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ECE 206L Lecture Notes ECE 206L 1

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**DC Current vs. AC Current **

Direct current (DC) flows in one direction the circuit. Alternating current (AC) flows first in one direction then in the opposite direction. The same definitions apply to alternating voltage (AC voltage): DC voltage has a fixed polarity. AC voltage switches polarity back and forth. There are numerous sources of DC and AC current and voltage. However: Sources of DC are commonly shown as a cell or battery, and for the AC current: Generators ECE 206L 2

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**The Sinusoidal AC Waveform**

The most common AC waveform is a sine (or sinusoidal) waveform. The vertical axis represents the amplitude of the AC current or voltage, in amperes or volts. The horizontal axis represents the angular displacement of the waveform. The units can be degrees or radians. The sine waveform is accurately represented by the sine function of plane trigonometry: y = rsinq where: y = the instantaneous amplitude r = the maximum amplitude q = the horizontal displacement ECE 206L 3

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**Definition Peak and Peak-to-Peak Voltage **

Peak and peak-to-peak values are most often used when measuring the amplitude of ac waveforms directly from an oscilloscope display. Peak voltage is the voltage measured from the baseline of an ac waveform to its maximum, or peak, level. Unit: Volts peak (Vp) Symbol: Vp For a typical sinusoidal waveform, the positive peak voltage is equal to the negative peak voltage. Peak voltages are expressed without a + or - sign. Peak-to-peak voltage is the voltage measured from the maximum positive level to the maximum negative level. Unit: Volts peak-to-peak (Vp-p) Symbol: Vp-p For a typical sinusoidal waveform, the peak-to-peak voltage is equal to 2 times the peak voltage. Peak-to-peak voltages are expressed without a + or - sign . ECE 206L 4

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**Conversion Convert Vp to Vp-p: Vp-p = 2 Vp**

Convert Vp-p to Vp: Vp =0.5Vp-p What is the peak-to-peak value of a sinusoidal waveform that has a peak value of 10 V? What is the peak value of a sine wave that has a peak-to-peak value of 240 V? ECE 206L 5

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**Instantaneous Current and Voltage **

i = Ipsinθ Where: i = instantaneous current in amperes Ip= the maximum, or peak, current in amperes θ = the angular displacement in degrees or radians v = Vpsinθ Where: v = instantaneous voltage in volts Vp= the maximum, or peak, voltage in volts θ = the angular displacement in degrees or radians ECE 206L 6

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Average Voltage Average voltage is the average value of all the values for one half-cycle of the waveform. Unit: Volts average (Vave) Symbol: Vave The average voltage of a sinusoidal waveform is equal to times its peak value. Vave = 0.637Vp The average voltage is determined from just one half-cycle of the waveform because the average value of a full cycle is zero. Average voltages are expressed without a + or - sign ECE 206L 7

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**Average Voltage Convert Vp to Vave: Vave = 0.637Vp **

Convert Vave to Vp: Vp =1.57Vave Determine the average value of a waveform that measured 16 Vp. Ans: 10.2 Vave What is the peak value of a waveform that has an average value of 22.4 V? Ans: 35.1 Vp ECE 206L 8

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**Root-Mean-Square (RMS) Voltage **

AC levels are assumed to be expressed as RMS values unless clearly specified otherwise. RMS voltage is the amount of dc voltage that is required for producing the same amount of power as the ac waveform. Unit: Volts (V) Symbol: Vrms The RMS voltage of a sinusoidal waveform is equal to times its peak value. Vrms = 0.707Vp In a dc circuit, applying 2 V to a 1 W resistance produces 4 W of power. In an ac circuit, applying 2 Vrms to a 1 W resistance produces 4 W of power. RMS voltages are expressed without a + or - sign. ECE 206L 9

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**Conversion Root-Mean-Square (RMS) Voltage **

Convert Vp to Vrms: Vrms = 0.707Vp Convert Vrms to Vp : Vp = 1.414Vrms Determine the RMS value of a waveform that measures 15 Vp. Ans: 10.6 V Determine the peak value of 120 V (Assume 120 V is in RMS) Ans: 170 Vp ECE 206L 10

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Resistors in Series ECE 206L 11

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Resistors in Parallel ECE 206L 12

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Measuring Voltage Total Voltage: VR1+VR2 ECE 206L 13

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Voltage Dividers The voltage is divided up in such that it is proportional to the resistances of the resistors in a series circuit. ECE 206L 14

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**Statistical Evaluation of Measurement Data and Errors**

Average or mean value of a set of measurement Deviation from the average value Average value of the deviation Standard deviation(from the concept of RMS) Probability of error size in one observation

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The Decibel (dB) The decibel, or dB, is a means of expressing the gain of an active device (such as an amplifier) or the loss in a passive device (such as an attenuator or length of cable). It is simply the ratio of output to input expressed in logarithmic form. The decibel was developed by the telephone company(Bel, to express the gain or loss in telephone transmission systems.

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**Calculating the Decibel (dB)**

Now, imagine for a moment what it would be like to calculate the total gain of a string of amplifiers. It would be a cumbersome task at best, and especially so if there were portions of the cascade which were lossy and reduced the total gain, thereby requiring division as well as multiplication. log (A x B) = log A + log B log (A/B) = log A - log B Using the Decibel: G = 10 log (Po/Pi) , Where: G = Gain in dB Po = Power output from the device Pi = Power input to the device Ex. : A length of coaxial transmission line is being fed with 150 watts from a transmitter, but the power measured at the output end of the line is only 112 watts. What is the line loss in dB? G = 10 log (112/150) G = 10 log 0.747 G = 10 (-0.127) G = dB

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Capacitors Capacitors consist of two plates with a dielectric material in-between. When a potential difference is placed across the plates, a charge builds up until it is large enough to cause a discharge across the plates through the material. ECE 206L 18

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Reading Capacitors Larger capacitors have the number of microfarads written on them directly. Smaller capacitors use a code based on the number of picofarads. We generally use microfarads, so… XYZ = XY * 10Z * mF ECE 206L 19

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Capacitors in Series ECE 206L 20

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**Capacitors in Parallel**

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**Impedance vs. Resistance**

Resistance is a property of a material that causes a reduction in the rate of flow of electrons. Impedance is the reduction in the rate of flow of electrons caused by the material (resistance) AND other the properties of the component involved (reactance). Resistors have no reactance. So the impedance of a resistor is equal to its resistance only. Reactance varies with the frequency of the input. Resistance remains the same at all frequencies. Both impedance and resistance are measured in ohms.

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Impedance Definition A general measure of how a component or group of components pushes against the current flowing through it. Impedance = resistance + reactance Impedance is used to refer to the behavior of circuits with resistors, capacitors and other components. When we consider components in a theoretical circuit diagram, the impedance of inductors and capacitors is their reactance only. Any resistance is modeled separately as a resistor. So theoretical capacitors and inductors have impedance, but no resistance.

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Capacitor Impedance Real capacitors have effectively no resistance, so impedance is reactance for all capacitors. ECE 206L 24

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What is Reactance Reactance is the property of resisting or impeding the flow of ac current or ac voltage in inductors and capacitors. Note particularly we speak of alternating current only ac, which expression includes audio af and radio frequencies rf. NOT direct current dc. Inductive Reactance When ac current flows through an inductance a back emf or voltage develops opposing any change in the initial current. This opposition or impedance to a change in current flow is measured in terms of inductive reactance. 2 * pi * f * L where: 2 * pi = ; f = frequency in hertz and L = inductance in Henries Capacitive Reactance When ac voltage flows through a capacitance an opposing change in the initial voltage occurs, this opposition or impedance to a change in voltage is measured in terms of capacitive reactance. 1 / (2 * pi * f * C) where: 2 * pi = ; f = frequency in hertz and C = capacitance in Farads

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**Some examples of Reactance**

What reactance does a 6.8 uH inductor present at 7 Mhz? Using the formula above we get: 2 * pi * f * L where: 2 * pi = ; f = 7 X 10+6 Hz and L = 6.8 X -6 Henries Answer: = 299 ohms What reactance does a 33 pF capacitor present at 7 Mhz? Using the formula above we get: 1 / (2 * pi * f * C) where: 2 * pi = ; f = 7 X 10+6 Hz and C = 33 X -12 Farads Answer: = 689 ohms

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Inductors An inductor is a coil of wire through which a current is passed. The current can be either AC or DC. ECE 206L 27

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Inductors This generates a magnetic field, which induces a voltage proportional to the rate of change of the current. ECE 206L 28

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**Combining Inductors Inductances add like resistances Series Parallel**

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Inductor Impedance Real inductors always have a small resistance (that is not shown in these circuits). The impedance of the theoretical inductor shown is only its reactance. ECE 206L 30

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**Comparison of Components**

Impedance * Impedance is a general measure of the way in which a circuit effects the flow of current through it. * In a circuit with all resistors, the impedance is the total resistance. * In a circuit with other components, the impedance has a resistance component and another component called, reactance. 31

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Impedance Definition A general measure of how a component or group of components pushes against the current flowing through it. Impedance = resistance + reactance Impedance is used to refer to the behavior of circuits with resistors, capacitors and other components. When we consider components in a theoretical circuit diagram, the impedance of inductors and capacitors is their reactance only. Any resistance is modeled separately as a resistor. So theoretical capacitors and inductors have impedance, but no resistance.

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Equipment Impedances Each measuring device changes the circuit when you use it. The impedance of the device helps you understand how much. Device Impedances Function Generator: 50 ohms Scope: 1Meg ohms DMM (DC voltage): 10Meg ohms DMM (AC voltage): 1Meg ohms DMM (DC current): 5 ohms (negligible) ECE 206L 33

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**Effect of Impedance on Circuit**

Function generator thinks it is putting out the same thing. Output is clearly different. ECE 206L 34

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**Effect of Impedance on Circuit**

The function generator has an output impedance of much less than 50Ω, so we can ignore it. ECE 206L 35

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Kirchoff’s Laws sum of currents entering a junction is the same as the sum of the currents leaving a junction sum of voltages in any loop is zero

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**Circuit Analysis (Combination Method)**

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**SI Suffixes pico p 10-12 nano n 10-9 micro (u) 10-6 milli m 10-3**

Kilo k 103 Mega M (Meg) 106 Giga G 109 Tera T 1012

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**Oscilloscope Tutorial**

The oscilloscope is basically a graph-displaying device It draws a graph of an electrical signal. In most applications the graph shows how signals change over time: the vertical (Y) axis represents voltage the horizontal (X) axis represents time.

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Oscilloscopes Horizontal sweeps at a constant rate. Vertical plates are attached to an external voltage, the signal you attach to the scope.

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Cathode Ray Tubes Variation in potential difference (voltage) placed on plates causes electron beam to bend different amounts. “Sweep” refers to refreshing repeatedly at a fixed rate.

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Scope (Con’t) This simple graph can tell you many things about a signal: You can determine the time and voltage values of a signal. You can calculate the frequency of an oscillating signal. You can see the "moving parts" of a circuit represented by the signal. You can tell if a malfunctioning component is distorting the signal. You can find out how much of a signal is direct current (DC) or alternating current (AC). You can tell how much of the signal is noise and whether the noise is changing with time.

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**How does an Analog Scope work?**

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**How does a Digital Scope work?**

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**Triggering Stabilizes a Repeating Waveform**

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**Waveform shapes tell you a great deal about a signal**

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**If a signal repeats, it has a frequency**

If a signal repeats, it has a frequency. The frequency is measured in Hertz (Hz) and equals the number of times the signal repeats itself in one second

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**Voltage, Current, & Phase**

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**Performance Terms Bandwidth**

The bandwidth specification tells you the frequency range the oscilloscope accurately measures. Rise Time Rise time may be a more appropriate performance consideration when you expect to measure pulses and steps. An oscilloscope cannot accurately display pulses with rise times faster than the specified rise time of the oscilloscope. Vertical Sensitivity The vertical sensitivity indicates how much the vertical amplifier can amplify a weak signal. Vertical sensitivity is usually given in millivolts (mV) per division. Sweep Speed For analog oscilloscopes, this specification indicates how fast the trace can sweep across the screen, allowing you to see fine details. The fastest sweep speed of an oscilloscope is usually given in nanoseconds/div. Gain Accuracy The gain accuracy indicates how accurately the vertical system attenuates or amplifies a signal. Time Base or Horizontal Accuracy The time base or horizontal accuracy indicates how accurately the horizontal system displays the timing of a signal. Sample Rate On digital oscilloscopes, the sampling rate indicates how many samples per second the ADC can acquire. Maximum sample rates are usually given in megasamples per second (MS/s). The faster the oscilloscope can sample, the more accurately it can represent fine details in a fast signal.. ADC Resolution (Or Vertical Resolution) The resolution, in bits, of the ADC indicates how precisely it can turn input voltages into digital values. Record Length The record length of a digital oscilloscope indicates how many waveform points the oscilloscope is able to acquire for one waveform record.

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Grounding Proper grounding is an important step when setting up to take measurements. Properly grounding the oscilloscope protects you from a hazardous shock and protects your circuits from damage. Grounding the oscilloscope is necessary for safety. If a high voltage contacts the case of an ungrounded oscilloscope, any part of the case, including knobs that appear insulated, it can give you a shock. However, with a properly grounded oscilloscope, the current travels through the grounding path to earth ground rather than through you to earth ground. To ground the oscilloscope means to connect it to an electrically neutral reference point (such as earth ground). Ground your oscilloscope by plugging its three-pronged power cord into an outlet grounded to earth ground. Grounding is also necessary for taking accurate measurements with your oscilloscope. The oscilloscope needs to share the same ground as any circuits you are testing. Some oscilloscopes do not require the separate connection to earth ground. These oscilloscopes have insulated cases and controls, which keeps any possible shock hazard away from the user.

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Scope Probes Most passive probes have some degree of attenuation factor, such as 10X, 100X, and so on. By convention, attenuation factors, such as for the 10X attenuator probe, have the X after the factor. In contrast, magnification factors like X10 have the X first

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**Position and Volts per Division**

Vertical Controls Position and Volts per Division The vertical position control lets you move the waveform up or down to exactly where you want it on the screen. The volts per division (usually written volts/div) setting varies the size of the waveform on the screen. A good general purpose oscilloscope can accurately display signal levels from about 4 millivolts to 40 volts. Often the volts/div scale has either a variable gain or a fine gain control for scaling a displayed signal to a certain number of divisions.

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Input Coupling Coupling means the method used to connect an electrical signal from one circuit to another.

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**Position and Seconds per Division**

Horizontal Controls Position and Seconds per Division The horizontal position control moves the waveform from left and right to exactly where you want it on the screen. The seconds per division (usually written as sec/div) setting lets you select the rate at which the waveform is drawn across the screen (also known as the time base setting or sweep speed). This setting is a scale factor. For example, if the setting is 1 ms, each horizontal division represents 1 ms and the total screen width represents 10 ms (ten divisions). Changing the sec/div setting lets you look at longer or shorter time intervals of the input signal.

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Trigger Position The trigger position control may be located in the horizontal control section of your oscilloscope. It actually represents "the horizontal position of the trigger in the waveform record." Horizontal trigger position control is only available on digital oscilloscopes. Varying the horizontal trigger position allows you to capture what a signal did before a trigger event (called pretrigger viewing). Digital oscilloscopes can provide pretrigger viewing because they constantly process the input signal whether a trigger has been received or not. A steady stream of data flows through the oscilloscope; the trigger merely tells the oscilloscope to save the present data in memory. I n contrast, analog oscilloscopes only display the signal after receiving the trigger.

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**Trigger Controls (con’t)**

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**Pulse and Rise Time Measurements**

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Multimeter tutorial A meter is a measuring instrument. An ammeter measures current, a voltmeter measures the potential difference (voltage) between two points, and an ohmmeter measures resistance. A multimeter combines these functions, and possibly some additional ones as well, into a single instrument.

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**To measure current, the circuit must be broken to allow the ammeter to be connected in series**

Ammeters must have a LOW resistance

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To measure potential difference (voltage), the circuit is not changed: the voltmeter is connected in parallel Voltmeters must have a HIGH resistance

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To measure resistance, the component must be removed from the circuit altogether Ohmmeters work by passing a current through the component being tested

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Digital Multimeters Digital meters give an output in numbers, usually on a liquid crystal display. Most modern multimeters are digital and traditional analogue types are destined to become obsolete. Digital multimeters come in a wide range of sizes and capability. Everything from simple 3 ½ digit auto ranging pocket meters to larger 8 ½ digit bench model with operator or computer (IEEE488 compatible) settable range selection

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**An electronic instrument that generates various waveforms such as**

Function Generator An electronic instrument that generates various waveforms such as Sine wave Square wave Pulse trains Sawtooth The amplitude, DC offset, frequency are adjustable.

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**Function Generators (con’t)**

Like multimeters there is a wide variety of device offering various Amplitude characteristics Bandwidth Adjustments of rise and fall times Modulation capability (AM, FM, Pulse, etc.)

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Power Supply This is the device that transfers electric power from a source to a load using electronic circuits. Typical application of power supplies is to convert utility's AC input power to a regulated voltage(s) required for electronic equipment. Depending on the mode of operation of power semiconductors PS can be linear or switching. In a switched-mode power supply, or SMPS power handling electronic components are continuously switching on and off with high frequency in order to provide the transfer of electric energy. By varying duty cycle, frequency or a phase of these transitions an output parameter (such as output voltage) is controlled. Typical frequency range of SMPS is from 20 kHz to several MHz.

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**Parameters that are Power Supply specific include:**

Power Supply (con’t) Power supplies like many of the other electronic instruments, come in many varieties with a wide range of capabilities: Parameters that are Power Supply specific include: Voltage levels Current Regulation Protection Output impedance Noise (ripple) It’s the designer (or researcher) responsibility to identify the characteristics required.

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Oscilloscope

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**Oscilloscope(continue)**

DEMO…….Lab3a

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**Capacitance (continue from before)**

A capacitor simply consists of two conductors which are electrically isolated from one another. This means that no current can readily flow from one conductor to the other. the units of the capacitance must equal one coulomb per volt, which is defined to be one farad, F: One Farad= one(coulomb/volts) 1F=1C/V

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**RC Circuits qualitative description**

assume the switch is thrown to position B at the time t = 0. When the switch is at the position B the circuit consists of the single loop which contains, starting at point B and moving around the circuit clockwise, the resistor R, the capacitor C, and finally the voltage source DVs. In this configuration the voltage source attempts to push charge around the circuit in a clockwise direction (remember that the power source tries to push current out of its positive terminal).

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**RC Circuits qualitative description(continue)**

After some time at position B, we will throw the switch to position A. (The time since the switch was thrown to position A is called a new time t’ . The prime “ ’ ” on a symbol is used to denote the fact that this is the value of the quantity under consideration since the switch was thrown to position A. It therefore follows that the switch is thrown to the position A at the time t’ = 0.) After the switch has been thrown to position A the circuit consists solely of the resistor and the capacitor, with no voltage source. In this case there is no external energy being used to move charges around the circuit loop.

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**RC Circuits qualitative description(continue)**

The behavior of the voltage across the capacitor as a function of time and the current around the circuit (and in particular, through the resistor) as a function of time for the case in which the switch has been thrown to position B. (This is the case of the charging capacitor.) Then after that is the case in which the switch has been thrown to position A (the case of the discharging capacitor).

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FIGURE 6-1 Comparison of: (a) ac waveform: (b) dc waveform; (c) dc variable power supply and battery-sources of dc; (d) function generator-a source.

FIGURE 6-1 Comparison of: (a) ac waveform: (b) dc waveform; (c) dc variable power supply and battery-sources of dc; (d) function generator-a source.

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