Presentation on theme: "National Patient Safety Goal Anticoagulant Therapy NPSG.03.05.01 Bonnie Thomas, Pharm.D. Medication Safety Officer Desert Regional Medical Center Palm."— Presentation transcript:
National Patient Safety Goal Anticoagulant Therapy NPSG.03.05.01 Bonnie Thomas, Pharm.D. Medication Safety Officer Desert Regional Medical Center Palm Springs, CA Special Thanks to content developers: Coralee Johnson, Pharm.D.c, Loma Linda University, School of Pharmacy Vivian Nguyen, Pharm.D.c, Loma Linda University, School of Pharmacy Alison Wong, Pharm.D.c, Loma Linda University, School of Pharmacy
Objectives Understand the goal for NPSG 03.05.01 and the organizations to which this standard applies. Identify the elements of performance for anticoagulation therapy. Recognize current quality indicators used in anticoagulation management. Evaluate how your institution meets or exceeds these standards.
NPSG.03.05.01 Joint Commission revised the 2010 NPSGs on July 1, 2011 Goal: decrease the chance of patient harm with the use of anticoagulants Anticoagulants are among the leading drugs associated with patient harm in U.S. 7.2 % of 446 medication-related sentinel events (January 1997 to December 2007) 4 Look-alike and sound-alike drugs Calculation errors Monitoring problems (i.e. lab errors) Drug-drug, drug-food interactions
Who It Applies To? 1. Ambulatory Care (only EPs 2, 3, 7, 8) 2. Critical Access Hospital 3. Hospital 4. Long Term Care 5. Long Term Care (Medicare/Medicaid) ***Note: Applies to organizations that provide anticoagulant therapy used for treatment or long- term prophylaxis
Elements of Performance 1. Use only oral-unit dose products, prefilled syringes, or premixed infusion bags when these types of products are available. Note: For pediatric patients, prefilled syringe products should be used only if specifically designed for children. 2. Use approved protocols for the initiation and maintenance of anticoagulant therapy.
Elements of Performance 3.Before starting a patient on warfarin, assess patients baseline coagulation status; for all patients receiving warfarin therapy, use current INR to adjust therapy. Baseline status and current INR are documented in the medical record. Note: The patients baseline coagulation status can be assessed in a number of ways, including through a lab test or by identifying risk factors such as age, weight, bleeding tendency, and genetic factors.
GENETIC TESTING FOR WARFARIN CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotyping has been advocated by FDA for improvement of warfarin dosing Identify optimal stable dose of warfarin Reduce risk of bleeding complications American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) 2008 Strong association between genetic information and final warfarin dose, but still not clear that having this information impacts patient outcomes Insufficient evidence to recommend for or against routine CYP2C9 and VKORC1 testing in warfarin naïve patients American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) 2008 Suggest against the use of pharmacogenetic-based initial dosing to individualize warfarin dosing (Grade 2C) Cost: $400-550 for genotype test Cost-effective analysis showed pharmacogenetic testing is not cost-effective with estimated QALY of $170,000 24 Limited analysis since clinical benefit not yet characterized
Elements of Performance 4. Use authoritative resources to manage potential food and drug interactions for patients receiving warfarin. 5. When heparin is administered intravenously and continuously, use programmable pumps in order to provide consistent and accurate dosing. 6. A written policy addresses baseline and ongoing laboratory tests that are required for anticoagulants.
DrugReversal AgentMonitoring HeparinProtamine 14 aPTT 14 EnoxaparinProtamine 14 Anti-Xa 13 by chromogenic assay (not routine) DalteparinProtamine 14 Anti-Xa 13 (not routine) TinzaparinProtamine 14 Anti-Xa 13 (not routine) ArgatrobanRecombinant factor VIIa 15, 19 aPTT ; Ecarin clotting time 19 (ecarin not widely used) LepirudinRecombinant factor VIIa 15, 19 aPTT; Ecarin clotting time 19 (ecarin not widely used) BivalirudinRecombinant factor VIIa 15, 19 aPTT; Ecarin clotting time 19 (ecarin not widely used) Dabigatran Prothrombin complex concentrate 22 Recombinant factor VIIa 22 Fresh frozen plasma; Packed red blood cells 16, 18 Ecarin clotting time, aPTT and PT (minimal effects) 12 FondaparinuxRecombinant factor VIIa 14 Anti-Xa 19 ApixabanRecombinant factor VIIa 21 Anti-Xa, dilute PT 12 RivaroxabanRecombinant factor VIIa 20, 21 Prothrombin complex concentrate 21 Activated charcoal 17 Anti-Xa, PT 12 WarfarinVitamin K; Fresh Plasma; prothrombin complex concentrate; recombinant factor VIIa 14 INR/PT 14
Elements of Performance 7. Provide education regarding anticoagulant therapy to prescribers, staff, patients, and families. Patient/family education includes the following: The importance of follow-up monitoring Compliance Drug-food interactions The potential for adverse drug reactions (i.e. bleeding) and drug-drug interactions New drugs (i.e. rivaroxaban, dabigatran)
Elements of Performance 8. Evaluate anticoagulation safety practices, take action to improve practices, and measure the effectiveness of those actions in a time frame determined by the organization.
Anticoagulation benchmarks Outcome measures 5,6,7, 8, 9, 10 Adverse events (ICD-9 codes) Major bleeding Thromboembolism Anticoagulation therapy-related death Measures of INR control Time in therapeutic range (TTR) need software to calculate % of patients reaching INRs/TTR in therapeutic range Time to therapeutic range INR variability Extreme INR values # of INR determinations per month Length of stay in hospital Readmission rates
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