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Welcome to OCHO COHORT Arizona High Achievement for All AHAA! Diana Browning Wright

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1 Welcome to OCHO COHORT Arizona High Achievement for All AHAA! Diana Browning Wright dianawright@earthlink.net www.dianabrowningwright.com

2 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 But first, a word from our sponsors…

3 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Who am I?

4 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Positive Environments, Network of Trainers PENT www.pent.ca.gov

5 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

6 And who are you?

7 Purpose of AHAA Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 1.Disseminating strategies for how to teach so children learn and behave 2.Reducing problem behavior, default behavior interventions 3.Using accommodations and differentiation for diversity 4.Preventing restrictive settings when LRE is less restrictive

8 Pre-agenda ! The RTI context Before we begina few reflections Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

9 No Child Left Behind! Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

10 Leadership in 2010-2011

11 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Everyone on board? Now mandate-the-page to progress monitor That is NOT progress monitoring! What NOT to do: The Educational Train Approach

12 Not the acceleration we had in mind!

13 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 And now, NCLB marries IDEA Frankenstein Bride of Frankenstein History: How did we get here anyway? http://www.educationnext.org/20034/pdf/62.pdf

14 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 So, Whats the Big Deal?

15 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Evaluate: Describe-that-Student! Intervene: Placement > Services > Goals Within Student Eligibilitythe big 13 Other condition? 504 ? 252 ? The placement The goals and objectives The black hole 34 years of assumptions: If lack of success- student is the problem Any student not succeeding must be deficit A thirty year trial Identify and Place: Problematic if you do. Problematic if you dont. Clockwise vs. counter-clockwise

16 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Evaluate: Influences on Learning Intervene: Alter Instruction to Empower & Accelerate Student Instructional Strategies Curriculum/Task Match ! Success for student and for teacher New Assumptions: If lack of success- the match is wrong Any student not succeeding must need a better match The match must be research-based A new view ! Characteristics, likes & dislikes affinities

17 Reform Means: Think Outside the Box!

18 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Ponder this: What are the implications? Student Study Team Student Success Team Teacher Assistance Team Problem Solving Team Instructional Support Team This is not new wine in old bottles!

19 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Why Change? USA is falling behind internationally See http://nces.ed.gov/surveys/international/ Drop out rates are high Evidence of many students lacking preparation for post secondary education Evidence of lack of preparation for the workplace We know more now than 30 years ago!

20 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Reform means: Using Evidence-Based in all we do including teaching strategies See: www.learner.org and www.ku.crl.eduwww.learner.org

21 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Academic SystemsBehavioral Systems 1-5% 5-10% 80-90% Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual Students Assessment-based High Intensity Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual Students Assessment-based Intense, durable procedures Selected Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response Selected Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response Universal Interventions All students Preventive, proactive Universal Interventions All settings, all students Preventive, proactive Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success

22 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 All students 80-90% likely to be enough Continuous progress monitoring, with data-based decision making using evidence based materials Principal supervises fidelity and data collection Teachers implement with fidelity and report ongoing data District office supports adoption, training, data aggregation 80-90 % likely to respond

23 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Some Students- 5-???% Continuous progress monitoring, with data-based decision making using evidence-based materials Principal supervises fidelity and data review Site Team ongoing problem solving---(expanded as needed) can be IEP/504 team Selected implementers provide intervention with fidelity District office supports adoption, training, data aggregation, and disaggregation 5-10 % or ?? Likely to need

24 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Intensive 1-5% or ?? Continuous progress monitoring, with data-based decision making using evidence -based materials Principal supervises fidelity and data review Site Team ongoing problem solving (expanded as needed) can be IEP/504 team Selected implementers provide intervention with fidelity District office supports adoption, training, data aggregation and disaggregation 1-5 % or ??? Likely to need

25 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Our Agenda Effective Differentiated Instruction What we know about instruction for all studentsa 30 year summary Review Terms & Concepts Accommodations Modifications Differentiated Instruction

26 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Agenda (continued) Practice Types of Accommodations Case Study Review Discuss Nuances of Application and Implementation Barriers

27 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Group Norms Dianas rule: None of us is as skilled as all of us! Your groups rules? Safe, respectful, responsible Cover respect and responsible criteria

28 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Self Study Materials The Learning Strengths Project How to engage students in their accommodation plans Input/Output Adaptations and Differentiated Instruction A review of what we NOW know about struggling learners Write accommodation plans integrating what we know about teaching and learning

29 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 To be able to differentiate instruction and plan accommodations or modifications, we first need to know what constitutes effective instruction!

30 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Introduction: Reviewing Advances in Research on Instruction From a Pivotal Paper by: Barak Rosenshine University of Illinois at Urbana

31 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 I. Research on cognitive processing II. Research on teacher effects, that is, studies of teachers whose classes made the highest achievement gain compared to other classes III. Intervention studies in which students were taught cognitive strategies they could apply to their learning The Most Important Instructional Advancements of the Last 30 Years From three bodies of research discussed in J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

32 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 1. Findings from Research on Cognitive Processing: J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. The Importance of Well-Connected Knowledge Structures

33 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Knowledge Structures Information in our long-term memory is stored in interconnected networks A Well-Connected Network is important for processing information and solving problems: The size of these structures The number of connections between pieces of knowledge The strength of the connections The organization and richness of the relationships J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

34 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Well-Connected Network means: Any one piece of information can serve to help retrieve the entire pattern. Strong connections and a richness of relationships enables one to retrieve more pieces of the pattern When information is "meaningful" more points in their knowledge structures to attach new information J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

35 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 What is Education? J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. A process of developing, enlarging, expanding, and refining our students' knowledge structures.

36 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Importance of Well-Connected and Elaborate Knowledge Structures Allow for easier retrieval of old material Permit more information to be carried in a single chunk Facilitate the understanding and integration of new information. J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

37 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Three Important Instructional Implications Need to help students develop background knowledge Importance of student processing Importance of organizers J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

38 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Enhancing Background Knowledge Background Knowledge helps students develop well-connected bodies of knowledge Provide extensive reading, review, practice, and discussion Helps students increase the number of pieces of information in long-term memory Organizes those pieces Increases the strength and number of interconnections J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

39 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 What do you need to know?

40 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Information Processing

41 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. I. Cognitive Processing Research Findings: All Teachers Must Support All Students By: Providing for extensive reading of a variety of materials Frequent review and testing Discussion and application activities.

42 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Opportunity to Process Information Key for Achieving High Outcomes New material is stored in the long-term memory when one processes it J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

43 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Opportunity to Process Information Key for Achieving High Outcomes Quality of storage can depend on the "level of processing" Examples: Highest: summarize or compare the material in the passage rather than simply reading it. Middle: read the passage and focus on its meaning Lowest: read a passage and count the number of times the word "the" appeared

44 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 How We Teach Makes A Difference!

45 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 How We Teach Makes A Difference!

46 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Processing of New Material Takes place through a variety of activities Reviewing Comparing Contrasting Drawing connections J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

47 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Processing Helps Strengthen Knowledge Structures J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Processing asks students to: organize information summarize information or compare new material with prior material

48 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Examples of Processing Activities Extensive reading of a variety of materials Explain the new material to someone else Write questions/answer questions Write daily summaries J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

49 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Processing Activities (continued) Apply the ideas to a new situation Give a new example Compare and contrast the new material to other material. Study for an exam J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

50 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Understanding Is Especially Strengthened When: The student explains, elaborates, or defend his/her position to others The burden of explanation is often the push needed to make him/her evaluate, integrate, and elaborate knowledge in new ways. J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

51 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Help Students Organize Their Knowledge Without direction, students might develop a fragmented, incomplete, or erroneous knowledge structure Teachers must help students organize the new material Graphic organizers" are organizing structures for expository material J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

52 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Processing results in development of well- connected knowledge structures Develop these by extensive reading, practice, processing new information, and organizing new knowledge J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. I. Cognitive Processing Summary

53 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 II. Research on Teacher Effects 20 to 30 procedures studied, including: Use of praise Use of criticism The number and type of questions that were asked Quality of the student answers Responses of a teacher to a student's answers J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

54 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Procedures by Teachers of High Achievers: The most-effective teachers in studies: Begin a lesson with a short review of previous learning Begin a lesson with a short statement of goals Present new material in small steps providing for student practice after each step Give clear and detailed instructions and explanations Rosenshine and Stevens (1986) in: J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

55 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Provide a high level of active practice for all students Ask a large number of questions, check for student understanding, and obtain responses from all students Guide students during initial practice Provide systematic feedback and corrections Provide explicit instruction and practice for seatwork exercises and, where necessary, monitor students during seatwork Procedures by Teachers of High Achievers (continued) Rosenshine and Stevens (1986) in: J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

56 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 The importance of teaching in small steps The importance of guiding student practice The importance of extensive practice is shared with the research on cognitive processing J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. II. Three Findings on Teacher Effectiveness

57 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Present New Material in Small Steps Most-effective teachers -- taught new material in small steps; presented small parts of new material at a single time, and after presenting the material, guided students in practicing the material that was taught. Least-effective teachers -- present an entire lesson, then pass out worksheets and tell students to work the problems. J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

58 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 It is not sufficient to present a lesson and then ask students to practice on their own. Least-effective teachers with lowest student achievement present an entire lesson pass out worksheets tell the students to work the problems Many students are confused and make errors on the worksheets. Guided Student Practice J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

59 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Guided Student Practice J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. The most-effective teachers -- teachers whose classes made the greatest gains -- teach differently. Present only some of the material at a time, i.e., small steps Then use guided student practice as a model, e.g. teacher works a few problems at the board discusses the steps out loud asks students to come to the board, work problems, then discuss their procedures others students see the modeling of problem solving

60 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Teachers Guide Practice by: CHECKING the answers of the entire class in order to see whether some students need additional instruction. ASKING students to work together, in pairs or in groups, to quiz and explain the material to each other. Timing: May occur when a teacher questions and helps a class with their work before assigning independent practice. J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

61 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Getting the Gist The Goal of Instruction and Cognitive Processing J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

62 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Gist Construction Errors J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Are attempts to be logical with weak background knowledge Without a knowledgeable guide-- danger of student misconceptions! Solution: Limit development of misconceptions by guiding practice after teaching small amounts of new material with frequent checking for student understanding

63 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Gist Construction Errors Who Make Gist Construction Errors Most Frequently? BillyDoloresBruce

64 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Humiliation Protection Affects Coping Skills The number one step in effective support of students with learning differences/disorders The student must feel entirely safe from humiliation and its lethal effects excessive negative comments conspicuous negative comments policies that openly expose or stigmatize Learning Strengths Project

65 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Humiliation Protection Affects Coping Skills Negative practices result in serious complications behavioral motivational affective …AND THEY DONT WORK! Learning Strengths Project

66 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Guided Practice Instructional Strategy Matches Cognitive Processing Findings During cognitive processing activities designed by the teacher, the student organizes, reviews, rehearses, summarizes, compares, contrasts Most-effective teachersuse activities to check the understanding of all - provide opportunity for processing for all Least-effective teachers ask a question, call on one student to answer, assume everyone learned the point J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

67 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Summary: Most-Effective Teachers Present smaller amounts of material at any time Guide student practice as students work problems Provide for student processing of the new material Check the understanding of all students Attempt to prevent students from developing misconceptions J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

68 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Most-Effective Teachers Provide Extensive Practice Cognitive processing researchs conclusion - students need extensive practice in order to develop well- connected networks Assure practice takes place only after sufficient guided practice - students then dont practice errors and misconceptions J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

69 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Cognitive strategies defined: Guiding procedures to help students complete less-structured tasks, e.g., reading comprehension and writing III. Intervention Studies on Teaching Cognitive Strategies Students were taught cognitive strategies to apply to their learning

70 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Well-Structured Academic Tasks Tasks can be broken down into a fixed sequence of subtasks with steps that consistently lead to the same goal. Steps are concrete and visible. A specific, predictable algorithm can be followed. J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

71 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Well-Structured Academic Tasks (continued) Enables students to obtain the same result each time they perform the algorithmic operations. Taught by teaching each step of the algorithm to students. Research on teacher effects helps us learn how to teach students algorithms they can use to complete well-structured tasks. J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

72 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Termed: higher-level tasks Examples: reading comprehension, writing, and study skills cannot be broken down into a fixed sequence of subtasks and steps that consistently and unfailingly lead to the goal. No fixed sequence as in well- structured tasks. Cant develop algorithms students use to complete these tasks. Contrasting Less-Structured Tasks J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

73 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Devastating Conclusion of Research Little evidence of instruction of any kind was observed in the classes. What was/is happening? Teachers spend most of their time--- assigning activities Monitoring to be sure the pupils are on task Directing recitation sessions to assess how well children are doing Providing corrective feedback in response to pupil errors J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

74 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 What Wasnt Observed or Was Seldom Observed? Teaching in which a teacher presents a skill, a strategy, or a process to students Shows students how to do it Provides assistance as they initiate attempts to perform the task Assures students they can be successful How will this affect adequate yearly progress? J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

75 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 No Child Left Behind!

76 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 What a cognitive strategy is NOT J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. A direct procedure An algorithm to be precisely followed

77 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 What a cognitive strategy IS A guide that serves to support or facilitate the learner as s/he develops internal procedures that enable them to perform the higher level operations. Ex. Teaching students to generate questions about their reading But, generating questions does not directly lead, in a step-by-step manner, to comprehension J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

78 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 How the Cognitive Strategy of Generating Questions Works J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. In the process of generating questions, students must search the text combine information These processes serve to help students comprehend what they read.

79 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Comprehensive Summary of Interventions J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. See Pressley et al. (1995) for: Intervention studies in - reading, writing, mathematics, and science combined with description of the cognitive strategies and instructional procedures

80 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Surprise! Teaching is a Science AND Teaching is an Art Scope and Sequence Counts!

81 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Cognitive Apprenticeship J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. The instructional process by which teachers provide and support students with scaffolds as the students develop cognitive strategies Students need apprenticeships of different durations.

82 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Cognitive Strategies Provide a Scaffold A scaffold is a temporary support used to assist a learner during initial learning. A scaffold is provided by the teacher to help students bridge the gap between current abilities and the goal. J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

83 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Common Cognitive Strategies Providing A Scaffold J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Simplified problems Modeling of the procedures by the teacher Thinking aloud by the teacher as s/he solves the problem, prompts, provides suggestions and guidance as students work problems A model of the completed task against which students can compare their work

84 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 The metaphor of a scaffold captures the idea an adjustable and temporary support that can be removed when no longer necessary Assists the learner in learning a cognitive process gradually withdrawn or faded as learners become more independent Some students may continue to rely on scaffolds when they encounter particularly difficult problems Fast Facts On Scaffolds J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

85 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Can be applied to the teaching of all skills Use especially for higher-level cognitive strategies Thirteen major instructional elements have been identified for teachers to use to teach cognitive strategies Scaffolds to Teach Cognitive Strategies J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

86 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 13 Instructional Elements in Teaching Cognitive Strategies 1. Provide procedural prompts specific to the strategy being taught. When and how should the strategy be used? 2.Teach the cognitive strategy using small steps. 3. Provide models of appropriate responses. 4. Think aloud as choices are being made 5. Anticipate potential difficulties. 6. Regulate the difficulty of the material. J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

87 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 13 Instructional Elements in Teaching Cognitive Strategies 7. Provide a cue card. 8. Guide student practice. 9. Provide feedback and corrections. 10. Provide and teach a checklist. 11. Provide independent practice. 12. Increase student responsibilities. 13. Assess student mastery. J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

88 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 1. Provide Procedural Prompts or Facilitators These procedural prompts supply the students with specific procedures or suggestions that facilitate the completion of the task. The words "who," "what," "why," "where," "when," and "how" are procedural prompts that help students learn the cognitive strategy of asking questions about the material they have read. J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

89 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Are scaffolds used to aid the learners acquisition of information? Provide a procedural map for what to do with lots of details. Question Stems

90 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 How are _____ and _____ alike? What is the main idea of __________? What do you think would happen if __________? What are the strengths and weakness of __________ ? In what way is _____ related to ______ ? How does _____ affect _____? Compare _____ and _____ with regard to ________. Sentence Stems to Scaffold Learning J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

91 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 What do you think causes __________? How does _____ tie in with what we have learned before? Which one is the best _____ and why? What are some possible solutions for the problem of _____? Do you agree or disagree with this statement: __________? Support your answer. What do I (you) still not understand about...? Sentence Stems to Scaffold Learning J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

92 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 2. Teach the cognitive strategy using small steps. Teaching too much of the cognitive strategy at once would swamp the working memory.

93 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 3. Provide Models of the Appropriate Responses We cannot specify all the steps Models provide an important scaffold for the learner in three phases: during initial instruction, before students practice during practice after practice J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

94 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Models During Initial Instruction - Before Practice In some studies: Teachers began by modeling responses based on the procedural prompts Students used questions based on elements of the story grammar (e.g., What action does the leading character initiate? What do you learn about the character from this action?) Then they began by modeling questions based on this story grammar J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

95 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Models During Initial Instruction In other studies: Students received models of questions based on the main idea Then they practiced generating questions on their own (Andre & Anderson, 1978-79; Dreher & Gambrell, 1985; MacGregor, 1988) J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

96 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Models Given During Practice J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Reciprocal Teaching Teacher first models asking a question and the students answer Then, the teacher guides students as they develop their own questions, to be answered by one of their classmates Teacher provides additional models when the students have difficulty

97 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Models Given After Practice In studies on question-generation Teachers provide models of questions for the students to view after they have written questions relevant to a paragraph or passage The intent of this model is to enable the students to compare their efforts with that of an expert (Andre & Anderson, 1978-79; Dreher & Gambrell, 1985; MacGregor, 1988). In J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

98 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 4. Teacher Thinks Out Loud Vocalize internal thought processes one goes through when using the cognitive strategy. Example: when teaching students to generate questions, teacher describes the thought processes that occur as a question word is selected and integrated with text information to form a question. When... When did she get the horse? J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

99 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 4. Teacher Thinks Out Loud Think aloud while summarizing a paragraph Example: illustrate the thought processes that occur as the topic of the passage is determined then used to generate a summary sentence. Fishing in Oregon… Many factors related to ecology, and laws have resulted in a decline in the fishing in Oregon. J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

100 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Skillful Strategy-Based Instruction is Differentiated Instruction 7 Steps Toward Successful Strategy-Based Instruction: 1.Carefully analyze the task(s) to be completed. 2.Identify the strategies that will promote success. 3.Teach the strategy through explicit, direct instruction. The teacher models and "talks through" the strategy. The student observes all of the processes several times.

101 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 7 Steps Toward Successful Strategy-Based Instruction: 4.The teacher explicitly states: the goal of the strategy to be employed the task for which the strategy is appropriate the range of the applicability the learning gains anticipated from its consistent use 5.Verbal rehearsal of the steps of the strategy to 100% criterion. Visual reminders (chart, checklist, schedule) are provided. Skillful Strategy-Based Instruction is Differentiated Instruction

102 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 7 Steps Toward Successful Strategy-Based Instruction: 6.If the strategy fails to work, opportunities to review the process and to repair the breakdown are provided. Feedback is positive and corrective. 7.PRACTICE! PRACTICE! PRACTICE! Skillful Strategy-Based Instruction is Differentiated Instruction

103 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 5. Anticipate and Discuss Potential Difficulties Examples: Teacher anticipates common errors and discusses these errors before the students make them. Some students in my old school thought 9 – 21 = 28. What mistake is this? (Student reveals: subtracting 1 from 9, not regrouping to take the 9 from the 11)

104 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 5. Anticipate and Discuss Potential Difficulties Examples: Teacher anticipates the inappropriate questions that students might generate. Students read a paragraph followed by discussing whether each question was too narrow, too broad, or appropriate.

105 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Anticipate and Discuss Potential Difficulties (continued) Students were taught specific rules to discriminate: A question from a non-question A good question from a poor one: A good question starts with a question word. A good question can be answered by the story. A good question asks about an important detail of the story.

106 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 6. Regulate the Difficulty of the Material Begin with simpler material then gradually move to more complex materials. Example: Teaching students to generate questions Teacher first models how to generate questions-single sentence. Class then practices. Next, teacher models and provides practice on asking questions after reading a paragraph. Finally, teacher models, class practices generating questions after reading an entire passage. J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

107 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 7. Provide a Cue Card A cue card: Contains the procedural prompt Reminds what to do and when Supports a student during initial learning by reducing the strain upon the working memory J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

108 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 8. Guide Student Practice First teach a part of a strategy Then guide student practice in identifying and then applying the strategy Remember Reciprocal Teaching The teacher first models the cognitive process being taught Then provides cognitive support and coaching (scaffolding) for the students as they attempt the task As the students become more proficient, the teacher fades the support and students provide support for each other J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

109 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 8. Guide Student Practice (continued) Use small group meetings – two to six, without the teacher practice asking, revising, and correcting questions and provided support and feedback to each other. J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

110 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 9. Provide Feedback and Corrections Three sources of feedback and corrections to consider: the teacher, other students, and a computer. Teacher feedback and corrections Can be hints, questions, suggestions J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

111 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

112 9. Provide Feedback and Corrections Group Feedback after students have written their questions they meet in groups, pose questions to each other compare questions within each group Computer-based Feedback students ask the computer to provide a model (e.g., of an appropriate question) if error is suspected. J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

113 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 10. Provide and Teach a Checklist Example: How well did I identify important information? How well did I link information together? How well could I answer my questions? Did my "think questions" use different language from the text? Did I use good signal words? J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

114 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 11. Provide Independent Practice with New Examples Student practices in applying the cognitive strategy Use examples Offer diminishing help from the teacher and other students J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

115 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 12. Increase Student Responsibilities Decrease scaffolds as skills increase as students become more competent Diminish the use of models and prompts and other scaffolds Diminish the support offered by other students J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

116 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 12. Increase Student Responsibilities Gradually, increase the complexity and difficulty of the material In reading, begin with well-organized, reader-friendly material Increase the difficulty and use less structured materials as mastery occurs J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

117 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 13. Assess Student Mastery J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Assess students achievement of a mastery level Provide for additional instruction when necessary Beware! Lack of review Lack of periodic monitoring of mastery

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119 Summary Of What We Know 1. Present new material in small steps so the working memory does not become overloaded. 2. Help students develop an organization for the new material. 3. Guide student practice by (a) supporting students during initial practice and (b) providing for extensive student processing. J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

120 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Summary Of What We Know 4. When teaching higher-level tasks, support students by providing them with cognitive strategies. 5. Help students learn to use the cognitive strategies by providing them with procedural prompts and modeling the use of these procedural prompts. 6. Provide for extensive student practice. J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

121 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 What This All Means Adequate Yearly Progress Occurs When There is focus on improving, monitoring, and providing corrective feedback on instruction Build It and They Will Come Achievement will follow The Most-Effective Teacher Teaches Well-Structured Tasks

122 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Review First Review homework and any relevant previous learning Review prerequisite skills and knowledge for the lesson What Does The Well-Structured Lesson Look Like? J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

123 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Beginning: The Presentation State lesson goals or provide outline Present new material in small steps Model procedures Provide examples and non-examples Use clear language Avoid digressions Check for student understanding Teaching Well-Structured Tasks J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

124 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Middle: Focus on Guided Practice Spend more time on guided practice High frequency of questions All students respond (to you, to each other,) and receive feedback High success rate Continue practice until students are fluent Teaching Well-Structured Tasks J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

125 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Teaching Well-Structured Tasks Middle: Corrections and Feedback Provide process feedback when answers are correct but hesitant Provide sustaining feedback, clues, or reteaching when answers are incorrect Reteach material when necessary J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

126 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 End: Independent Practice Students receive overview and/or help during initial steps Practice continues until students are automatic (where relevant) Teacher provides active supervision (where possible) Routines are used to provide help for slower students Daily, weekly, and monthly reviews Teaching Well-Structured Tasks J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

127 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 What Does Explicit Engaging Instruction Look Like? I DO IT gain attention & clearly model cue students to notice critical aspects of the model model thinking,too - mental modeling/direct explanation Struggling learners need US to:

128 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Provided Thinking Time Structured/prompted engagement: choral responses if answer/response is short and you want the same answers partner responses if answer/response is long and can be differently worded correction/feedback - remodeling, more examples, etc. What Does Explicit Engaging Instruction Look Like? WE DO IT Struggling learners need:

129 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 What Does Explicit Engaging Instruction Look Like? YOU DO IT individual responses; oral, written, point/touch/demo coaching students to apply the strategy previously taught Struggling learners need:

130

131 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Most-Effective Teachers Know Each Learners Need for Differentiated Instruction Who Knows the Material ? Who Needs More Input ? Who Needs More Background ? Who Needs Elaborated Scaffolds ? Throughout Instruction: Monitor and Assess J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

132 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Least-Effective Teachers Test mastery after initial instruction--- in lieu of guided practice Test learning outcomes--- in lieu of independent practice Allow practice of errors through these practices Assessment is Not Instruction

133 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Evaluation vs. Grading Comparison to grade level standards (norm- referenced; criterion-referenced) Comparison to students personal needs, (often criterion-referenced or standards from other grade levels) Comparison to teacher expectations for this child, rating attitude, progress, work completion, motivation, etc.

134 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Which Learner Characteristics Affect Instruction? Attention Focus Problems Fear of Failure Background Deficits AND…..think of your own experiences Activity 1: Continue the list in your group Activity 2: Discuss how Most-Effective Teaching addresses problems in all lesson phases when instructing these students.

135 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Ponder This When instruction is delivered by Most-Effective Teachers… How many students will still need further Accommodations or Differentiated Instruction?

136 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Ponder This Who is entitled to Differentiated Instruction or Accommodations? What might they look like for Dolores and Billy?

137 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Ponder This What is educational reform really all about? Improving Outcomes for All Students If a student fails to meet a standard, is it due to Lack of differentiated instruction or accommodations? Thus, lack of instruction by a Most- Effective Teacher?

138 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Ponder This Or, is it student characteristics? Lazy AD/HD LD ED Low Motivation Cognitive Skill Deficits Is the problem IN the student, or IN the instruction?

139 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Differentiated Instruction Differentiated Instruction is an instructional concept that maximizes learning for ALL studentsregardless of skill level or background. It's based on the fact that in a typical classroom, students vary in their academic abilities, learning styles, personalities, interests, background knowledge and experiences, and levels of motivation for learning. When a teacher differentiates instruction, he or she uses the best teaching practices and strategies to create different pathways that respond to the needs of diverse learners. www.differentiatedinstruction.com

140 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Accommodations/Modifications Review Terms & Concepts Accommodations Modifications Compare to Differentiated Instruction/Effective Instruction

141 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 I.D.E.A. 1997 Reauthorization specifies (300.342(b)(3)) that the public agency shall ensure... each teacher and provider is informed of his or her specific responsibilities related to implementing the childs IEP and the specific accommodations, modifications, and supports that must be provided for the child in accordance with the IEP. Legal Justification Accommodate, Modify, and Support

142 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Adaptations Accommodations Do not fundamentally alter or lower expectations or standards in instructional level, content, or performance criteria. Changes are made in order to provide equal access to learning and equal opportunity to demonstrate what is known. Grading is same. Modifications Do fundamentally alter or lower expectations or standards in instructional level, Content, or performance criteria. Changes are made to provide meaningful & productive learning experiences based on individual needs & abilities. Grading is different.

143 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 What is accommodated? The Characteristics of the Learner Goal: To remove barriers to learning the material and to demonstrating mastery Standards are substantially the same for all; outcomes will vary. 1-3

144 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Learning Differences Speed of information processing Memory: Encoding, Storage, Retrieval Automatization of Rote Facts Organization Listening Skills Attention Forethought and Planning Etc.

145 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Emotional/Temperament Characteristics Rigidity/Flexibility Irritability Placidity Social Awareness Desire for Novel vs. Familiar Anxiety Etc.

146 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Reading/Writing/Math Skill Deficits Reading Decoding vs. Understanding Math Fact Recall vs. Math Concepts Writing Mechanics vs. Written Content Etc.

147 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Cognitive/Conceptual Skill Differences Processing speed Conceptualization Understanding of Elapsed Time Inferential Thinking Conservation, Multiple Variable reasoning Etc.

148 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Sensory Input Challenges Vision Hearing Movement

149 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 What is the difference? Differentiated Instruction Terminology from general education Accommodations Terminology from special education Are all students entitled to accommodations? Ponder this

150 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Goal: To allow educational progress in mastering curriculum, physical and social access to a full array of IEP team determined appropriate classrooms and peers. Individualized goals are developed, skills taught and measured through either standard assessments with modifications (mild disabilities) or through alternate assessments (moderate to severe disabilities). What is modified with modifications? The Goal of the Activity

151 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Implications of Modifications High school diploma may or may not be earned, depending on the students meeting of district graduation. When do we tell families that? With modifications, what is taught and assessed is highly individualized. Achievement is not compared to peers.

152 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

153 Nine Types of Curriculum Adaptations Quantity * Adapt the number of items that the learner is expected to learn or number of activities student will complete prior to assessment for mastery. For example: Reduce the number of social studies terms a learner must learn at any one time. Add more practice activities or worksheets prior to assessment of skill mastery.

154 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Ponder This Does altering amount of seatwork completed prior to assessment of content mastery constitute a modification or an accommodation? If I reduce practice, and now student cant demonstrate mastery If I reduce practice and student can still demonstrate mastery

155 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Time * Adapt the time allotted and allowed for learning, task completion, or testing. For example: Individualize a timeline for completing a task - pace learning differently (increase or decrease) for some learners. Nine Types of Curriculum Adaptations

156 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Ponder This Does giving more time to complete an assignment or take a test result in the lowering of a standard? How should this be graded or evaluated? Is this practice a modification or an accommodation? Discuss at your table.

157 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Level of Support * Increase the amount of personal assistance to keep the student on task or to reinforce or prompt use of specific skills. Enhance adult-student relationship. Use physical space and environmental structure. For example: Assign peer buddies, teaching assistants, peer tutors, or cross-age tutors. Specify how to interact with the student or how to structure the environment. Nine Types of Curriculum Adaptations

158 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Ponder This Is this a common practice? Do students without disabilities often have this support? Do we use this too frequently or too little? Is this an accommodation? If so, for what? Are we using one on one paraeducators effectively?

159 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Input * Adapt the way instruction is delivered to the learner. For example: Use different visual aids, enlarge text, plan more concrete examples, provide hands-on activities, place students in cooperative groups, pre-teach key concepts or terms before the lesson. Nine Types of Curriculum Adaptations

160 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Ponder This Discuss at your table. Is Input an accommodation or modification? What is more effective: pre-teaching or re-teaching?

161 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Use strategies and scaffolds To accommodate diverse learners Accommodation during INPUT A service or support to help fully access the subject matter and instruction Input Enhancement IN

162 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Using graphic organizers when teaching content… Organization of ideas is self-evident to students Reduces information processing demands needed to understand new information Input Enhancement IN

163 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 INPUT: Visual Displays Portray relationships among information presented in instruction Includes diagrams, concrete models, concept maps, videos situating learning in a meaningful context, or digital material presented during instruction. Intended to help students organize information in long-term memory

164 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Activate prior knowledge during instruction. Function as an accommodation when they scaffold the creation of linkages among information in the learners long- term memory. Visual Displays

165 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 INPUT: Pre-teaching with Advance Organizers Defined: Pre-instructional materials to aid linkage of new information with prior knowledge stored in long-term memory. May be verbal, written, or be presented in a question format. Examples: Questions presented prior to a discussion or reading assignment Vocabulary words presented on the board or a handout Verbal statements by the teacher designed to activate knowledge prior to instruction

166 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Peer-Mediated Instruction Definedstudents as instructional agents, including: Peer and cross-age tutoring Class-wide tutoring Cooperative learning Primary purposeincrease opportunities for distributed practice with feedback. Usually has well-scripted or structured interactions designed and mediated by the teacher. Nolet (2000)

167 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Study Guides Worksheets prior to a reading or study assignment. Includes a set of statements or questions to focus the students attention and cognitive resources on key information to be learned. Examples: Completed or partially completed outlines Questions focusing on the textual, literal, and inferential aspects of a study assignment Other tasks designed to prompt the active processing of the material to be studied

168 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Mnemonic Devices- For Content Domains Defined: Techniques to aid storage & recall of declarative knowledge May be verbal or pictorial May be provided by the teacher or developed collaboratively by teacher and the student Can be key words, pictures, or symbols e.g., Every Good Boy Deserves Fudge.

169 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Input Accommodations Are Foundational Interventions - The key to differentiated instruction: Use guided practice, strategies, and scaffolds. They accommodates diverse learners. IN

170 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Difficulty * Adapt the skill level, problem type, or the rules on how the learner may approach the work. For example: Allow the use of a calculator to figure math problems; simplify task directions; change rules to accommodate learner needs. Nine Types of Curriculum Adaptations

171 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Ponder This Discuss: Is altering the difficulty of an assignment a good practice? When is it an accommodation or a modification?

172 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Output * Adapt how the student can respond to instruction. For example: Instead of answering questions in writing, allow a verbal response, use a communication book for some students, allow students to show knowledge with hands on materials. Nine Types of Curriculum Adaptations

173 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Output Accommodations Altered methods of demonstrating mastery of the instruction Measures what the student learned, not the students disability or characteristics Removes barriers OUT

174 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Accommodation during OUTPUT A service or support to help the learner validly demonstrate knowledge removing the characteristic or disability interfering with demonstration of what has been learned. Output Goal OUT

175 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Output Accommodations Samples: Multiple choice vs. essay Dictating vs. writing Typing vs. handwriting Demonstrating vs. writing. Timed quizzes vs. un-timed ones OUT

176 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Output-comparisons OUT Standard Accommodations vs. Non-standard Accommodations Test publishers language as to whether what is being measured has been altered beyond the ability to compare this students performance to his/her peers. Accommodations vs. Modifications Educators language as to whether what is being taught and measured is substantially altered from what is expected: The grade level standards.

177 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 OUTPUT: On Standardized Tests See: Testing Documentation Form for discussion See updates at your states website for what constitutes an accommodation or a modification (often called a non-standard accommodation OUT

178 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 How do you know which output change is which type of adaptation? High Stakes Testing The test publisher tells you about norm- referencing and substantial alterations. Classroom Instruction Compare goal/objective of the instruction with the curriculum standard and determine if change substantially alters what is being taught Testing Output Changes OUT

179 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Testing Output Changes OUT Standard Accommodations vs. Non-standard Accommodations Test publishers language as to whether what is being measured has been altered beyond the ability to compare this students performance to his/her peers. Accommodations vs. Modifications Educators language as to whether what is being taught and measured is substantially altered from what is expected: i.e., the grade level standards during instruction.

180 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Ponder This Do I alter the grading if I have altered the output method? Is this an accommodation or a modification? Do not continue to measure a known skill deficit; measure attainment of content.

181 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Review: Input & Output Accommodations Input accommodation. - a service or support to help fully access the subject matter and instruction. Output accommodation. - a service or support to help validly demonstrate knowledge. IN OUT

182 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 The most critical components of Effective Instruction and Accommodation Planning In a Nutshell: Input Accommodation Strategy: Circumvent learner characteristic barriers: Alter presentation of information to the student. Output Accommodation Strategy: Circumvent learner characteristic barriers: Alter production from the student.

183 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 What is clearly an accommodation for a learning characteristic instruction during classroom instruction, may be defined as a modification/non-standard accommodation on a high stakes test. In a Nutshell: The Testing Nuance Input, e.g., reading the text or chapter test in social studies is an accommodation, reading the high stakes test likely defined as a modification. Output, e.g., writing the dictated essay may be an accommodation in social studies, but be a modification on standardized assessment.

184 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 They are entitled to removal of barriers to accessing and progressing in core/general curriculum. In a Nutshell: Students with IEPs If an accommodation is on the IEP to level the playing field, remove the barrier. Even if it is defined as a modification on a high stakes test, the student is entitled to that modification if necessary, regardless of the effects on aggregating data. To do otherwise would be discriminatory.

185 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Participation * Sometimes called engagement Adapt the extent to which a learner is actively involved in the task. For example: During instruction, using every pupil response techniques or choral responding. In geography, have a student hold the globe, while others point out locations. Ask the student to lead a group. Have the student turn the pages while sitting on your lap (kindergarten). Nine Types of Curriculum Adaptations

186 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 1.Choral responses (answers are short/same) - Students cue you they are attending (eyes on me). - Provide thinking time - Signal group response 2.Every pupil response techniques (answers are short/different) - Student answers with gestures or answer card. 3.Partner Responses (answers long/different) - Teacher assigns - provide a label/role 1s tell 2s - Alternate ranking for partnering - Specific topics/jobs; no one is passive Participation Enhancement to Increase Student Engagement Adapted from Dr. Kevin Feldman, 12/01 inservice

187 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 4.Written responses - List first, then share - Touch something Put your finger on the ______. 5.Individual responses (AFTER practice on the new skill) - Randomly call on individuals to share Participation/Enhancement Adapted from Dr. Kevin Feldman, 12/01 inservice

188 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Differentiating during whole class instruction options include: Graphic organizers - Visual thinking vary the support (e.g., partially filled out, partner dialogue) Projects individual & small group - Key is organization/structure ~ rubrics ~ touch points along the way Participation AND INPUT IN

189 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Peer-Mediated Instruction DefinedStudents as instructional agents, including: Peer and cross-age tutoring Class-wide tutoring Cooperative learning Primary purposeincrease opportunities for distributed practice with feedback. Usually has well-scripted or structured interactions designed and mediated by the teacher. Nolet (2000)

190 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Comprehension instruction: PALS http://kc.vanderbilt.edu/kennedy/pals/ - Stronger reader reads a paragraph. - Weaker reader prompts. Input & Participation Enhancement IN

191 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Weaker reader prompts stronger reader to: 1. Name the Who or What * identification 2. Tell the most important thing(s) about the Who or What * elaboration 3. Paraphrase in 10 words or less (paraphrasing straight jacket) * consolidation * continues for 5 minutes then switch roles (new text) Input & Participation Enhancement IN

192 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Ponder This How common is this practice? Is it better to use participation/engagement strategies with a distractible student, or should that student be isolated so as not to distract others? Is this an accommodation or a modification?

193 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Nine Types of Curriculum Adaptations Alternate Goals Adapt the goals or outcome expectations while using the same materials. When routinely utilized, this is only for students with moderate to severe disabilities. For example: In a social studies lesson, expect a student to be able to locate the colors of the states on a map, while other students learn to locate each state and name the capital.

194 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Functional Curriculum Provide different instruction and materials to meet a learners functional/life skills individual goals. When routinely utilized, this is only for students with moderate to severe disabilities. For example: During a language lesson a student is learning toileting skills with an aide. Nine Types of Curriculum Adaptations

195 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Ponder This Discuss. For whom is this adaptation appropriate? Why would we do this in the era of high standards?

196 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 In kindergarten, Michelles teacher found she needed to frequently repeat the directions for any activity as Michelle was often not listening carefully when they were first given. (____________________) The teacher also frequently paired Michelle with a diligent worker once seatwork activities began second semester. (__________________________) Sometimes Michelle did not finish her seatwork, so her teacher allowed her to take it home to complete and return the next day. (_____________________) Activity: Michelles Accommodation History

197 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 In kindergarten, Michelles teacher found she needed to frequently repeat the directions for any activity as Michelle was often not listening carefully when they were first given. (input A) The teacher also frequently paired Michelle with a diligent worker once seatwork activities began second semester. (level of support A) Sometimes Michelle did not finish her seatwork, so her teacher allowed her to take it home to complete and return the next day. (time A) Activity: Michelles Accommodation History

198 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 In first grade, Michelle began receiving speech/language services for articulation errors. It was also found that Michelle had minor auditory processing difficulties. Her therapist decided to pre-teach some concepts that would be introduced on the following day, hoping that this would improve her listening skills. (____________) Michelle was purposefully placed next to students with excellent attending skills, as she tended to be quite chatty during seatwork. (______________) Activity: Michelles Accommodation History

199 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 In first grade, Michelle began receiving speech/language services for articulation errors. It was also found that Michelle had minor auditory processing difficulties. Her therapist decided to pre-teach some concepts that would be introduced on the following day, hoping that this would improve her listening skills. (input A) Michelle was purposefully placed next to students with excellent attending skills, as she tended to be quite chatty during seatwork. (level of support A) Activity: Michelles Accommodation History

200 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Sometimes Michelles teacher had her come to the front of the room to hold the pointer during large group lessons as this appeared to aid in focusing on the key parts of the lesson, rather than distracting to extraneous details around her. (___________________) Michelle was noticeably slower than her peers in finishing any written assignment, so her teacher often sent homework to finish and return so Michelle would not miss recess or other fun activities, trying to finish assignments. (___________________________) Activity: Michelles Accommodation History

201 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Sometimes Michelles teacher had her come to the front of the room to hold the pointer during large group lessons as this appeared to aid in focusing on the key parts of the lesson, rather than distracting to extraneous details around her. (participation A) Michelle was noticeably slower than her peers in finishing any written assignment, so her teacher often sent homework to finish and return so Michelle would not miss recess or other fun activities, trying to finish assignments. (time A) Activity: Michelles Accommodation History

202 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 In second grade, Michelles reading decoding skills were not up to her peers. Adult classroom volunteers often worked with her to reinforce previous skills (flash card drill, extra oral reading time with adult corrections and quizzes: who, what, where, when). (_________________) and (______________________) Due to her slow acquisition of phonics, Michelles teacher decided to reduce the number of spelling words she would study each week from 15 to 10, although the words Michelle learned were the same as her peers. (__________________________) Activity: Michelles Accommodation History

203 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 In second grade, Michelles reading decoding skills were not up to her peers. Adult classroom volunteers often worked with her to reinforce previous skills (flash card drill, extra oral reading time with adult corrections and quizzes: who, what, where, when). (level of support A ) and (input A ) Due to her slow acquisition of phonics, Michelles teacher decided to reduce the number of spelling words she would study each week from 15 to 10, although the words Michelle learned were the same as her peers. (input A or B, refer to the standard addressed) Activity: Michelles Accommodation History

204 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 In math, Michelle often grasped the concepts readily, so her teacher had her complete fewer worksheets before taking a test to demonstrate mastery of the concept. (____________________) This bought some extra time, her teacher explained, for Michelle to practice her handwriting with additional worksheets, as she still took an extraordinarily long time producing letter formations. (_____________________) The pre-teaching begun in first grade continued for new concepts, and was believed to be helping Michelle. (_______________________) Activity: Michelles Accommodation History

205 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 In math, Michelle often grasped the concepts readily, so her teacher had her complete less worksheets before taking a test to demonstrate mastery of the concept. (Quantity A) This bought some extra time, her teacher explained, for Michelle to practice her handwriting with additional worksheets, as she still took an extraordinarily long time producing letter formations. (Quantity A) The pre-teaching begun in first grade continued for new concepts, and was believed to be helping Michelle. (Input A) Activity: Michelles Accommodation History

206 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 By the end of third grade, Michelle was evaluated for special education services as a student with a learning disability and found to be eligible in written language. Her math skills were found to be well above her peers, while her reading skills were found to be at 2.1 grade level. All previous accommodations were found to be helpful and were incorporated into her IEP. Additionally, Michelle was now to be taught keyboarding, and allowed to produce most written work at the keyboard due to her poor graphomotor skills. This often required her to take work home to produce on a home computer. Her teacher also decided that… Activity: Michelles Accommodation History

207 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 …Michelles work group (3 students) would produce a play to illustrate concepts learned in a social studies lesson, rather than a written product. (Other groups wrote reports, constructed a diorama, and produced a video skit). Although this was an acceptable alternative, her teacher decided to list this accommodation on Michelles IEP so future teachers would be aware of this need. Activity: Michelles Accommodation History

208 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Name which of the 9 categories are represented: Remember what worked! Reading seatwork time: sat next to high achievers Math seatwork time: small # practice problems Large group work, where new concepts are introduced: preteach key concepts before lesson Written language tasks: used keyboarding Social Studies Report: produced a play Activity: Michelles Accommodation History

209 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Her accommodations were listed as: Reading seatwork time: level of support Math seatwork time: quantity Large group work, where new concepts are introduced: input Written language tasks: output Social Studies report: output Activity: Michelles Accommodation History

210 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 By sixth grade, Michelle was participating in an after-school homework club where adult volunteers helped her to plan task approach for long assignments and helped her to complete most work with one on one assistance. (____________)(_______________)(__________) Her teacher found pre-teaching no longer as helpful for Michelle, and speech language services were no longer found necessary by her IEP team. Graphic organizers were extensively used by this teacher and found to be quite helpful for Michelle. (_________________________) Activity: Michelles Accommodation History

211 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 By sixth grade, Michelle was participating in an after-school homework club where adult volunteers helped her to plan task approach for long assignments, and helped her to complete most work with one on one assistance. (level of support A) (input A) (difficult A or B depending on whether Michelle was completing the tasks fundamentally herself or whether the adult was essentially doing the work) Her teacher found pre-teaching no longer as helpful for Michelle, and speech language services were no longer found necessary by her IEP team. Graphic organizers were extensively used by this teacher, and found to be quite helpful for Michelle. (input A) Activity: Michelles Accommodation History

212 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Michelles IEP team found the reading level of the texts well beyond her skill, despite extensive continued remediation for reading difficulties. Michelles teacher decided to try text-on- tape and text-on-CD with Michelle, as she grasped the concepts better this way than reading the text alone. (____________________) She also found that choral-responding techniques, every-pupil response techniques (_______________________) allowed Michelle and her classmates to focus better during whole group instruction. Her teacher also began PALS teams for social studies and science text reading, and found higher achievement and time on task outcomes. (_____________________) (_____________________) and (_____________________) Activity: Michelles Accommodation History

213 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Michelles IEP team found the reading level of the texts well beyond her skill, despite extensive continued remediation for reading difficulties. Michelles teacher decided to try text-on- tape and text-on-CD with Michelle, as she grasped the concepts better this way than reading the text alone. (input A) She also found that choral-responding techniques, every-pupil response techniques (participation A) allowed Michelle, and her classmates, to focus better during whole group instruction. Her teacher also began PALS teams for social studies and science text reading, and found higher achievement and time on task outcomes. (input A) (level of support A) and (participation A) (output A) Activity: Michelles Accommodation History

214 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 In eighth grade, Michelle was found to be unable to complete written tests on concepts very well. Orally she knew the material, but somehow in the writing task, even with keyboard responses allowed, she was unable to demonstrate mastery in concept-laden work. Her teachers agreed to try oral testing in the RSP classroom, although this often meant her testing could not occur until later that day due to scheduling constraints. To their astonishment, Michelles motivation and achievement skyrocketed! (__________________) and (_____________________) and (______________________) Activity: Michelles Accommodation History

215 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 In eighth grade, Michelle was found to be unable to complete written tests on concepts very well. Orally, she knew the material, but somehow in the writing task, even with keyboard responses allowed, she was unable to demonstrate mastery in concept-laden work. Her teachers agreed to try oral testing in the RSP classroom, although this often meant her testing could not occur until later that day due to scheduling constraints. To their astonishment, Michelles motivation and achievement skyrocketed! (level of support A) and (input A) and (output A) and (time A) Activity: Michelles Accommodation History

216 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 By September of tenth grade, unfortunately Michelle had now begun to associate with known gang members, and her counselor became concerned. Although she still maintained some earlier friendships, she did not seem to be the same child any more, her parents stated. Parent conferences occurred, and it was agreed that counseling would be a good idea for Michelle. A referral to a local clinic was made at parent request. During those sessions, her counselor became aware of low self-esteem issues related to her incomplete understanding of her learning profile. (Although depression was suspected, after several sessions, Michelles counselor decided this did not apply.) Activity: Michelles Accommodation History

217 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Demystification sessions about her learning profile were conducted, and Michelle and her counselor decided to approach the school staff to discuss the feasibility of a school-wide program, such as the Learning Strengths Seminars (see www.pent.ca.gov; accommodations pages and www.allkindsofminds.org; educational care giving).www.pent.ca.gov Family therapy sessions were conducted, and Michelle has discontinued her association with gang-involved youth. Michelle stated she is interested in getting a job. Her family and other IEP team members will be meeting to develop a transition plan soon. Activity: Michelles Accommodation History

218 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Teaching Students About Accommodations-Self Advocacy The Learning Strengths Project

219 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Learning Strengths Project A form of educational care- giving (Mel Levine M.D. http://www.allkindsofminds.org/ ) http://www.allkindsofminds.org/ Acknowledges and Understands strengths weaknesses affinities Does not seek to cure Does not seek to radically alter the students characteristics

220 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Learning Strengths Project Learning Strengths Project Components: 1.Seminars Teach About Learning Group Demystification Classroom Follow-up 2.Portfolio Development Connecting seminar and individual learning strengths 3.Conferences 4.Ownership Demonstration: Asking For & Analyzing My Accommodations/Modifications

221 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Component One: Seminars All Learners Developmental Functions Variability +/- Dysfunction Disability Handicap 1.Attention 2.Simultaneous/Sequential Processing 3. Memory 4. Language 5. Higher-Order Cognition 6. Motor 7. Social Skills Synchronized interplay of these functions lead to successful learning. PART ONE: Teach about learning

222 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 PART TWO: Group Demystification Demystify through group acknowledgement Use small groups (when possible) Include students without known learning problems (when possible) They often reveal their own struggles which is very helpful for students with difficulties. Component One: Seminars

223 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Hold multiple sessions, can be small doses Formats Students complete questionnaires (such as after a test, Attention Cockpit, Answer System). Students often discuss responses individually with teacher, or in groups if the classroom climate is conducive. PART TWO: Group Demystification Component One: Seminars

224 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Students read from a text about learning or learning disorders then discuss individual chapters and their personal relevance. Students read and discuss case studies, making suggestions. PART THREE: Classroom Follow-up Component Two: Seminars

225 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Students write and discuss their own autobiographical case studies (e.g., My Career in School) Students analyze their own work using formats provided by the teacher that relate success/failure to strengths/weaknesses and strategies selected Connecting Seminar and Individual Learning Strengths Component Two: Portfolio Development

226 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 One-to-one Meetings With Staff Component Three: Conferences Conduct with the student by an assessor Explain the students strengths and demystifies the weaknesses Use actual test results

227 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Full page Comp 3 3-3

228 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 COMPONENTSCONTENT DestigmatizationProvide assurance that all individuals have strengths and weaknesses; the sooner one learns about oneself the better; possibly cite examples of ones own dysfunctions; point out that even honor students are imperfect. Cite examples! Strength DelineationProvide a description of students strengths: this must be concrete, honest, offered with evidence, and if possible, compared to peers Weakness EnumerationCite the number of dysfunctions (e.g., There are 3 areas that are a problem for you.) and their observable effects: use graphics and analogies, elicit examples from the student if possible Conference Content

229 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 COMPONENTSCONTENT Induction of OptimismProvide a profile projection of the future to show how these strengths can work well in adulthood; restoration of self-esteem and hope for the future. Alliance Formation Focus on communication of interest and a willingness to be helpful and supportive in the future – Were in this together. Conference Content (continued)

230 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Individualized demystification usually requires periodic follow- up booster doses. It can be very helpful for parents to be present during the demystification session so that they can make use of the same terminology and frames of reference at home. Alternatively, a cassette recording could be made available to the student to share with his/her family. It is essential that the overall tone be supportive, non- accusatory, and not preachy. Students should be helped to understand that she or he is accountable for work output, etc.; i.e., one cannot use the identified weakness as an excuse for poor performance. Conference Hints

231 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 2-4

232 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Attention Cockpit Interview Small Group or Individual Interview

233 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Ownership of Bypass Strategies - Teach Students to Ask for Accommodations Component Four: Ownership Input Accommodation/Modification Strategy: Alter presentation of information to the student Output Accommodation/Modification Strategy: Circumvent deficits, alter production from the student

234 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 True Ownership of Bypass Strategies - Teach Students to Ask for Accommodations Mel Levine, M.D. The need for the bypass strategies should be well understood by the student. Bypass strategies should be utilized in such a way that they are not embarrassing and do not imply any disrespect or writing off of the student. One can charge a price for a bypass (e.g., suggesting a student read an extra book in exchange for reduction in length for a written report). Component Four: Ownership

235 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 True Ownership of Bypass Strategies - Teach Students to Ask for Accommodations The entire class should know that bypass options are available to everyone who really needs them. Never tolerate the teasing of a student who is receiving accommodations. Component Four: Ownership Everyone is entitled to a special program for an area in need of improvement, to help improve a skill.

236 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Accommodation/Modification Forms Notification of Teacher Accommodation Plan Accommodations/Modifications Plan: linked to Nine Types

237 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Brendan 11 th grader, legally blind, learning problems-IEP Achievement on par on many parameters Brendan

238 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Accommodations/Modifications All range from least restrictive to most restrictive Only modifications require IEPs least restrictive to most restrictive

239 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 People react in different ways when they find out a student in their class needs accommodations...

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245 Overcoming Barriers They dont want to do it! Why? What Beliefs, Knowledge and Skills are Barriers?

246 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Teacher Student

247 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Strategies for Overcoming Resistance

248 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Swamp or Alligators?

249 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Decreasing Resistance 1. Roadblock:Lack of Visible District-Wide Commitment 2.Roadblock:Lack of Legal Knowledge 3.Roadblock:Lack of Two-way Communication On Content of a Student's IEP/504 Plan, Rationale for Elements In the Plan, How to Change IEP Plan Content

250 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 4.Roadblock:Lack of Clarity in Writing, Assigning Implementers, Establishing Accountability, and Explaining Plans Immediately Decreasing Resistance

251 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 5.Roadblock:Lack of Addressing The Five Key Reasons Educators Typically Are Reluctant To Accommodate Grading Responding to Unfair! Change of Incompatible Educational Philosophy Addressing Instructional Methods/Contexts It Takes Too Much Time Decreasing Resistance

252 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 You may be coming face to face with the possibility that brains may be self-cleaning.

253 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 John 10 th Grader, 16 yr old- IEP Learning Disability in written language Achievement deficits Fictitious picture

254 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Dolores 8 th Grader-No disability Newly immigrated to the United States Achievement delayed Fictitious picture

255 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Philip 5 th Grader, AD/HD-504 Difficulty completing tasks Achievement on par Fictitious picture

256 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Nathan 4 th grader with Aspergers Syndrome/High Functioning Autism-IEP Achievement on par with peers Nathan

257 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Mae Lee 3 rd grader with Reading Disability-IEP Cannot decode text Thinking on par, reading/writing severe delays Fictitious picture

258 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Joseph Included 1 st Grader-IEP Autism Achievement uncertain Fictitious picture

259 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Bruce 1 st Grader, Moderate Mental Retardation-IEP Included 80% of his day, general education Unable to master grade level standards Fictitious picture

260 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

261 You can always email or phone me for clarification or assistance. dianawright@earthlink.net 626 487 9455

262 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11


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