4Why don’t we just say 12?It is often easier to group objects when counting them 2 dozen = dozen = 36…and it doesn’t matter what the objects are… a dozen means 12 whether it is a dozen eggs, a dozen roses, or a dozen ugly hats
5So what is a mole?A mole is a counting unit. It tells us how many objects there are.A pair and a dozen are also counting units.Pairmeans2 objectsDozen12 objectsMole6.02x1023 objects
6So what is a mole? It is just a term used to represent a number 2 = pair = 1 dozen x 1023 = 1 mole…and we call 6.02 x Avagadro’s number
7Avogadro’s number = 6.02 x =Avogadro -He didn’t actually identify the number– but it was named after him to honor his many contributions to chemistry
8So why is it such a big number? What counting unit would you use for these objects?PAIR
9So why is it such a big number? What counting unit would you use for these objects?DOZEN
10So why is it such a big number? What counting unit would you use for these objects?MOLESince atoms and molecules are very small, the quantity used to measure them needs to be a very large number
11So why is it such a big number? Since a mole is such a large number, it is useful only for counting very small objects like atoms and molecules. A mole of donuts is too many to eat.Like a pair (2) or a dozen (12), the quantity of a mole (6.02 x 1023) never changes, but unlike a pair or a dozen, its value is very, very large
12Avogadro’s Number as Conversion Factor 6.02 x 1023 particles1 moleor1 moleNote that a particle could be an atom OR a molecule!
13Practice Number of atoms in 0.500 mole of Al a) Al atomsb) x 1023 Al atomsc) x 1023 Al atomsa) Al atomsb) x 1023 Al atomsc) x 1023 Al atoms0.500 mole Al | *1023 atoms =|1 mole2. Number of moles of S in 1.8 x 1024 S atomsa) mole S atomsb) mole S atomsc) x 1048 mole S atomsa) mole S atomsb) mole S atomsc) x 1048 mole S atoms1.8 *1024 atoms S | 1 mole =| *1023 atoms
15What if I asked you how many atoms are in a mole of a compound? you must know how many atoms are in a representative particle or cluster of the compound.To do this you must know the chem formulaFor example, each molecule of CO2 is composed of 1 C + 2 O’s = 3 atoms1 mole of carbon dioxide molecules contains avogadro’s number of carbon dioxide molecules.Thus a mole of CO2 contains three times avogadro’s number of atoms
16How many atoms of carbon are in 2.12 mols of propane molecules (C3H8)? To find the # of atoms in a mol of a compound,You 1st determine the # of atoms in a representative particle of that compoundAnd then multiply that # of atoms by avogadro’s #How many atoms of carbon are in 2.12 mols of propane molecules (C3H8)?Useful Info:1 mol C3H8 = 6.02x1023 molecules C3H81molecule C3H8 = 3 atoms of C
17(1molecC3H8)(X)=(1.276x1024molec•molsC3H8) 1st we need to see how many molecules of propane we have if we have 2.12 moles.1 mole C3H82.12 moles C3H8=6.02x1023molec C3H8X molec C3H8(1molecC3H8)(X)=(1.276x1024molec•molsC3H8)(1 molec C3H8)(1 molec C3H8)X = 1.276x1024 molecules of C3H8
18(1molec C3H8)(X)=(3.83x1024molec • atoms C) 2nd we need to see how many atoms of C if we have 1.276x1024 molecs of C3H8.1 molecule C3H81.276x1024 molec C3H8=3 atoms of CX atoms C(1molec C3H8)(X)=(3.83x1024molec • atoms C)(1 molec C3H8)(1 molec C3H8)X = 3.83x1024 atoms of Carbon
19So the mole can be used to measure any kind of particle – atoms, ions, molecules, formula units It is possible to have a mole of iron atoms, a mole of water molecules and a mole of sodium chloride – all contain 6.02 x 1023 particlesBut do 1 mol of iron, 1 mol of water and 1 mol of sodium chloride all have the same mass?NO!!
20Do a dozen donuts, a dozen books and a dozen bricks weigh the same? NO, so neither do a mole of different atoms, ions or molecules
21Each sample contains 1 mol (6.02 x 1023 atoms) 12.0g carbon32.0g sulfur65.38g zincWhich element do you think has the heaviest atoms?
22So now that we know what a mole of atoms looks like…where did the number come from?
23CARBON!! 6.02 x 1023 atoms Guess how many there were? Scientists took 12g of pure carbon-12(composed of 6 protons + 6 neutrons; mass number = 12)and counted how many carbon atomswere in the sampleGuess how many there were?6.02 x 1023 atomsWhy use 12 grams? They wanted the mass of one mole to be the same as the mass number
246.02 x1023 atoms of CarbonThis pile of carbon-12 weighs 12.0 grams and contains 6.02 x 1023 carbon atomsThis is one mole of carbon
25This pile of sulfur contains 6.02x1023 atoms of sulfur. This is one mole of sulfur.Review: A mole is a simple way of saying wehave 6.02x1023 objects.
26Atomic molar mass of an element = is the average mass (g) of one mole of atoms of that element
27Back to carbon….12.01 g/molatomic molar mass of an element =mass (g) of one mole of atoms of that elementHere is one mole of carbon which weighs 12.0 gThe atomic molar mass of carbon on the periodic table is….Which means there are g for every mol of carbon
28Here is 65. 38 grams of the element zinc Here is grams of the element zinc. How many moles of zinc do we have?1 mole.atomic molar mass of an element = mass (g) of one mole of atoms of that element
29What is the mass, in grams, of this sample of sulfur? This pile of sulfur contains 6.02x1023 atoms of sulfur (or 1 mole of sulfur)What is the mass, in grams, of this sample of sulfur?32.06 gatomic molar mass of an element = mass (g) of one mole of atoms of that element
30Here is 0.50 moles of copper. How many grams of copper do we have? 0.50 moles x (63.55 g/mole) = 31.8g0.50 moles | g= 31.8g | 1 mole)
31This pile of powdered iron contains 3.01x1023 atoms. What is its mass? 27.9 g3.01x1023 atoms| 1 mole Fe | g = 27.9g Fe | *1023 atoms Fe | 1mole Fe3.01x1023 atoms| 1 mole = moles | 6.02 *1023 atoms moles | g Fe = 27.9 g Fe | 1 mole
32Molar mass = the mass of one mole of a substance So now we’re not talking about individual elements but molecules and compoundsI.e. What is the molar mass of water?The formula for water is:H2O , so one molecule contains hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom
33Molar mass = the mass of one mole of a substance Atomic molar mass of H = 1.01g/mol x 2 = 2.02 g/molAtomic molar mass of O = 16.00g/mol x 1 = 16.00g/molMolar mass of water H2O is g/mol
34Other Names Related to Molar Mass Molecular Mass/Molecular Weight: If you have a single molecule, mass is measured in amu’s instead of grams. But, the molecular mass/weight is the same numerical value as 1 mole of molecules. Only the units are different. (This is the beauty of Avogadro’s Number!)Formula Mass/Formula Weight: Same goes for compounds. But again, the numerical value is the same. Only the units are different.THE POINT: You may hear all of these terms which mean the SAME NUMBER… just different units
35Molar mass Now you try it… What is the molar mass of methane CH4(g) ? C = g/mol x 1 = g/molH = 1.01g/mol x = 4.04 g/molMolar mass of methane = g/mol
36Molar mass Now you try it… What is the molar mass of methanol CH3OH? C = g/mol x 1 = g/molH = 1.01g/mol x 4 = g/molO = g/mol x = g/molMolar mass of methanol = g/mol
37Find the molar mass of SnBr PracticeFind the molar mass of SnBr= g/mole1 mole of Br atoms1 mole of Sn atoms1 mole of SnBr formula units= g/mole= g/mole
38Converting between mass, molar mass and moles m = quantity of matter (mass) in gramsn = quantity of matter in molesM = molar massm = n x MSo if you wanted to know the mass of 2 mol of carbonm = (2 mol) x (12.01g/mol) or2 mol C | g C| 1 mole C= g C
39Molar Mass of Molecules and Compounds Mass in grams of 1 mole equal numerically to the sum of the atomic masses1 mole of CaCl2 = g/mol1 mole Ca x 40.1 g/mol+ 2 moles Cl x 35.5 g/mol = g/mol CaCl21 mole of N2O4 = 92.0 g/mol
40Practice Molar Mass of K2O = ? Grams/mole B. Molar Mass of antacid Al(OH)3 = ? Grams/moleAl= 1*26.98 =26.98O =3 *16. = 48.0H= 3*1.008 = g/mol
41PracticeProzac, C17H18F3NO, is a widely used antidepressant that inhibits the uptake of serotonin by the brain. Find its molar mass.
42Converting Moles and Grams Aluminum is often used for the structure of light-weight bicycle frames. How many grams of Al are in 3.00 moles of Al?3.00 moles Al ? g Al
431. Molar mass of Al 1 mole Al = 27.0 g Al 2. Conversion factors for Al27.0g Al or mol Al1 mol Al g Al3. Setup 3.00 moles Al | g Al1 mole AlAnswer = 3.00* 27 g Al = 81.0 g Al
44PracticeThe artificial sweetener aspartame (Nutra-Sweet) formula C14H18N2O5 is used to sweeten diet foods, coffee and soft drinks. How many moles of aspartame are present in 225 g of aspartame?
45Atoms/Molecules and Grams Since 6.02 X 1023 particles = 1 mole AND 1 mole = molar mass (grams)You can convert atoms/molecules to moles and then moles to grams!(Two step process)You can’t go directly from atoms to grams!!!! You MUST go thru MOLES.That’s like asking 2 dozen cookies weigh how many ounces if 1 cookie weighs 4 oz? You have to convert to dozen first!
46Everything must go through Moles!!! Calculationsmolar mass Avogadro’s number Grams Moles particlesEverything must go through Moles!!!
47Atoms/Molecules and Grams How many atoms of Cu are present in 35.4 g of Cu?35.4 g Cu mol Cu X 1023 atoms Cu g Cu mol Cu= 3.4 X 1023 atoms Cu
48PracticeHow many atoms of K are present in 78.4 g of K?
49PracticeWhat is the mass (in grams) of 1.20 X 1024 molecules of glucose (C6H12O6)?
50Practice How many atoms of O are present in 78.1 g of oxygen? 78.1 g O2 1 mol O X 1023 molecules O2 2 atoms O g O mol O molecule O2
51X = 12.2 L of CO 1 mole CO .500 mol CO = X L CO *Remember*1 mol CO = 22.4 L CO1 mole CO.500 mol CO=22.4 L COX L CO(1mol CO)(X L CO)= (.500 mol CO)(22.4 L CO(1mol CO)(1mol CO)X = 12.2 L of CO
52atomic1 molemassMass22.4 LRepresentativeParticlesVolume of Gasat STP6.02x1023Mole
53PracticeIf you have a 35.67g piece of Chromium metal on your car, how many atoms of Chromium are in this piece of metal?You are given mass and asked for number of particlesSet it up as a factor label problem
54atomic1 molemassMass22.4 LRepresentativeParticlesVolume of Gasat STP6.02x1023Mole
55Representative Volume of Gas Particles at STP 23 6.02x10 22.4 L Mole atomic1 molemassMass22.4 LRepresentativeParticlesVolume of Gasat STP6.02x1023MoleWe are given a mass
56Representative Volume of Gas Particles at STP 23 6.02x10 22.4 L Mole atomic1 molemassMass22.4 LRepresentativeParticlesVolume of Gasat STP6.02x1023MoleWe are asked for atomsIt’s going to take us 2 conversions, we just need to follow the arrowsWe are given a mass
571st we must convert our given mass of Chromium to moles of Chromium So we need to use the periodic table to calculate the mass of 1 mole of Chromium1 mole CrX mol Cr=51.996g Cr35.67g Cr(51.996gCr)(X mol Cr) =(35.67gCr)(1 mol Cr)X = mol Cr
582nd we must convert our newly found moles of Cr to atoms of Cr So we need to remember that 1 mole of anything there are 6.02x1023 particles6.02x1023 atoms CrX atoms Cr=1 mole Cr.6860 mol Cr(1 mol Cr)(X atoms Cr) =(6.02x1023 atoms Cr)(.6860 mol Cr)X = 4.13x1023 atoms Cr
60Percent CompositionAtomic weights can be found by using the Periodic Table of the Elements.Find the atomic weight of each element.Multiply the number of atoms by the atomic weight, and add all of these weights per compound together.Divide each atom (or ion's) individual atomic mass by the total chemical mass *100
61Percent Composition FeO = Fe = 55.845g/mol O = 15.999 g/mol
64Percent Composition Li3P - Lithium Phosphide Li = P = 3* 6.941 = 20.823/ =0.40230.971* =/ =0.59851.793
65Percent Composition C=5*12.01 = 60.050 C= 60.050 / 145.140 = 0.411 What is the percent carbon in C5H8NO4 (the glutamic acid used to make MSG monosodium glutamate), a compound used to flavor foods and tenderize meats?a) %Cb) %Cc) %CC=5*12.01 =H= 8*1.01 = 8.080N = 1*14.01 = 14.01O= 4* =64.0C5H8NO4 =C= / = 0.4110.411*100 = 41.1%
66Chemical Formulas of Compounds Formulas give the relative numbers of atoms or moles of each element in a formula unit - always a whole number ratio (the law of definite proportions).NO atoms of O for every 1 atom of N1 mole of NO2 : 2 moles of O atoms to every 1 mole of N atomsIf we know or can determine the relative number of moles of each element in a compound, we can determine a formula for the compound.
67Types of Formulas Empirical Formula The formula of a compound that expresses the smallest whole number ratio of the atoms present.Ionic formula are always empirical formulaMolecular FormulaThe formula that states the actual number of each kind of atom found in one molecule of the compound.
68Simplest and molecular formulae Consider NaCl (ionic) vs. H2O2 (covalent)ClNaClHONaHOHOClClNaNaChemical formulas are either “simplest” (a.k.a. “empirical”) or “molecular”. Ionic compounds are always expressed as simplest formulas.Covalent compounds can either be molecular formulas (I.e. H2O2) or simplest (e.g. HO)
69Simplest and molecular formulae Consider NaCl (ionic) vs. H2O2 (covalent)ClNaClHONaHOHOClClNaNaQ - Write simplest formulas for propene (C3H6),C2H2, glucose (C6H12O6), octane (C8H14)Q - Identify these as simplest formula, molecularformula, or both H2O, C4H10, CH, NaCl
70Answers Q - Write simplest formulas for propene (C3H6), C2H2, glucose (C6H12O6), octane (C8H14)Q - Identify these as simplest formula, molecularformula, or both H2O, C4H10, CH, NaClA - CH2A - H2O is both simplest and molecularC4H10 is molecular (C2H5 would be simplest)CH is simplest (not molecular since CH can’t form a molecule - recall Lewis diagrams)NaCl is simplest (it’s ionic, thus it doesn’t form molecules; it has no molecular formula)CHCH2OC4H7
71To obtain an Empirical Formula 1. Determine the mass in grams of each element present, if necessary.2. Calculate the number of moles of each element.3. Divide each by the smallest number of moles to obtain the simplest whole number ratio.If whole numbers are not obtained* (in step 3), multiply through by the smallest number that will give all whole numbers* Be careful! Do not round off numbers prematurely
72A sample of a brown gas, a major air pollutant, is found to contain 2 A sample of a brown gas, a major air pollutant, is found to contain 2.34 g N and 5.34g O. Determine a formula for this substance.require mole ratios so convert grams to molesmoles of N = 2.34g of N = moles of N14.01 g/molemoles of O = g = moles of O16.00 g/moleFormula:
73A sample of a brown gas, a major air pollutant, is found to contain 2 A sample of a brown gas, a major air pollutant, is found to contain 2.34 g N and 5.34g O. Determine a formula for this substance.moles of Nmoles of O/0.167=1=2/0.167NO2N1O2
74Empirical Formula from % Composition A substance has the following composition by mass: % Na ; % B ; % HWhat is the empirical formula of the substance?2.645/ 2.645= 1Na = g/ =B = g/ =2.645/ 2.645= 1H = g/ =10.516/ 2.645= =4NaBH4
75Calculation of the Molecular Formula Molecular formula is actual formula of the compound.To determine the molecular formula from the empirical formula you must have the mass of the molecular formula. (Always Given to you)Divide the mass of molecular formula by the mass of the empirical formula.This will give you a whole number that you must multiply the subscripts in the empirical formula by.
76Calculation of the Molecular Formula CH2O is the empirical formula for a compound with a molecular mass of g.CH2O = = 30.02g/molDivide by 30.03180.18/30.03 = 66 (CH2O) = C6H12O6
77Calculation of the Molecular Formula A compound has an empirical formula of NO2. The colourless liquid, used in rocket engines has a molar mass of 92.0 g/mole. What is the molecular formula of this substance?N2O4
78CO2 H5N = Empirical CO2 H5N = 63.050g/mol 252.3 / 63.050 = 4 A compound contains 0.80 mol C, 4.0 moles H and 1.60 mol O, and 0.80 mol of N, and has a molecular mass of g/mol. What is the molecular formula for the compound? CO2 H5N = EmpiricalCO2 H5N = g/mol252.3 / = 44(CO2 H5N) = C4O8H20N4