Course Objectives Upon completion of this course, you will be able to perform the following tasks: Identify and describe the tools available to troubleshoot AudioCodes products. Be able to perform diagnostics test procedures using variety of tools utilities.
INI Files Rules: –Case Insensitive. –Lines beginning with a semi-colon ; as the first character are ignored. –Carriage Return must be the final character of each line. –Number of spaces before and after =, is not relevant. –Sub Section names are optional. –The values of String parameters, should be placed between two inverted commas ( ). –Parameter values should be entered only in decimal format. –Syntax errors in value can cause unexpected errors (may be set to the wrong values). –Syntax error in the parameter name is ignored (error message is issued). [Sub Section Name] Parameter_Name = Parameter_Value... ; REMARK [Sub Section Name] Valid entries: –Board Parameters. –Control Protocol Parameters. –Downloadable Files Names
Types Board.ini –Changes from boards default software configurations ALL_PARAM.ini –Comprehensive listing of all board default parameters, changed and default
Chapter I AC SYSLOG
AC Syslog Q: What is ACSyslog application syslog used for ? A: The ACSyslog application gives the possibility to pick up the trace messages from the MP-1XX and send them to the ACSyslog.txt file. SYSLOG Definition: The SYSLOG is a collection of error messages, warning, and/or other system messages that are sent to a central server using UDP port 514. Syslog protocol is defined in the IETF RFC 3164 standard.
AC Syslog Configuration
Setting Syslog Server Note: Put the IP address of your Syslog server (PC where the Syslog installed) [Syslog] SyslogServerIP = EnableSyslog = 1 GWDebugLevel = 5
MGCP/MEGACO Settings Set through ini file or AdminPage –AdminPage: /AdminPage MGCPDebugMode –0 = Disable –1 = Enable ForceExceptionDump –Dumps last software stack data before board crash (must have syslog configured in order to utilize this functionality) –Dumps data on FIRST restart ONLY after error –1 = Enable –0 = Disable
Syslog Levels 0 = Debug is disabled (default) 1 = Flow debugging is enabled 2 = Flow and device interface debugging are enabled 3 = Flow, device interface and stack interface debugging are enabled 4 = Flow, device interface, stack interface and session manager debugging are enabled 5 = Flow, device interface, stack interface, session manager and device interface expanded debugging are enabled. Note: Usually set to 5 if debug traces are needed and remember to turn off after troubleshooting.
Syslog Application Examples of other Syslog Servers Examples of Syslog servers available as shareware on the Internet: Kiwi Enterprises: The US CMS Server: TriAction Software: Netal SL4NT 2.1 Syslog Daemon:
Chapter II Network Monitors
Ethereal Network Monitor Q: What is Ethereal application used for ? A: Ethereal is a free network protocol analyzer for Unix and Windows. It allows you to examine data from a live network or from a capture file on disk. You can interactively browse the capture data, viewing summary and detail information for each packet.
Network Monitors Applications Ethereal Net Monitor Sniffer pro LAN Analyzer
WinPcap Application WinPcap is an architecture for packet capture and networkanalysis for the Win32 platforms. It includes a kernel-level packet filter, a low-level dynamic link library (packet.dll), and a high-level and system-independent library (wpcap.dll, based on libpcap version 0.6.2).
Ethereal Configuration: Step 1
Ethereal Configuration: Step 2
Ethereal Configuration: step 3
Ethereal:Filters Filter specific addresses or /and protocol For example ip.addr = x.x.x.x and sip
Ethereal: Coloring Rules Different colors can be assigned for each protocol for better visualization of each protocol. Distinguish between calls, endpoints, gateways (using filters) Main menu: View Coloring rules
Ethereal : generating call flow From version Good for H.323 and SIP Visual representation of different calls Main menu: Statistics VOIP Calls…
Ethereal :Analyzing the RTP data Ethereal can be used to analyze the RTP data stream and even extract the audio from the data packets. Main menu: Statistics->RTP-> Stream Analysis menu item
Ethereal :Extracting the audio save the audio portion of the RTP stream to a file. Main menu: Statistics->RTP-> Stream Analysis->Save Payload as…
Chapter III DSP Recording
DSP Recording :Capture point RAMDSPPSTNIP Record point DSP Rx DSP TxRTP Rx RTP Tx Q: What is DSP Recording used for ? A: DSP recoding is a procedure used to monitor the DSP operation (rtp packets,events) Use only G.711 coder while recording tones.
DSP Recording – FAE Choose the Packet Recording item Fill the necessary items and start to record
DSP recording – UDP2File Now please start the program "UdpToFile.exe" in order to record all packets to the file. Fill the "File name" and the "UDP port" fields. The UDP port MUST be same as in Debug Page in browser.
DSP Recording Udp2File-Continue Before you will start the call press the : 1. "Record" button on the WEB 2. "Go" button on the Udp2File utility. After the end of call give some seconds to the Mediant to send last events and after that stop the: 1. "Udp2File" utility 2. DSP recording on WEB interface.
DSP Recording – Step by Step 1. Open the Mediant 2000 WEB interface. 2. Add to the "Address" field in the browser the following line /FAE, then press the Enter. 3. Choose the "Packet Recording" item 4. You will be asked for password and user : user: Admin password: Admin 6. Press "Apply New Settings" button. 7. Now please start the attached program "UdpToFile.exe". 8. Fill the "File name" and the "UDP port" fields. The UDP port MUST be same as in Debug Page in browser. 9. Before you will start the call press the : 1. "Record" button on the WEB 2. "Go" button on the Udp2File utility. 10. After the end of call give some seconds to the MP/M2K to send last events and after that stop the: 1. "Udp2File" utility 2. DSP recording on WEB interface. 11. Send Audiocodes Support the received DAT file: DSP traces will be analyzed by AudioCodes Tech Support.
Chapter IV Call Progress Tones Wizard
DSP Recording –CPT The CPT tone file is a text file contains the Tones parameters frequency HZ and cadence MSEC ( multiple 10) Most important Tones are: cpt_recorded_dialtone.pcm cpt_recorded_busytone.pcm cpt_recorded_ringtone.pcm cpt_recorded_invalidtone.pcm E.180 ITU-T is a standard for each country World CPT tones Tone List type World CPT tones Tone List type Tones_File Example.ini
CPT WIZARD Q: What is CPTWizard used for ? A: The Call Progress Tones wizard helps detect the Call Progress Tones generated by your PBX (or telephone exchange). The software creates automatically a basic Call Progress Tones: ini file. Note: Firmware version 4.2 and above is required on the gateway
CPT Wizard- Installation Execute the CPTWizard.exe file. Enter the IP address of the MP-1xx/FXO. Select the gateways ports and Phone numbers. Insert Invalid phone number field, that generates a fast busy.
CPT WIZARD -Recording Screen The wizard then analyzes the recorded Call Progress Tones. 4 Call Progress Tones are saved as standard A-law PCM at 8000.
CPT WIZARD - Manual Mode Manual mode enables you to record and analyze tones in addition to those tones analyzed when in automatic mode.
Converting INI to DAT Convert the INI(text) file to binary mode using the Dconvert software.
Tones Detection Upload the CPT file to the Gateway. Start Automatic wizard again to verify tone detection.
CPT Wizard – Step by Step 1.Run the CPTWizard software on your PC. 2. Enter the IP address of the MP-1xx/FXO gateway you are using. Select the gateways ports that are connected to your PBX, and specify the phone number of each extension. In the Invalid phone number field, enter a number that generates a fast busy tone when dialed. Usually, any incorrect phone number should cause a fast busy tone. 3.Press Next. 4. Press the Start Automatic Configuration button; the wizard starts the following Call Progress Tones detection sequence (the operation takes approximately 60 seconds to complete). 5. After the Call Progress Tones detection is complete, a text file named call_progress_tones.ini. 6. Click the Process Call Progress Tones File (DCCONVERT). 7. Click the ini file and click the Open button; the filename and path of both the ini file and the (output) dat file appears. 8.Enter the Vendor Name, Version Number and Version Description in the corresponding required fields under the User Data section. 9.Click the Make File button; youre prompted that the operation (conversion) was successful.
Chapter V PSTN TRACES
PSTN Trace Q: What is PSTN trace used for ? A: PSTN Trace is a procedure used to monitor and trace the PSTN elements in Audiocodes digital gateways. These utilities are designed to convert PSTN trace binary files to textual form.
PSTN Trace Activate the Web page by entering /FAE. Choose Trunk Traces Set the trace level and the trunk number. Enable trace and insert port number. CAS Trace ISDN Trace
PSTN Trace Verify that the trace has been activated under Advanced Configuration->Trunk setting.
PSTN Trace-Capture packets Run the UDP2File utility. Determine the trace file name. For example: xyz.dat Determine the UDP port (the same as configured on the web). Mark the PSTN Trace check box. Push the Go button=> the UDP2File utility collect the trace messages. In the WEB page push the SUBMIT button => The board starts to send the trace to the PC.
PSTN Trace-Using Ethereal Ethereal version can capture the PSTN trace using ACTRACE packets.
PSTN Trace-Capture packets The trace can be converted into graph. Pstn_Trace
PSTN TRACE– Step by Step 1)Open the Mediant 2000 WEB interface (http:// /FAE, choose Trunk Traces):http:// /FAE For CAS trace: acFULL_TRACE. For ISDN trace: acLAYER3_ISDN_TRACE_No_Duplication. 2) Enable the trace via WEB (Enable Pstn Trace From Web = On). 3) Determine the UDP port. Do not push the SUBMIT button yet !!!! 4) Run the UDP2File utility. 5) Determine the trace file name. For example: xyz.dat 6) Determine the UDP port (the same as in step 3). 7) Mark the PSTN Trace check box. 8) Push the Run button=> the UDP2File utility start to collect the trace messages. 9) In the WEB page push the SUBMIT button => ( the board starts to send the trace messages. To verify that, take the E1\T1 cable in and out.) In the UDP2File utility you should see the packets counter increasing. 10. Send the *.dat file for diagnostic to AudioCodes support as follow: For CAS trace: CASxyz.dat (generated automatically). For ISDN trace: xyz.dat (the same name you set in step 5) PSTN traces will be analyzed by AudioCodes Tech Support.
Chapter VI Command Shell
Q: What is Command Shell application used for ? A: The Command Shell is set of commands which can display various information about the TP board. How: Command Shell system gets command line as an Input string, parses it to command name and its parameters, executes the suitable command handler, and build the Output string
Command Shell-Structure User Trunk-Pack Command Shell Application Command line Output string Command Shell System Executes and Fills output Buffer Output buffer Command line API
Command Shell-Access Type the ip_address /FAE in the address fields of your web.
Commands Shell and Passwords Command line syntax is: [Command Name] Sometimes Password is needed for executing and you need to do It only once. Command Name may be full or short command name.
Shell-Commands -examples CmdShell>H [ HELP (H): prints help for the shell commands Command syntax H - prints all the shell commands H [COMMAND] - prints help of the COMMAND H GROUPS - prints all groups of shell commands H [GROUP] - prints all the shell commands in the GROUP /CONFiguration>gcp ip / CONFiguration>gcp ip Current IP address , netmask , gateway
Shell-Commands –cont. SHell/WatchDogTable – WDT Controls the WatchDog table of CmdShell commandsCommand syntax: WDT - prints WatchDog table info WDT - activates/deactive WatchDog table WDT [FORMAT] - Err: 0 CmdShell: 1 WDT - activate/deactivates this entry WDT [DEL] - deletes this entry WDT - changes delay of this entry /BSP>exc used for retrieving any exception from the board. /BSP/EXCeption>rr determines what is the reason of the last rest of the board.
Chapter VII Hyper Terminal
Q: What is Hyper Terminal application used for ? A: Terminal is any device that terminates one end (sender or receiver) of a communicated signal. Hyper terminal is used to retrieve data (text) from the MP-1XX in case you suspicious fatal error.
Hyper Terminal Use standard RS-232 straight cable (not cross-over cable) with DB-9 connectors. RS 232 Cable Wiring
Hyper Terminal – Step by Step 1.On a PC running a Windows operating system, open Start->Programs- >Communications->HyperTerminal; the connection dialog window opens. 2.Enter a name for the new connection in the Name field and click OK; The Connect To dialog window opens. 3.In the Connect To dialog window, enter COM1 or COM2, depending on the physical connection you have performed when connecting the MP to the PC with RS-232 cable; the COM# dialog window opens. 4.In the COM# Properties dialog window, enter the following settings for the serial communication port : Baud Rate : bps Data bits : 8 Parity : None Stop bits: 1 Flow control: Hardware 5.Click OK; the Hyper Terminal main screen opens.
The following information is printed on Terminal screen. Changing the network settings by typing: SCP IP [ip_address] [subnet_mask] [default_gateway] (e.g., SCP IP ); Hyper Terminal-Configuration
Review Questions 1.What are the parameters you have to configure in order to enable syslog. 2.Can you use a switch in order to sniff data. 3.What is DSP Recoding used for? What is the different between the *.dat file and the *.ini file? 4.What two kind of traces available in PSTN trace. 5.What type of cable do you have to connect between the Mp and the Terminal.