9.3 Naming and Writing Formulas for Molecular Compounds 25 > Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. To name a binary molecular compound, write the names of the elements in the order listed in the formula. Use prefixes to indicate the number of each atom. End the name of the second element with -ide. To write the formula of a binary molecular compound, use the prefixes to determine the subscript of each element. Write the symbols for the elements with the subscripts. Key Concepts

26 9.3 Naming and Writing Formulas for Molecular Compounds 26 > Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Ionic and molecular compounds differ in compositionions form ionic compounds, and molecules form molecular compounds. BIG IDEA

27 9.3 Naming and Writing Formulas for Molecular Compounds 27 > 9.3 Questions 1.Binary molecular compounds are composed of ? 2.List the prefixes in increasing order, that represent the numbers 1 thru 8. (Start with mono….) 3.Write the three rules that are used to write the name of a binary molecular compound. 4. Write the formulas for each of these compounds: a. nitrogen triiodide _____________ b. diphosphorous pentachloride _____________ c. carbon tetrachloride _____________ d. xenon hexaflouride _____________ Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

28 9.3 Naming and Writing Formulas for Molecular Compounds 28 > 9.3 Questions (continued) 5. Write the names for each of these compounds: a. AlF 6 ________________ b. PbO________________ c. Ba 3 N 2 ________________ d. SF 6 ________________ e. N 2 O 5 ________________ Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.


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