Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Welcome to OCHO COHORT Arizona High Achievement for All AHAA!

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Welcome to OCHO COHORT Arizona High Achievement for All AHAA!"— Presentation transcript:

1 Welcome to OCHO COHORT Arizona High Achievement for All AHAA!
AHAA SEIS COHORT Welcome to OCHO COHORT Arizona High Achievement for All AHAA! Diana Browning Wright Diana Browning Wright,

2 But first, a word from our sponsors…
AHAA SEIS COHORT But first, a word from our sponsors… Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

3 Who am I? AHAA SEIS COHORT Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

4 www.pent.ca.gov Positive Environments, Network of Trainers PENT
AHAA SEIS COHORT Positive Environments, Network of Trainers PENT P E N T Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

5 AHAA SEIS COHORT Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

6 And who are you? AHAA SEIS COHORT
Behavior specBICMS?PENT members/psych/s& l/teachers/ admin Deep understanding middle level novice Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

7 AHAA SEIS COHORT Purpose of AHAA Disseminating strategies for how to teach so children learn and behave Reducing problem behavior, default behavior interventions Using accommodations and differentiation for diversity Preventing restrictive settings when LRE is less restrictive Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

8 Pre-agenda ! The RTI context Before we begin—a few reflections
AHAA SEIS COHORT Pre-agenda ! The RTI context Before we begin—a few reflections Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

9 No Child Left Behind! AHAA SEIS COHORT Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

10 Leadership in 2010-2011 AHAA SEIS COHORT Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

11 What NOT to do: The Educational Train Approach
AHAA SEIS COHORT What NOT to do: The Educational Train Approach Everyone on board? Now mandate-the-page to progress monitor That is NOT progress monitoring! Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

12 Not the acceleration we had in mind!
AHAA SEIS COHORT Not the acceleration we had in mind! Diana Browning Wright,

13 And now, NCLB marries IDEA
AHAA SEIS COHORT And now, NCLB marries IDEA Frankenstein Bride of Frankenstein History: How did we get here anyway? Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

14 So, What’s the Big Deal? AHAA SEIS COHORT Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

15 The goals and objectives
AHAA SEIS COHORT Evaluate: Describe-that-Student! Intervene: Placement > Services > Goals Within Student Eligibility—the big 13 Other condition? 504 ? 252 ? A thirty year trial 34 years of assumptions: If lack of success- student is the problem Any student not succeeding must be deficit Identify and Place: “Problematic if you do. Problematic if you don’t.” The black hole The placement The goals and objectives Clockwise vs. counter-clockwise Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

16 Characteristics, likes & dislikes
AHAA SEIS COHORT Evaluate: Influences on Learning Intervene: Alter Instruction to Empower & Accelerate Student Characteristics, likes & dislikes affinities New Assumptions: If lack of success- the match is wrong Any student not succeeding must need a better match The match must be research-based A new view ! Match ! Success for student and for teacher Instructional Strategies Curriculum/Task Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

17 Reform Means: Think Outside the Box!
AHAA SEIS COHORT Reform Means: Think Outside the Box! Diana Browning Wright,

18 Ponder this: What are the implications?
AHAA SEIS COHORT Ponder this: What are the implications? Student Study Team Student Success Team Teacher Assistance Team Problem Solving Team Instructional Support Team This is not new wine in old bottles! Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

19 Why Change? USA is falling behind internationally
AHAA SEIS COHORT Why Change? USA is falling behind internationally See Drop out rates are high Evidence of many students’ lacking preparation for post secondary education Evidence of lack of preparation for the workplace We know more now than 30 years ago! Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

20 AHAA SEIS COHORT Reform means: Using “Evidence-Based” in all we do including teaching strategies See: and Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

21 Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success
AHAA SEIS COHORT Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success Academic Systems Behavioral Systems Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual Students Assessment-based High Intensity Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual Students Assessment-based Intense, durable procedures 1-5% 1-5% 5-10% 5-10% Selected Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response Selected Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response Universal Interventions All settings, all students Preventive, proactive Universal Interventions All students Preventive, proactive 80-90% 80-90% Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

22 All students—80-90% likely to be “enough”
AHAA SEIS COHORT All students—80-90% likely to be “enough” Continuous progress monitoring, with data-based decision making using evidence based materials Principal supervises fidelity and data collection Teachers implement with fidelity and report ongoing data District office supports adoption, training, data aggregation 80-90 % likely to respond Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

23 AHAA SEIS COHORT Some Students- 5-???% Continuous progress monitoring, with data-based decision making using evidence-based materials Principal supervises fidelity and data review Site Team ongoing problem solving---(expanded as needed) can be IEP/504 team Selected implementers provide intervention with fidelity District office supports adoption, training, data aggregation, and disaggregation 5-10 % or ?? Likely to need Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

24 Intensive 1-5% or ?? 1-5 % or ??? Likely to need
AHAA SEIS COHORT Intensive 1-5% or ?? 1-5 % or ??? Likely to need Continuous progress monitoring, with data-based decision making using evidence -based materials Principal supervises fidelity and data review Site Team ongoing problem solving (expanded as needed) can be IEP/504 team Selected implementers provide intervention with fidelity District office supports adoption, training, data aggregation and disaggregation Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

25 AHAA SEIS COHORT Our Agenda Effective Differentiated Instruction What we know about instruction for all students—a 30 year summary Review Terms & Concepts Accommodations Modifications Differentiated Instruction Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

26 AHAA SEIS COHORT Agenda (continued) Practice Types of Accommodations Case Study Review Discuss Nuances of Application and Implementation Barriers Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

27 Group Norms Diana’s rule: None of us is as skilled as all of us!
AHAA SEIS COHORT Group Norms Diana’s rule: None of us is as skilled as all of us! Your group’s rules? Safe, respectful, responsible Cover respect and responsible criteria Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

28 AHAA SEIS COHORT Self Study Materials The Learning Strengths Project How to engage students in their accommodation plans Input/Output Adaptations and Differentiated Instruction A review of what we NOW know about struggling learners Write accommodation plans integrating what we know about teaching and learning Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

29 AHAA SEIS COHORT To be able to “differentiate instruction” and plan “accommodations or modifications,” we first need to know what constitutes effective instruction! Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

30 Introduction: Reviewing Advances in Research on Instruction
AHAA SEIS COHORT Introduction: Reviewing Advances in Research on Instruction From a Pivotal Paper by: Barak Rosenshine University of Illinois at Urbana Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

31 The Most Important Instructional Advancements of the Last 30 Years
AHAA SEIS COHORT The Most Important Instructional Advancements of the Last 30 Years I. Research on cognitive processing II. Research on teacher effects, that is, studies of teachers whose classes made the highest achievement gain compared to other classes III. Intervention studies in which students were taught cognitive strategies they could apply to their learning A major area of research, one with important implications for teaching, has been the research on cognitive processing, research on how information is stored and retrieved. This research has shown us the importance of helping students develop a well -connected body of accessible knowledge. From three bodies of research discussed in J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

32 1. Findings from Research on Cognitive Processing:
AHAA SEIS COHORT 1. Findings from Research on Cognitive Processing: The Importance of Well-Connected Knowledge Structures J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

33 AHAA SEIS COHORT Knowledge Structures Information in our long-term memory is stored in interconnected networks A Well-Connected Network is important for processing information and solving problems: The size of these structures The number of connections between pieces of knowledge The strength of the connections The organization and richness of the relationships It is easier to assimilate new information and easier to use prior knowledge for problem solving, when one has more connections and interconnections, stronger ties between the connections, and a better organized knowledge structure. When the knowledge structure on a particular topic is large and well-connected, new information is more readily acquired and prior knowledge is more readily available for use. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright,

34 Well-Connected Network means:
AHAA SEIS COHORT Well-Connected Network means: Any one piece of information can serve to help retrieve the entire pattern. Strong connections and a richness of relationships enables one to retrieve more pieces of the pattern When information is "meaningful" more points in their knowledge structures to attach new information J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

35 AHAA SEIS COHORT What is Education? A process of developing, enlarging, expanding, and refining our students' knowledge structures. Helping students to organize information into well-connected patterns has another advantage. When a pattern is unified, it only occupies a few bits in the working memory. Thus, having larger and better connected patterns frees up space in our working memory. This available space can be used for reflecting on new information and for problem solving. For example, when U.S. history is organized into well-connected patterns, these patterns occupy less space in the working memory and the learner has additional space in the working memory to use to consider, assimilate, and manipulate new information. A major difference between an expert and a novice is that the expert's knowledge structure has a larger number of knowledge items, the expert has mo re connections between the items, the links between the connections are stronger, and the structure is better organized. A novice, on the other hand, is unable to see these patterns, and often ignores them. This development of well-connected patterns and the concomitant freeing of space in the working memory is one of the hallmarks of an expert in a field. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright,

36 Importance of Well-Connected and Elaborate Knowledge Structures
AHAA SEIS COHORT Importance of Well-Connected and Elaborate Knowledge Structures Allow for easier retrieval of old material Permit more information to be carried in a single chunk Facilitate the understanding and integration of new information. J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

37 Three Important Instructional Implications
AHAA SEIS COHORT Three Important Instructional Implications Need to help students develop background knowledge Importance of student processing Importance of organizers J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

38 Enhancing Background Knowledge
AHAA SEIS COHORT Enhancing Background Knowledge Background Knowledge helps students develop well-connected bodies of knowledge Provide extensive reading, review, practice, and discussion Helps students increase the number of pieces of information in long-term memory Organizes those pieces Increases the strength and number of interconnections The more one rehearses and review s information, the stronger these interconnections become. J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

39 What do you need to know? AHAA SEIS COHORT
Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

40 Information Processing
AHAA SEIS COHORT Information Processing The more one rehearses and review s information, the stronger these interconnections become. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

41 I. Cognitive Processing Research Findings:
AHAA SEIS COHORT I. Cognitive Processing Research Findings: All Teachers Must Support All Students By: Providing for extensive reading of a variety of materials Frequent review and testing Discussion and application activities. J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

42 Opportunity to Process Information
AHAA SEIS COHORT Opportunity to Process Information Key for Achieving High Outcomes New material is stored in the long-term memory when one processes it All these activities are useful in helping students develop, organize, strengthen, and expand their knowledge structures. J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

43 Opportunity to Process Information
AHAA SEIS COHORT Opportunity to Process Information Key for Achieving High Outcomes “Quality of storage” can depend on the "level of processing" Examples: Highest: summarize or compare the material in the passage rather than simply reading it. Middle: read the passage and focus on its meaning Lowest: read a passage and count the number of times the word "the" appeared All these activities are useful in helping students develop, organize, strengthen, and expand their knowledge structures. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

44 How We Teach Makes A Difference!
AHAA SEIS COHORT How We Teach Makes A Difference! All these activities are useful in helping students develop, organize, strengthen, and expand their knowledge structures. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

45 How We Teach Makes A Difference!
AHAA SEIS COHORT How We Teach Makes A Difference! All these activities are useful in helping students develop, organize, strengthen, and expand their knowledge structures. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

46 Processing of New Material
AHAA SEIS COHORT Processing of New Material Takes place through a variety of activities Reviewing Comparing Contrasting Drawing connections Thus, the research on cognitive processing supports the importance of a teacher initiating activities that require students to process and apply new information. Such processing strengthens the knowledge network that the student is developing. J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

47 Processing Helps Strengthen Knowledge Structures
AHAA SEIS COHORT Processing Helps Strengthen Knowledge Structures Processing asks students to: organize information summarize information or compare new material with prior material J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

48 Examples of Processing Activities
AHAA SEIS COHORT Examples of Processing Activities Extensive reading of a variety of materials Explain the new material to someone else Write questions/answer questions Write daily summaries J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

49 Processing Activities (continued)
AHAA SEIS COHORT Processing Activities (continued) Apply the ideas to a new situation Give a new example Compare and contrast the new material to other material.  Study for an exam J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

50 Understanding Is Especially Strengthened When:
AHAA SEIS COHORT Understanding Is Especially Strengthened When: The student explains, elaborates, or defend his/her position to others “The burden of explanation is often the push needed to make him/her evaluate, integrate, and elaborate knowledge in new ways.” J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

51 Help Students Organize Their Knowledge
AHAA SEIS COHORT Help Students Organize Their Knowledge Without direction, students might develop a fragmented, incomplete, or erroneous knowledge structure Teachers must help students organize the new material “Graphic organizers" are organizing structures for expository material An outline is an example of such an organizer, concept maps are another example. These structures help students organize the elements of the new learning and such organization can serve to facilitate retrieval. In addition, having such organizers can enable the student to devote more working memory to the content. Another approach is to teach students how to develop their own graphic organizers for new material. This process is facilitated by providing students with a variety of graphic organizer structures that they can use to construct their own graphic organizers. When teaching students to develop a graphic organizer, it is useful for the teacher to model the process and also provides models of thinking and thinking aloud as she/he constructs the maps. J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

52 I. Cognitive Processing Summary
AHAA SEIS COHORT I. Cognitive Processing Summary Processing results in development of well-connected knowledge structures Develop these by extensive reading, practice, processing new information, and organizing new knowledge J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

53 II. Research on Teacher Effects
AHAA SEIS COHORT II. Research on Teacher Effects 20 to 30 procedures studied, including: Use of praise Use of criticism The number and type of questions that were asked Quality of the student answers Responses of a teacher to a student's answers A second important body of research is the teacher effects studies. The teacher effects research represents a line of studies that in which attempts were made to identify those teacher behaviors that were related to student achievement gain. The focus was on observing and recording classroom instruction and identifying those instructional procedures associated with the most successful and the least successful teachers. In this research, the investigators first identified a number of instructional procedures to study. After all the data were collected, the investigators used correlational statistics to specify the "adjusted gain" for each classroom. That is, the raw gain for each class, from pretest to posttest, was adjusted for the entry level of each classroom . In the final step, the investigators looked to instructional behaviors they had recorded for each class and correlated those behaviors with the measure of each class' adjusted achievement gain. Through the use of these procedures, the investigators were able to identify which instructional behaviors were associated or correlated with student achievement gain. J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

54 Procedures by Teachers of High Achievers:
AHAA SEIS COHORT Procedures by Teachers of High Achievers: The “most-effective teachers” in studies: Begin a lesson with a short review of previous learning Begin a lesson with a short statement of goals Present new material in small steps providing for student practice after each step Give clear and detailed instructions and explanations Rosenshine and Stevens (1986) in: J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

55 Procedures by Teachers of High Achievers (continued)
AHAA SEIS COHORT Procedures by Teachers of High Achievers (continued) Provide a high level of active practice for all students Ask a large number of questions, check for student understanding, and obtain responses from all students Guide students during initial practice Provide systematic feedback and corrections Provide explicit instruction and practice for seatwork exercises and, where necessary, monitor students during seatwork Rosenshine and Stevens (1986) in: J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

56 II. Three Findings on Teacher Effectiveness
AHAA SEIS COHORT II. Three Findings on Teacher Effectiveness The importance of teaching in small steps The importance of guiding student practice The importance of extensive practice is shared with the research on cognitive processing J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

57 Present New Material in Small Steps
AHAA SEIS COHORT Present New Material in Small Steps Most-effective teachers -- taught new material in small steps; presented small parts of new material at a single time, and after presenting the material, guided students in practicing the material that was taught. Least-effective teachers -- present an entire lesson, then pass out worksheets and tell students to work the problems. This procedure of teaching in small steps fits well with the findings from cognitive psychology on the limitations of our working memory. Our working memory, where we process information, is small. It can only handle five to seven bits of information at once; any additional information swamps it. The procedure of first teaching in small steps and then guiding student practice represents an appropriate way of dealing with the limitation of our small working memories. J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

58 Guided Student Practice
AHAA SEIS COHORT Guided Student Practice It is not sufficient to present a lesson and then ask students to practice on their own. Least-effective teachers with lowest student achievement present an entire lesson pass out worksheets tell the students to work the problems Many students are confused and make errors on the worksheets. J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

59 Guided Student Practice
AHAA SEIS COHORT Guided Student Practice The most-effective teachers -- teachers whose classes made the greatest gains -- teach differently. Present only some of the material at a time, i.e., small steps Then use guided student practice as a model, e.g. teacher works a few problems at the board discusses the steps out loud asks students to come to the board, work problems, then discuss their procedures others students see the modeling of problem solving Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright,

60 Teachers Guide Practice by:
AHAA SEIS COHORT Teachers Guide Practice by: CHECKING the answers of the entire class in order to see whether some students need additional instruction. ASKING students to work together, in pairs or in groups, to quiz and explain the material to each other. Timing: May occur when a teacher questions and helps a class with their work before assigning independent practice. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright,

61 “Getting the Gist” The Goal of Instruction and Cognitive Processing
AHAA SEIS COHORT “Getting the Gist” The Goal of Instruction and Cognitive Processing Another reason for the importance of guided practice comes from the fact that we construct and reconstruct knowledge. We do not, we cannot, simply repeat what we hear word for word. Rather, we connect our understanding of the new information to our existing concepts or "schema" and we then construct a "gist" of what we have heard. However, when left on their own, many students make errors in the process of constructing this gist. These errors occur, particularly, when the information is new and the student does not have adequate or well-formed background knowledge. J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

62 Gist Construction Errors
AHAA SEIS COHORT Gist Construction Errors Are attempts to be logical with weak background knowledge Without a knowledgeable “guide”-- danger of student misconceptions! Solution: Limit development of misconceptions by guiding practice after teaching small amounts of new material with frequent checking for student understanding These constructions are not errors so much as attempts by the students to be logical in an area where their background knowledge is weak Tell story about Lindsay and Dale “taking drugs” These errors are so common that there is a literature on the development and correction of student misconceptions in science (Guzzetti, Snyder, & Glass, 1992). Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright,

63 Gist Construction Errors
AHAA SEIS COHORT Gist Construction Errors Who Make Gist Construction Errors Most Frequently? These constructions are not errors so much as attempts by the students to be logical in an area where their background knowledge is weak Tell story about Lindsay and Dale “taking drugs” These errors are so common that there is a literature on the development and correction of student misconceptions in science (Guzzetti, Snyder, & Glass, 1992). Billy Dolores Bruce Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

64 Learning Strengths Project
AHAA SEIS COHORT Learning Strengths Project “Humiliation Protection” Affects Coping Skills  The number one step in effective support of students with learning differences/disorders The student must feel entirely safe from humiliation and its lethal effects excessive negative comments conspicuous negative comments policies that openly expose or stigmatize Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

65 Learning Strengths Project
AHAA SEIS COHORT Learning Strengths Project “Humiliation Protection” Affects Coping Skills  Negative practices result in serious complications behavioral motivational affective …AND THEY DON’T WORK! Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

66 AHAA SEIS COHORT Guided Practice Instructional Strategy Matches Cognitive Processing Findings During cognitive processing activities designed by the teacher, the student organizes, reviews, rehearses, summarizes, compares, contrasts “Most-effective teachers”—use activities to check the understanding of all - provide opportunity for processing for all “Least-effective teachers” —ask a question, call on one student to answer, assume everyone learned the point Guiding practice also fits the cognitive processing findings on the need to provide for student processing. Guided practice is the place where the students, -- working alone, with other students, or with the teacher -- engage in the cognitive processing activities of organizing, reviewing, rehearsing, summarizing, comparing, and contrasting. However, it is important that all students engage in these activities. The least-effective teachers often asked a question, called on one student to answer, and then assumed that everyone had learned this point. In contrast, the most-effective teachers attempted to check the understanding of all students and to provide for processing by all students. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright,

67 Most-Effective Teachers
AHAA SEIS COHORT Summary: Most-Effective Teachers Present smaller amounts of material at any time Guide student practice as students work problems Provide for student processing of the new material Check the understanding of all students Attempt to prevent students from developing misconceptions Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright,

68 Most-Effective Teachers Provide Extensive Practice
AHAA SEIS COHORT Most-Effective Teachers Provide Extensive Practice Cognitive processing research’s conclusion - students need extensive practice in order to develop well- connected networks Assure practice takes place only after sufficient guided practice - students then don’t practice errors and misconceptions J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

69 III. Intervention Studies on Teaching Cognitive Strategies
AHAA SEIS COHORT III. Intervention Studies on Teaching Cognitive Strategies Students were taught cognitive strategies to apply to their learning “Cognitive strategies” defined: Guiding procedures to help students complete less-structured tasks, e.g., reading comprehension and writing Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

70 “Well-Structured” Academic Tasks
AHAA SEIS COHORT “Well-Structured” Academic Tasks Tasks can be broken down into a fixed sequence of subtasks with steps that consistently lead to the same goal. Steps are concrete and visible. A specific, predictable algorithm can be followed. J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

71 “Well-Structured” Academic Tasks (continued)
AHAA SEIS COHORT “Well-Structured” Academic Tasks (continued) Enables students to obtain the same result each time they perform the algorithmic operations. Taught by teaching each step of the algorithm to students. Research on teacher effects helps us learn how to teach students algorithms they can use to complete “well-structured tasks.” Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright,

72 Contrasting “Less-Structured” Tasks
AHAA SEIS COHORT Contrasting “Less-Structured” Tasks Termed: “higher-level tasks” Examples: reading comprehension, writing, and study skills cannot be broken down into a fixed sequence of subtasks and steps that consistently and unfailingly lead to the goal. No fixed sequence as in “well- structured” tasks. Can’t develop algorithms students use to complete these tasks. Until the late 1970's, students were seldom provided with any help in completing less-structured tasks. In a classic observational study of reading comprehension instruction, Durkin (1979) noted that of the 4,469 minutes she observed in reading instruction in grade 4, only 20 minutes were spent in comprehension instruction by the teacher. Durkin noted that teachers spent almost all of the instructional time asking students questions, but they spent little time teaching students comprehension strategies they could use to answer the questions. Duffy, Lanier, and Roehler (1980) noted a similar lack of comprehension instruction in elementary classrooms: Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright,

73 Devastating Conclusion of Research
AHAA SEIS COHORT Devastating Conclusion of Research “Little evidence of instruction of any kind was observed in the classes.” What was/is happening? Teachers spend most of their time--- assigning activities Monitoring to be sure the pupils are on task Directing recitation sessions to assess how well children are doing Providing corrective feedback in response to pupil errors As a result of these astonishing findings, and as a result of emerging research on cognition and information processing, investigators began to develop and validate procedures that students might be taught to aid their reading comprehension. In the field of reading, the research consisted of developing and teaching students to use specific cognitive strategies that help them to perform higher-level operations in reading. Other research focused on developing, teaching, and testing cognitive strategies that are specific to writing, mathematical problem solving, and science comprehension. J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

74 What Wasn’t Observed or Was Seldom Observed?
AHAA SEIS COHORT What Wasn’t Observed or Was Seldom Observed? Teaching in which a teacher presents a skill, a strategy, or a process to students Shows students how to do it Provides assistance as they initiate attempts to perform the task Assures students they can be successful As a result of these astonishing findings, and as a result of emerging research on cognition and information processing, investigators began to develop and validate procedures that students might be taught to aid their reading comprehension. In the field of reading, the research consisted of developing and teaching students to use specific cognitive strategies that help them to perform higher-level operations in reading. Other research focused on developing, teaching, and testing cognitive strategies that are specific to writing, mathematical problem solving, and science comprehension. How will this affect “adequate yearly progress”? Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright,

75 No Child Left Behind! AHAA SEIS COHORT Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

76 What a cognitive strategy is NOT
AHAA SEIS COHORT What a cognitive strategy is NOT A direct procedure An algorithm to be precisely followed In the late 1970's, investigators began to teach students specific cognitive strategies such as question-generation and summarization that could be applied to reading comprehension (Paris, Cross & Lipson, 1984; Raphael & Pearson, 1985; Alvermann, 1981). Cognitive strategy procedures have also been developed and taught in mathematics problem solving (Schoenfeld, 1985), physics problem solving (Larkin & Reif, 1976), and in writing (Englert & Raphael, 1989; Scardamalia & Bereiter, 1985). Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright,

77 What a cognitive strategy IS
AHAA SEIS COHORT What a cognitive strategy IS A guide that serves to support or facilitate the learner as s/he develops internal procedures that enable them to perform the higher level operations. Ex. Teaching students to generate questions about their reading But, generating questions does not directly lead, in a step-by-step manner, to comprehension In the late 1970's, investigators began to teach students specific cognitive strategies such as question-generation and summarization that could be applied to reading comprehension (Paris, Cross & Lipson, 1984; Raphael & Pearson, 1985; Alvermann, 1981). Cognitive strategy procedures have also been developed and taught in mathematics problem solving (Schoenfeld, 1985), physics problem solving (Larkin & Reif, 1976), and in writing (Englert & Raphael, 1989; Scardamalia & Bereiter, 1985). J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

78 How the Cognitive Strategy of Generating Questions Works
AHAA SEIS COHORT How the Cognitive Strategy of Generating Questions Works In the process of generating questions, students must search the text combine information These processes serve to help students comprehend what they read. In the late 1970's, investigators began to teach students specific cognitive strategies such as question-generation and summarization that could be applied to reading comprehension (Paris, Cross & Lipson, 1984; Raphael & Pearson, 1985; Alvermann, 1981). Cognitive strategy procedures have also been developed and taught in mathematics problem solving (Schoenfeld, 1985), physics problem solving (Larkin & Reif, 1976), and in writing (Englert & Raphael, 1989; Scardamalia & Bereiter, 1985). J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

79 Comprehensive Summary of Interventions
AHAA SEIS COHORT Comprehensive Summary of Interventions See Pressley et al. (1995) for: Intervention studies in - reading, writing, mathematics, and science combined with description of the cognitive strategies and instructional procedures Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright,

80 Surprise! Teaching is a Science AND Teaching is an Art
AHAA SEIS COHORT Surprise! Teaching is a Science AND Teaching is an Art Scope and Sequence Counts! Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

81 Cognitive Apprenticeship
AHAA SEIS COHORT Cognitive Apprenticeship The instructional process by which teachers provide and support students with scaffolds as the students develop cognitive strategies Students need apprenticeships of different durations. Cognitive strategies cannot be taught directly, as one teaches an algorithm. Rather, cognitive strategies are taught by providing students with a variety of support structures or scaffolds (Palincsar & Brown, 1984; Wood, Bruner, & ; Ross, 1976). Many of these instructional elements to be described here serve as scaffolds for the learner. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright,

82 Cognitive Strategies Provide a Scaffold
AHAA SEIS COHORT Cognitive Strategies Provide a Scaffold A scaffold is a temporary support used to assist a learner during initial learning. A scaffold is provided by the teacher to help students bridge the gap between current abilities and the goal. Cognitive strategies cannot be taught directly, as one teaches an algorithm. Rather, cognitive strategies are taught by providing students with a variety of support structures or scaffolds (Palincsar & Brown, 1984; Wood, Bruner, & ; Ross, 1976). Many of these instructional elements to be described here serve as scaffolds for the learner. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright,

83 Common Cognitive Strategies Providing A Scaffold
AHAA SEIS COHORT Common Cognitive Strategies Providing A Scaffold Simplified problems Modeling of the procedures by the teacher Thinking aloud by the teacher as s/he solves the problem, prompts, provides suggestions and guidance as students work problems A model of the completed task against which students can compare their work Cognitive strategies cannot be taught directly, as one teaches an algorithm. Rather, cognitive strategies are taught by providing students with a variety of support structures or scaffolds (Palincsar & Brown, 1984; Wood, Bruner, & ; Ross, 1976). Many of these instructional elements to be described here serve as scaffolds for the learner. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright,

84 Fast Facts On Scaffolds
AHAA SEIS COHORT Fast Facts On Scaffolds The metaphor of a scaffold captures the idea— “an adjustable and temporary support that can be removed when no longer necessary” Assists the learner in learning a cognitive process gradually withdrawn or faded as learners become more independent Some students may continue to rely on scaffolds when they encounter particularly difficult problems Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright,

85 Scaffolds to Teach Cognitive Strategies Can be applied to the teaching
AHAA SEIS COHORT Scaffolds to Teach Cognitive Strategies Can be applied to the teaching of all skills Use especially for higher-level cognitive strategies Thirteen major instructional elements have been identified for teachers to use to teach cognitive strategies Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright,

86 13 Instructional Elements in Teaching Cognitive Strategies
AHAA SEIS COHORT 13 Instructional Elements in Teaching Cognitive Strategies 1. Provide procedural prompts specific to the strategy being taught. When and how should the strategy be used? 2. Teach the cognitive strategy using small steps. 3. Provide models of appropriate responses. 4. Think aloud as choices are being made 5. Anticipate potential difficulties. 6. Regulate the difficulty of the material. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright,

87 13 Instructional Elements in Teaching Cognitive Strategies
AHAA SEIS COHORT 13 Instructional Elements in Teaching Cognitive Strategies 7. Provide a cue card. 8. Guide student practice. 9. Provide feedback and corrections. 10. Provide and teach a checklist. 11. Provide independent practice. 12. Increase student responsibilities. 13. Assess student mastery. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright,

88 1. Provide Procedural Prompts or Facilitators
AHAA SEIS COHORT 1. Provide Procedural Prompts or Facilitators These procedural prompts supply the students with specific procedures or suggestions that facilitate the completion of the task. The words "who," "what," "why," "where," "when," and "how" are procedural prompts that help students learn the cognitive strategy of asking questions about the material they have read. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright,

89 AHAA SEIS COHORT Question Stems Are scaffolds used to aid the learners’ acquisition of information? Provide a procedural map for what to do with lots of details. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

90 Sentence Stems to Scaffold Learning
AHAA SEIS COHORT Sentence Stems to Scaffold Learning How are _____ and _____ alike? What is the main idea of __________?  What do you think would happen if __________?  What are the strengths and weakness of __________ ?  In what way is _____ related to ______ ?  How does _____ affect _____?  Compare _____ and _____ with regard to ________. Procedural prompts are scaffolds that are specific to the cognitive strategy. Procedural prompts have been used, successfully, in a variety of content areas. Prompts have been used to assist teaching the strategy of summarization (Alvermann, 1981; Baumann, 1984) and writing (Englert & Raphael, 1989; Scardamalia & Bereiter, 1985). Procedural prompts have also been used to assist college students to solve problems in physics (Larkin & Reif, 1976; Hiller & Hungate, 1985) and mathematic al problem solving (Schoenfeld, 1985). Pressley and his associates (1995) have compiled a summary of research on instruction in cognitive strategies in reading, writing, mathematics, vocabulary, and science, and in almost all of these studies, the student learning was mediated through the use of procedural prompts. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright,

91 Sentence Stems to Scaffold Learning
AHAA SEIS COHORT Sentence Stems to Scaffold Learning What do you think causes __________? How does _____ tie in with what we have learned before?  Which one is the best _____ and why?  What are some possible solutions for the problem of _____?  Do you agree or disagree with this statement: __________? Support your answer.  What do I (you) still not understand about . . .? Procedural prompts are scaffolds that are specific to the cognitive strategy. Procedural prompts have been used, successfully, in a variety of content areas. Prompts have been used to assist teaching the strategy of summarization (Alvermann, 1981; Baumann, 1984) and writing (Englert & Raphael, 1989; Scardamalia & Bereiter, 1985). Procedural prompts have also been used to assist college students to solve problems in physics (Larkin & Reif, 1976; Hiller & Hungate, 1985) and mathematic al problem solving (Schoenfeld, 1985). Pressley and his associates (1995) have compiled a summary of research on instruction in cognitive strategies in reading, writing, mathematics, vocabulary, and science, and in almost all of these studies, the student learning was mediated through the use of procedural prompts. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright,

92 2. Teach the cognitive strategy using small steps.
AHAA SEIS COHORT 2. Teach the cognitive strategy using small steps. Teaching too much of the cognitive strategy at once would swamp the working memory. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

93 3. Provide Models of the Appropriate Responses
AHAA SEIS COHORT 3. Provide Models of the Appropriate Responses We cannot specify all the steps Models provide an important scaffold for the learner in three phases: during initial instruction, before students practice during practice after practice Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright,

94 Models During Initial Instruction - Before Practice
AHAA SEIS COHORT Models During Initial Instruction - Before Practice In some studies: Teachers began by modeling responses based on the procedural prompts Students used questions based on elements of the story grammar (e.g., What action does the leading character initiate? What do you learn about the character from this action?) Then they began by modeling questions based on this story grammar Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright,

95 Models During Initial Instruction
AHAA SEIS COHORT Models During Initial Instruction In other studies: Students received models of questions based on the main idea Then they practiced generating questions on their own (Andre & Anderson, ; Dreher & Gambrell, 1985; MacGregor, 1988) Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright,

96 Models Given During Practice
AHAA SEIS COHORT Models Given During Practice Reciprocal Teaching Teacher first models asking a question and the students answer Then, the teacher guides students as they develop their own questions, to be answered by one of their classmates Teacher provides additional models when the students have difficulty Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright,

97 Models Given After Practice
AHAA SEIS COHORT Models Given After Practice In studies on question-generation Teachers provide models of questions for the students to view after they have written questions relevant to a paragraph or passage The intent of this model is to enable the students to compare their efforts with that of an expert (Andre & Anderson, ; Dreher & Gambrell, 1985; MacGregor, 1988). In J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

98 4. Teacher Thinks Out Loud
AHAA SEIS COHORT 4. Teacher Thinks Out Loud Vocalize internal thought processes one goes through when using the cognitive strategy. Example: when teaching students to generate questions, teacher describes the thought processes that occur as a question word is selected and integrated with text information to form a question. When... “When did she get the horse?” Anderson (1991) provides illustrations of thinking aloud for several cognitive strategies in reading: 1. For clarifying difficult statements or concepts: I don't get this. It says that things that are dark look smaller. I know that a white dog looks smaller than a black elephant, so this rule must only work for things that are about the same size. Maybe black shoes would make your feet look smaller than white ones would. 2. For summarizing important information: I'll summarize this part of the article. So far, it tells where the Spanish started in North America and what parts they explored. Since the title is "The Spanish in California," the part about California must be important. I'd sum up by saying that Spanish explorers from Mexico discovered California. They didn't stay in California, but lived in other parts of America. These are the most important ideas so far. 3. For thinking ahead: So far this has told me that Columbus is poor, the trip will be expensive, and everyone's laughing at his plan. I'd predict that Columbus will have trouble getting the money he needs for his exploration. As individual students accepted more responsibility in the completion of a task, they often modeled and thought aloud for their less capable classmates. Not only did student modeling and think alouds involve the students actively in the process, but it allowed the teacher to better assess student progress in the use of the strategy. Thinking aloud by the teacher and more capable students provided novice learners with a way to observe "expert thinking" which is usually hidden from the student. Indeed, identifying the hidden strategies of experts so that they can become available to learners has become a useful area of research (Collins et al., 1989). Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright,

99 4. Teacher Thinks Out Loud
AHAA SEIS COHORT 4. Teacher Thinks Out Loud Think aloud while summarizing a paragraph Example: illustrate the thought processes that occur as the topic of the passage is determined then used to generate a summary sentence. Fishing in Oregon… Many factors related to ecology, and laws have resulted in a decline in the fishing in Oregon. Anderson (1991) provides illustrations of thinking aloud for several cognitive strategies in reading: 1. For clarifying difficult statements or concepts: I don't get this. It says that things that are dark look smaller. I know that a white dog looks smaller than a black elephant, so this rule must only work for things that are about the same size. Maybe black shoes would make your feet look smaller than white ones would. 2. For summarizing important information: I'll summarize this part of the article. So far, it tells where the Spanish started in North America and what parts they explored. Since the title is "The Spanish in California," the part about California must be important. I'd sum up by saying that Spanish explorers from Mexico discovered California. They didn't stay in California, but lived in other parts of America. These are the most important ideas so far. 3. For thinking ahead: So far this has told me that Columbus is poor, the trip will be expensive, and everyone's laughing at his plan. I'd predict that Columbus will have trouble getting the money he needs for his exploration. As individual students accepted more responsibility in the completion of a task, they often modeled and thought aloud for their less capable classmates. Not only did student modeling and think alouds involve the students actively in the process, but it allowed the teacher to better assess student progress in the use of the strategy. Thinking aloud by the teacher and more capable students provided novice learners with a way to observe "expert thinking" which is usually hidden from the student. Indeed, identifying the hidden strategies of experts so that they can become available to learners has become a useful area of research (Collins et al., 1989). Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright,

100 Skillful Strategy-Based Instruction is “Differentiated Instruction”
7 Steps Toward Successful Strategy-Based Instruction: 1. Carefully analyze the task(s) to be completed. 2. Identify the strategies that will promote success.  3. Teach the strategy through explicit, direct instruction. The teacher models and "talks through" the strategy. The student observes all of the processes several times. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

101 Skillful Strategy-Based Instruction is “Differentiated Instruction”
7 Steps Toward Successful Strategy-Based Instruction: 4. The teacher explicitly states: the goal of the strategy to be employed the task for which the strategy is appropriate the range of the applicability the learning gains anticipated from its consistent use 5. Verbal rehearsal of the steps of the strategy to 100% criterion. Visual reminders (chart, checklist, schedule) are provided. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

102 Skillful Strategy-Based Instruction is “Differentiated Instruction”
7 Steps Toward Successful Strategy-Based Instruction: 6. If the strategy fails to work, opportunities to review the process and to repair the breakdown are provided. Feedback is positive and corrective.   7. PRACTICE! PRACTICE! PRACTICE! Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

103 5. Anticipate and Discuss Potential Difficulties
Examples: Teacher anticipates common errors and discusses these errors before the students make them. “Some students in my old school thought 9 – 21 = 28. What mistake is this? (Student reveals: subtracting 1 from 9, not regrouping to take the 9 from the 11)” Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

104 5. Anticipate and Discuss Potential Difficulties
Examples: Teacher anticipates the inappropriate questions that students might generate. Students read a paragraph followed by discussing whether each question was too narrow, too broad, or appropriate. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

105 Anticipate and Discuss Potential Difficulties (continued)
Students were taught specific rules to discriminate: A question from a non-question A good question from a poor one: A good question starts with a question word.  A good question can be answered by the story.  A good question asks about an important detail of the story. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

106 6. Regulate the Difficulty of the Material
AHAA SEIS COHORT 6. Regulate the Difficulty of the Material Begin with simpler material then gradually move to more complex materials. Example: Teaching students to generate questions Teacher first models how to generate questions-single sentence. Class then practices. Next, teacher models and provides practice on asking questions after reading a paragraph. Finally, teacher models, class practices generating questions after reading an entire passage. Similarly, in studies by Andre and Anderson ( ) and Dreher and Gambrell (1985) the students began with a single paragraph, then moved to a double paragraph, and from there to a 450 word passage. Another example comes from the study by Wong, Wong, Perry, and Sawatsky (1986). Here, students began by generating questions about a single, simple paragraph. When the students were successful at that task, they moved to single, complex paragraphs and, lastly, to 800 word selections from social studies texts. In another study, (Wong & Jones, 1982) the researchers regulated the difficult of the task by decreasing the prompts. First, students worked with a paragraph using procedural prompts. After they were successful at that level, they were moved to a passage with prompts and finally to a passage without prompts. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright,

107 7. Provide a Cue Card A cue card: Contains the procedural prompt
AHAA SEIS COHORT 7. Provide a Cue Card A cue card: Contains the procedural prompt Reminds what to do and when Supports a student during initial learning by reducing the strain upon the working memory Cue cards listing specific questions to ask after they had read paragraphs and passages (e.g., "What's the most important sentence in this paragraph?"), and King (1989, 1990, 1992) provided students with question stems (e.g., How are ___ and ___ alike?; What is a new example of ...?). J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

108 8. Guide Student Practice
First teach a part of a strategy Then guide student practice in identifying and then applying the strategy Remember Reciprocal Teaching The teacher first models the cognitive process being taught Then provides cognitive support and coaching (scaffolding) for the students as they attempt the task As the students become more proficient, the teacher fades the support and students provide support for each other Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

109 8. Guide Student Practice (continued)
Use small group meetings – two to six, without the teacher practice asking, revising, and correcting questions and provided support and feedback to each other. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

110 9. Provide Feedback and Corrections
Three sources of feedback and corrections to consider: the teacher, other students, and a computer. Teacher feedback and corrections Can be hints, questions, suggestions Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

111 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

112 9. Provide Feedback and Corrections
Group Feedback after students have written their questions they meet in groups, pose questions to each other compare questions within each group Computer-based Feedback students ask the computer to provide a model (e.g., of an appropriate question) if error is suspected. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

113 10. Provide and Teach a Checklist
Example: How well did I identify important information? How well did I link information together? How well could I answer my questions? Did my "think questions" use different language from the text? Did I use good signal words? Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

114 11. Provide Independent Practice with New Examples
AHAA SEIS COHORT 11. Provide Independent Practice with New Examples Student practices in applying the cognitive strategy Use examples Offer diminishing help from the teacher and other students One goal of the independent practice is to develop automatic responding so the students no longer have to recall the strategy and thus, more of their limited working memory can be applied to the task. Another goal of independent practice is to achieve "unitization" of the strategy, that is, the blending of elements of the strategy into a unified whole. This unitization is usually the result extensive practice, practice that help students develop an automatic, unified approach. This extensive practice, and practice with a variety of material also decontextualizes the learning. That is, the strategies become free of their original "bindings" and can now be applied easily and unconsciously to various situations (Collins, Brown, & Newman, 1989). Another purpose of independent practice is to facilitate transfer to other content areas. One hopes that the reading comprehension skills that are taught in one content area, such as social studies, might also be applied to another content areas such as science. Such transfer might be facilitated if students receive guided practice in applying their skills to different content areas. For example, in a study by Dermody (1988) the last phase of the study involved application of cognitive strategy to a different content area that was used for the original instruction. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright,

115 12. Increase Student Responsibilities
Decrease scaffolds as skills increase as students become more competent Diminish the use of models and prompts and other scaffolds Diminish the support offered by other students Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

116 12. Increase Student Responsibilities
Gradually, increase the complexity and difficulty of the material In reading, begin with well-organized, reader-friendly material Increase the difficulty and use less structured materials as mastery occurs Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

117 13. Assess Student Mastery
Assess students’ achievement of a mastery level Provide for additional instruction when necessary Beware! Lack of review Lack of periodic monitoring of mastery Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

118 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

119 Summary Of What We Know 1. Present new material in small steps so the working memory does not become overloaded. 2. Help students develop an organization for the new material. 3. Guide student practice by (a) supporting students during initial practice and (b) providing for extensive student processing. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

120 Summary Of What We Know 4. When teaching higher-level tasks, support students by providing them with cognitive strategies. 5. Help students learn to use the cognitive strategies by providing them with procedural prompts and modeling the use of these procedural prompts. 6. Provide for extensive student practice. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

121 What This All Means The Most-Effective Teacher Teaches Well-Structured Tasks Adequate Yearly Progress Occurs When There is focus on improving, monitoring, and providing corrective feedback on instruction “Build It and They Will Come” Achievement will follow Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

122 What Does The Well-Structured Lesson Look Like?
Review First Review homework and any relevant previous learning Review prerequisite skills and knowledge for the lesson Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

123 Teaching Well-Structured Tasks
Beginning: The Presentation State lesson goals or provide outline Present new material in small steps Model procedures Provide examples and non-examples Use clear language Avoid digressions Check for student understanding Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

124 Teaching Well-Structured Tasks
Middle: Focus on Guided Practice  Spend more time on guided practice High frequency of questions All students respond (to you, to each other,) and receive feedback High success rate Continue practice until students are fluent J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

125 Teaching Well-Structured Tasks
Middle: Corrections and Feedback Provide process feedback when answers are correct but hesitant Provide sustaining feedback, clues, or reteaching when answers are incorrect Reteach material when necessary Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

126 Teaching Well-Structured Tasks
End: Independent Practice Students receive overview and/or help during initial steps Practice continues until students are automatic (where relevant) Teacher provides active supervision (where possible) Routines are used to provide help for slower students Daily, weekly, and monthly reviews Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

127 What Does Explicit Engaging Instruction Look Like?
I DO IT Struggling learners need US to: gain attention & clearly model cue students to notice critical aspects of the model model thinking,too - “mental modeling/direct explanation” Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

128 What Does Explicit Engaging Instruction Look Like?
WE DO IT Provided Thinking Time Structured/prompted engagement:  choral responses if answer/response is short and you want the same answers  partner responses if answer/response is long and can be differently worded  correction/feedback - remodeling, more examples, etc. Struggling learners need: Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

129 What Does Explicit Engaging Instruction Look Like?
YOU DO IT Struggling learners need:  individual responses; oral, written, point/touch/demo  coaching students to apply the strategy previously taught Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

130

131 Throughout Instruction: Monitor and Assess
“Most-Effective Teachers” Know Each Learner’s Need for Differentiated Instruction Who Knows the Material ? Who Needs More Input ? Who Needs More Background ? Who Needs Elaborated Scaffolds ? Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.

132 Assessment is Not Instruction
“Least-Effective Teachers” Test mastery after initial instruction--- in lieu of guided practice Test learning outcomes--- in lieu of independent practice Allow practice of errors through these practices Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

133 Evaluation vs. Grading Comparison to grade level standards (norm- referenced; criterion-referenced) Comparison to student’s personal needs, (often criterion-referenced or standards from other grade levels) Comparison to teacher expectations for this child, rating attitude, progress, work completion, motivation, etc. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

134 Which Learner Characteristics Affect Instruction?
Attention Focus Problems Fear of Failure Background Deficits AND…..think of your own experiences Activity 1: Continue the list in your group Activity 2: Discuss how “Most-Effective” Teaching addresses problems in all lesson phases when instructing these students. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

135 Ponder This When instruction is delivered by
“Most-Effective Teachers”… How many students will still need further “Accommodations or Differentiated Instruction”? Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

136 Ponder This Who is “entitled” to Differentiated Instruction or Accommodations? What might they look like for Dolores and Billy? Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

137 Ponder This What is educational reform really all about?
Improving Outcomes for All Students If a student fails to meet a standard, is it due to Lack of differentiated instruction or accommodations? Thus, lack of instruction by a Most- Effective Teacher? Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

138 Ponder This Or, is it student characteristics? “Lazy” AD/HD LD ED
Low Motivation Cognitive Skill Deficits Is the problem IN the student, or IN the instruction? Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

139 Differentiated Instruction
Differentiated Instruction is an instructional concept that maximizes learning for ALL students—regardless of skill level or background. It's based on the fact that in a typical classroom, students vary in their academic abilities, learning styles, personalities, interests, background knowledge and experiences, and levels of motivation for learning. When a teacher differentiates instruction, he or she uses the best teaching practices and strategies to create different pathways that respond to the needs of diverse learners. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

140 Accommodations/Modifications
Review Terms & Concepts Accommodations Modifications Compare to Differentiated Instruction/Effective Instruction Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

141 Legal Justification Accommodate, Modify, and Support
I.D.E.A Reauthorization specifies ( (b)(3)) that the public agency shall ensure... each teacher and provider is informed of his or her specific responsibilities related to implementing the child’s IEP and the specific accommodations, modifications, and supports that must be provided for the child in accordance with the IEP. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

142 Adaptations Accommodations Modifications
Do not fundamentally alter or lower expectations or standards in instructional level, content, or performance criteria. Changes are made in order to provide equal access to learning and equal opportunity to demonstrate what is known. Grading is same. Modifications Do fundamentally alter or lower expectations or standards in instructional level, Content, or performance criteria. Changes are made to provide meaningful & productive learning experiences based on individual needs & abilities. Grading is different. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

143 What is accommodated? The Characteristics of the Learner
Goal: To remove barriers to learning the material and to demonstrating mastery  Standards are substantially the same for all; outcomes will vary. 1-3 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

144 Learning Differences Speed of information processing
Memory: Encoding, Storage, Retrieval Automatization of Rote Facts Organization Listening Skills Attention Forethought and Planning Etc. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

145 Emotional/Temperament Characteristics
Rigidity/Flexibility Irritability Placidity Social Awareness Desire for Novel vs. Familiar Anxiety Etc. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

146 Reading/Writing/Math Skill Deficits
Reading Decoding vs. Understanding Math Fact Recall vs. Math Concepts Writing Mechanics vs. Written Content Etc. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

147 Cognitive/Conceptual Skill Differences
Processing speed Conceptualization Understanding of Elapsed Time Inferential Thinking Conservation, Multiple Variable reasoning Etc. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

148 Sensory Input Challenges
Vision Hearing Movement Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

149 What is the difference? Differentiated Instruction Accommodations
Terminology from general education Accommodations Terminology from special education Are all students entitled to accommodations? Ponder this Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

150 The Goal of the Activity
What is modified with modifications? The Goal of the Activity Goal: To allow educational progress in mastering curriculum, physical and social access to a full array of IEP team determined appropriate classrooms and peers. Individualized goals are developed, skills taught and measured through either standard assessments with modifications (mild disabilities) or through alternate assessments (moderate to severe disabilities). Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

151 Implications of Modifications
High school diploma may or may not be earned, depending on the student’s meeting of district graduation. When do we tell families that? With modifications, what is taught and assessed is highly individualized. Achievement is not compared to peers. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

152 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

153 Nine Types of Curriculum Adaptations
Quantity * • Adapt the number of items that the learner is expected to learn or number of activities student will complete prior to assessment for mastery. For example: Reduce the number of social studies terms a learner must learn at any one time. Add more practice activities or worksheets prior to assessment of skill mastery. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

154 Ponder This Does altering amount of seatwork completed prior to assessment of content mastery constitute a modification or an accommodation? If I reduce practice, and now student can’t demonstrate mastery If I reduce practice and student can still demonstrate Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

155 Nine Types of Curriculum Adaptations
Time * Adapt the time allotted and allowed for learning, task completion, or testing. For example: Individualize a timeline for completing a task - pace learning differently (increase or decrease) for some learners. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

156 Ponder This Does giving more time to complete an assignment or take a test result in the lowering of a standard? How should this be graded or evaluated? Is this practice a modification or an accommodation? Discuss at your table. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

157 Nine Types of Curriculum Adaptations
Level of Support * Increase the amount of personal assistance to keep the student on task or to reinforce or prompt use of specific skills. Enhance adult-student relationship. Use physical space and environmental structure. For example: Assign peer buddies, teaching assistants, peer tutors, or cross-age tutors. Specify how to interact with the student or how to structure the environment. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

158 Ponder This Is this a common practice?
Do students without disabilities often have this support? Do we use this too frequently or too little? Is this an accommodation? If so, for what? Are we using one on one paraeducators effectively? Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

159 Nine Types of Curriculum Adaptations
Input * Adapt the way instruction is delivered to the learner. For example: Use different visual aids, enlarge text, plan more concrete examples, provide hands-on activities, place students in cooperative groups, pre-teach key concepts or terms before the lesson. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

160 Ponder This Discuss at your table. Is Input an accommodation or
modification? What is more effective: pre-teaching or re-teaching? Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

161 Input Enhancement Use strategies and scaffolds
To accommodate diverse learners Accommodation during INPUT A service or support to help fully access the subject matter and instruction Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

162 Input Enhancement Using graphic organizers when teaching content…
Organization of ideas is self-evident to students Reduces information processing demands needed to understand new information Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

163 INPUT: Visual Displays
Portray relationships among information presented in instruction Includes diagrams, concrete models, concept maps, videos situating learning in a meaningful context, or digital material presented during instruction. Intended to help students organize information in long-term memory Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

164 Visual Displays Activate prior knowledge during instruction.
Function as an accommodation when they scaffold the creation of linkages among information in the learner’s long-term memory. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

165 INPUT: Pre-teaching with Advance Organizers
Defined: Pre-instructional materials to aid linkage of new information with prior knowledge stored in long-term memory. May be verbal, written, or be presented in a question format. Examples: Questions presented prior to a discussion or reading assignment Vocabulary words presented on the board or a handout Verbal statements by the teacher designed to activate knowledge prior to instruction Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

166 Peer-Mediated Instruction
Defined—students as instructional agents, including: Peer and cross-age tutoring Class-wide tutoring Cooperative learning Primary purpose—increase opportunities for distributed practice with feedback. Usually has well-scripted or structured interactions designed and mediated by the teacher. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Nolet (2000)

167 Study Guides Worksheets prior to a reading or study assignment.
Includes a set of statements or questions to focus the student’s attention and cognitive resources on key information to be learned. Examples: Completed or partially completed outlines Questions focusing on the textual, literal, and inferential aspects of a study assignment Other tasks designed to prompt the active processing of the material to be studied Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

168 Mnemonic Devices- For Content Domains
Defined: Techniques to aid storage & recall of declarative knowledge May be verbal or pictorial May be provided by the teacher or developed collaboratively by teacher and the student Can be key words, pictures, or symbols— e.g., Every Good Boy Deserves Fudge. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

169 Input Accommodations Are Foundational Interventions -
The key to differentiated instruction: Use guided practice, strategies, and scaffolds. They accommodates diverse learners. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

170 Nine Types of Curriculum Adaptations
Difficulty * • Adapt the skill level, problem type, or the rules on how the learner may approach the work. For example: Allow the use of a calculator to figure math problems; simplify task directions; change rules to accommodate learner needs. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

171 Ponder This Discuss: Is altering the difficulty of an assignment a good practice? When is it an accommodation or a modification? Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

172 Nine Types of Curriculum Adaptations
Output * Adapt how the student can respond to instruction. For example: Instead of answering questions in writing, allow a verbal response, use a communication book for some students, allow students to show knowledge with hands on materials. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

173 Output Accommodations
Altered methods of demonstrating mastery of the instruction Measures what the student learned, not the student’s disability or characteristics Removes barriers Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

174 Output Goal Accommodation during OUTPUT
A service or support to help the learner validly demonstrate knowledge removing the characteristic or disability interfering with demonstration of what has been learned. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

175 Output Accommodations
Samples: Multiple choice vs. essay Dictating vs. writing Typing vs. handwriting Demonstrating vs. writing. Timed quizzes vs. un-timed ones Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

176 Output-comparisons Standard Accommodations
vs. Non-standard Accommodations Test publisher’s language as to whether what is being measured has been altered beyond the ability to compare this student’s performance to his/her peers. Accommodations vs. Modifications Educators language as to whether what is being taught and measured is substantially altered from what is expected: The grade level standards. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

177 OUTPUT: On Standardized Tests
See: Testing Documentation Form for discussion See updates at your state’s website for what constitutes an accommodation or a modification (often called a “non-standard accommodation” Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

178 Testing Output Changes
How do you know which output change is which type of adaptation? High Stakes Testing The test publisher tells you about norm-referencing and substantial alterations. Classroom Instruction Compare goal/objective of the instruction with the curriculum standard and determine if change substantially alters what is being taught Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

179 Testing Output Changes
Standard Accommodations vs. Non-standard Accommodations Test publisher’s language as to whether what is being measured has been altered beyond the ability to compare this student’s performance to his/her peers. Accommodations vs. Modifications Educators language as to whether what is being taught and measured is substantially altered from what is expected: i.e., the grade level standards during instruction. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

180 Ponder This Do I alter the grading if I have altered the output method? Is this an accommodation or a modification? Do not continue to measure a known skill deficit; measure attainment of content. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

181 Review: Input & Output Accommodations
Input accommodation. - a service or support to help fully access the subject matter and instruction. Output accommodation. - a service or support to help validly demonstrate knowledge. OUT Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

182 In a Nutshell: The most critical components of “Effective Instruction” and “Accommodation Planning” Input Accommodation Strategy: Circumvent learner characteristic barriers: Alter presentation of information to the student. Output Accommodation Strategy: Circumvent learner characteristic barriers: Alter production from the student. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

183 In a Nutshell: The Testing Nuance
What is clearly an “accommodation” for a learning characteristic instruction during classroom instruction, may be defined as a “modification/non-standard accommodation” on a high stakes test. Input, e.g., reading the text or chapter test in social studies is an accommodation, reading the high stakes test likely defined as a modification. Output, e.g., writing the dictated essay may be an accommodation in social studies, but be a modification on standardized assessment. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

184 In a Nutshell: Students with IEPs
They are entitled to removal of barriers to accessing and progressing in core/general curriculum. If an accommodation is on the IEP to level the playing field, remove the barrier. Even if it is defined as a modification on a high stakes test, the student is entitled to that modification if necessary, regardless of the effects on aggregating data. To do otherwise would be discriminatory. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

185 Sometimes called “engagement”
Nine Types of Curriculum Adaptations Participation * Sometimes called “engagement” Adapt the extent to which a learner is actively involved in the task. For example: During instruction, using “every pupil response techniques” or “choral responding.” In geography, have a student hold the globe, while others point out locations. Ask the student to lead a group. Have the student turn the pages while sitting on your lap (kindergarten). Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

186 Participation Enhancement to Increase Student Engagement
1. Choral responses (answers are short/same) - Students cue you they are attending (“eyes on me”). - Provide thinking time - Signal group response 2. Every pupil response techniques (answers are short/different) - Student answers with gestures or answer card. 3. Partner Responses (answers long/different) - Teacher assigns - provide a label/role “1’s tell 2’s” - Alternate ranking for partnering - Specific topics/jobs; no one is passive Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Adapted from Dr. Kevin Feldman, 12/01 inservice

187 Participation/Enhancement
4. Written responses - List first, then share - Touch something — “Put your finger on the ______.” Individual responses (AFTER practice on the new skill) - Randomly call on individuals to share Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Adapted from Dr. Kevin Feldman, 12/01 inservice

188 Participation AND INPUT
Differentiating during whole class instruction options include: Graphic organizers - Visual thinking — vary the support (e.g., partially filled out, partner dialogue) Projects — individual & small group - Key is organization/structure ~ rubrics ~ touch points along the way Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

189 Peer-Mediated Instruction
Defined—Students as instructional agents, including: Peer and cross-age tutoring Class-wide tutoring Cooperative learning Primary purpose—increase opportunities for distributed practice with feedback. Usually has well-scripted or structured interactions designed and mediated by the teacher. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Nolet (2000)

190 Input & Participation Enhancement Comprehension instruction: PALS
- Stronger reader reads a paragraph. - Weaker reader prompts. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

191 Input & Participation Enhancement
Weaker reader prompts stronger reader to: 1. Name the Who or What * identification 2. Tell the most important thing(s) about the Who or What * elaboration 3. Paraphrase in 10 words or less (paraphrasing “straight jacket”) * consolidation * continues for 5 minutes — then switch roles (new text) Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

192 Ponder This How common is this practice?
Is it better to use participation/engagement strategies with a distractible student, or should that student be isolated so as not to distract others? Is this an accommodation or a modification? Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

193 Nine Types of Curriculum Adaptations
Alternate Goals • Adapt the goals or outcome expectations while using the same materials. When routinely utilized, this is only for students with moderate to severe disabilities. For example: In a social studies lesson, expect a student to be able to locate the colors of the states on a map, while other students learn to locate each state and name the capital. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

194 Functional Curriculum •
Nine Types of Curriculum Adaptations Functional Curriculum • Provide different instruction and materials to meet a learner’s functional/life skills individual goals. When routinely utilized, this is only for students with moderate to severe disabilities. For example: During a language lesson a student is learning toileting skills with an aide. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

195 Ponder This Discuss. For whom is this adaptation appropriate?
Why would we do this in the era of high standards? Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

196 Activity: Michelle’s Accommodation History
In kindergarten, Michelle’s teacher found she needed to frequently repeat the directions for any activity as Michelle was often not listening carefully when they were first given. (____________________) The teacher also frequently paired Michelle with a diligent worker once seatwork activities began second semester. (__________________________) Sometimes Michelle did not finish her seatwork, so her teacher allowed her to take it home to complete and return the next day. (_____________________) Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

197 Activity: Michelle’s Accommodation History
In kindergarten, Michelle’s teacher found she needed to frequently repeat the directions for any activity as Michelle was often not listening carefully when they were first given. (input A) The teacher also frequently paired Michelle with a diligent worker once seatwork activities began second semester. (level of support A) Sometimes Michelle did not finish her seatwork, so her teacher allowed her to take it home to complete and return the next day. (time A) Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

198 Activity: Michelle’s Accommodation History
In first grade, Michelle began receiving speech/language services for articulation errors. It was also found that Michelle had minor auditory processing difficulties. Her therapist decided to pre-teach some concepts that would be introduced on the following day, hoping that this would improve her listening skills. (____________) Michelle was purposefully placed next to students with excellent attending skills, as she tended to be quite “chatty” during seatwork. (______________) Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

199 Activity: Michelle’s Accommodation History
In first grade, Michelle began receiving speech/language services for articulation errors. It was also found that Michelle had minor auditory processing difficulties. Her therapist decided to pre-teach some concepts that would be introduced on the following day, hoping that this would improve her listening skills. (input A) Michelle was purposefully placed next to students with excellent attending skills, as she tended to be quite “chatty” during seatwork. (level of support A) Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

200 Activity: Michelle’s Accommodation History
Sometimes Michelle’s teacher had her come to the front of the room to hold the pointer during large group lessons as this appeared to aid in focusing on the key parts of the lesson, rather than distracting to extraneous details around her. (___________________) Michelle was noticeably slower than her peers in finishing any written assignment, so her teacher often sent homework to finish and return so Michelle would not miss recess or other fun activities, trying to finish assignments. (___________________________) Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

201 Activity: Michelle’s Accommodation History
Sometimes Michelle’s teacher had her come to the front of the room to hold the pointer during large group lessons as this appeared to aid in focusing on the key parts of the lesson, rather than distracting to extraneous details around her. (participation A) Michelle was noticeably slower than her peers in finishing any written assignment, so her teacher often sent homework to finish and return so Michelle would not miss recess or other fun activities, trying to finish assignments. (time A) Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

202 Activity: Michelle’s Accommodation History
In second grade, Michelle’s reading decoding skills were not up to her peers. Adult classroom volunteers often worked with her to reinforce previous skills (flash card drill, extra oral reading time with adult corrections and quizzes: who, what, where, when). (_________________) and (______________________) Due to her slow acquisition of phonics, Michelle’s teacher decided to reduce the number of spelling words she would study each week from 15 to 10, although the words Michelle learned were the same as her peers. (__________________________) Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

203 Activity: Michelle’s Accommodation History
In second grade, Michelle’s reading decoding skills were not up to her peers. Adult classroom volunteers often worked with her to reinforce previous skills (flash card drill, extra oral reading time with adult corrections and quizzes: who, what, where, when). (level of support A ) and (input A ) Due to her slow acquisition of phonics, Michelle’s teacher decided to reduce the number of spelling words she would study each week from 15 to 10, although the words Michelle learned were the same as her peers. (input A or B, refer to the standard addressed) Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

204 Activity: Michelle’s Accommodation History
In math, Michelle often grasped the concepts readily, so her teacher had her complete fewer worksheets before taking a test to demonstrate mastery of the concept. (____________________) This bought some extra time, her teacher explained, for Michelle to practice her handwriting with additional worksheets, as she still took an extraordinarily long time producing letter formations. (_____________________) The pre-teaching begun in first grade continued for new concepts, and was believed to be helping Michelle. (_______________________) Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

205 Activity: Michelle’s Accommodation History
In math, Michelle often grasped the concepts readily, so her teacher had her complete less worksheets before taking a test to demonstrate mastery of the concept. (Quantity A) This bought some extra time, her teacher explained, for Michelle to practice her handwriting with additional worksheets, as she still took an extraordinarily long time producing letter formations. (Quantity A) The pre-teaching begun in first grade continued for new concepts, and was believed to be helping Michelle. (Input A) Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

206 Activity: Michelle’s Accommodation History
By the end of third grade, Michelle was evaluated for special education services as a student with a learning disability and found to be eligible in written language. Her math skills were found to be well above her peers, while her reading skills were found to be at 2.1 grade level. All previous accommodations were found to be helpful and were incorporated into her IEP. Additionally, Michelle was now to be taught keyboarding, and allowed to produce most written work at the keyboard due to her poor graphomotor skills. This often required her to take work home to produce on a home computer. Her teacher also decided that… Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

207 Activity: Michelle’s Accommodation History
…Michelle’s work group (3 students) would produce a play to illustrate concepts learned in a social studies lesson, rather than a written product. (Other groups wrote reports, constructed a diorama, and produced a video skit). Although this was an acceptable alternative, her teacher decided to list this accommodation on Michelle’s IEP so future teachers would be aware of this need. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

208 Activity: Michelle’s Accommodation History
Name which of the 9 categories are represented: Remember what worked! Reading seatwork time: sat next to high achievers Math seatwork time: small # practice problems Large group work, where new concepts are introduced: preteach key concepts before lesson Written language tasks: used keyboarding Social Studies Report: produced a play Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

209 Activity: Michelle’s Accommodation History
Her accommodations were listed as: Reading seatwork time: level of support Math seatwork time: quantity Large group work, where new concepts are introduced: input Written language tasks: output Social Studies report: output Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

210 Activity: Michelle’s Accommodation History
By sixth grade, Michelle was participating in an after-school homework club where adult volunteers helped her to plan task approach for long assignments and helped her to complete most work with one on one assistance. (____________)(_______________)(__________) Her teacher found pre-teaching no longer as helpful for Michelle, and speech language services were no longer found necessary by her IEP team. Graphic organizers were extensively used by this teacher and found to be quite helpful for Michelle. (_________________________) Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

211 Activity: Michelle’s Accommodation History
By sixth grade, Michelle was participating in an after-school homework club where adult volunteers helped her to plan task approach for long assignments, and helped her to complete most work with one on one assistance. (level of support A) (input A) (difficult A or B depending on whether Michelle was completing the tasks fundamentally herself or whether the adult was essentially doing the work)   Her teacher found pre-teaching no longer as helpful for Michelle, and speech language services were no longer found necessary by her IEP team. Graphic organizers were extensively used by this teacher, and found to be quite helpful for Michelle. (input A) Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

212 Activity: Michelle’s Accommodation History
Michelle’s IEP team found the reading level of the texts well beyond her skill, despite extensive continued remediation for reading difficulties. Michelle’s teacher decided to try text-on-tape and text-on-CD with Michelle, as she grasped the concepts better this way than reading the text alone. (____________________) She also found that choral-responding techniques, every-pupil response techniques (_______________________) allowed Michelle and her classmates to focus better during whole group instruction. Her teacher also began PALS teams for social studies and science text reading, and found higher achievement and time on task outcomes. (_____________________) (_____________________) and (_____________________) Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

213 Activity: Michelle’s Accommodation History
Michelle’s IEP team found the reading level of the texts well beyond her skill, despite extensive continued remediation for reading difficulties. Michelle’s teacher decided to try text-on-tape and text-on-CD with Michelle, as she grasped the concepts better this way than reading the text alone. (input A) She also found that choral-responding techniques, every-pupil response techniques (participation A) allowed Michelle, and her classmates, to focus better during whole group instruction. Her teacher also began PALS teams for social studies and science text reading, and found higher achievement and time on task outcomes. (input A) (level of support A) and (participation A) (output A) Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

214 Activity: Michelle’s Accommodation History
In eighth grade, Michelle was found to be unable to complete written tests on concepts very well. Orally she knew the material, but somehow in the writing task, even with keyboard responses allowed, she was unable to demonstrate mastery in concept-laden work. Her teachers agreed to try oral testing in the RSP classroom, although this often meant her testing could not occur until later that day due to scheduling constraints. To their astonishment, Michelle’s motivation and achievement skyrocketed! (__________________) and (_____________________) and (______________________) Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

215 Activity: Michelle’s Accommodation History
In eighth grade, Michelle was found to be unable to complete written tests on concepts very well. Orally, she knew the material, but somehow in the writing task, even with keyboard responses allowed, she was unable to demonstrate mastery in concept-laden work. Her teachers agreed to try oral testing in the RSP classroom, although this often meant her testing could not occur until later that day due to scheduling constraints. To their astonishment, Michelle’s motivation and achievement skyrocketed! (level of support A) and (input A) and (output A) and (time A) Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

216 Activity: Michelle’s Accommodation History
By September of tenth grade, unfortunately Michelle had now begun to associate with known gang members, and her counselor became concerned. Although she still maintained some earlier friendships, she did not “seem to be the same child any more,” her parents stated. Parent conferences occurred, and it was agreed that counseling would be a good idea for Michelle. A referral to a local clinic was made at parent request. During those sessions, her counselor became aware of low self-esteem issues related to her incomplete understanding of her learning profile. (Although depression was suspected, after several sessions, Michelle’s counselor decided this did not apply.) Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

217 Activity: Michelle’s Accommodation History
Demystification sessions about her learning profile were conducted, and Michelle and her counselor decided to approach the school staff to discuss the feasibility of a school-wide program, such as the Learning Strengths Seminars (see accommodations pages and educational care giving). Family therapy sessions were conducted, and Michelle has discontinued her association with gang-involved youth. Michelle stated she is interested in getting a job. Her family and other IEP team members will be meeting to develop a transition plan soon. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

218 The Learning Strengths Project
Teaching Students About Accommodations-Self Advocacy The Learning Strengths Project Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

219 Learning Strengths Project
A form of educational care-giving (Mel Levine M.D. ) Acknowledges and Understands strengths weaknesses affinities Does not seek to “cure” Does not seek to radically alter the students’ characteristics Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

220 Learning Strengths Project
Learning Strengths Project Components: 1. Seminars Teach About Learning Group Demystification Classroom Follow-up 2. Portfolio Development Connecting seminar and individual learning strengths 3. Conferences 4. Ownership Demonstration: Asking For & Analyzing My Accommodations/ Modifications Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

221 Component One: Seminars
PART ONE: Teach about learning All Learners Variability +/- Dysfunction Disability Handicap Developmental Functions 1. Attention 2. Simultaneous/Sequential Processing 3. Memory 4. Language 5. Higher-Order Cognition 6. Motor 7. Social Skills Synchronized interplay of these functions lead to successful learning. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

222 Component One: Seminars
PART TWO: Group Demystification Demystify through group acknowledgement Use small groups (when possible) Include students without known learning problems (when possible) They often reveal their own struggles which is very helpful for students with difficulties. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

223 Component One: Seminars
PART TWO: Group Demystification Hold multiple sessions, can be small doses Formats Students complete questionnaires (such as after a test, Attention Cockpit, Answer System). Students often discuss responses individually with teacher, or in groups if the classroom climate is conducive. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

224 Component Two: Seminars
PART THREE: Classroom Follow-up Students read from a text about learning or learning disorders then discuss individual chapters and their personal relevance. Students read and discuss case studies, making suggestions. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

225 Portfolio Development
Component Two: Portfolio Development Connecting Seminar and Individual Learning Strengths Students write and discuss their own autobiographical “case studies” (e.g., “My Career in School) Students analyze their own work using formats provided by the teacher that relate success/failure to strengths/weaknesses and strategies selected Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

226 Component Three: Conferences
AHAA SEIS COHORT Component Three: Conferences Conduct with the student by an assessor Explain the student’s strengths and demystifies the weaknesses Use actual test results One-to-one Meetings With Staff Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 Diana Browning Wright,

227 Full page Comp 3 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11 3-3

228 Conference Content COMPONENTS CONTENT
Destigmatization Provide assurance that all individuals have strengths and weaknesses; the sooner one learns about oneself the better; possibly cite examples of one’s own dysfunctions; point out that even honor students are imperfect. Cite examples! Strength Delineation Provide a description of student’s strengths: this must be concrete, honest, offered with evidence, and if possible, compared to peers Weakness Enumeration Cite the number of dysfunctions (e.g., “There are 3 areas that are a problem for you.”) and their observable effects: use graphics and analogies, elicit examples from the student if possible Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

229 Conference Content (continued)
COMPONENTS CONTENT Induction of Optimism Provide a profile projection of the future to show how these strengths can work well in adulthood; restoration of self-esteem and hope for the future. Alliance Formation Focus on communication of interest and a willingness to be helpful and supportive in the future – “We’re in this together.” Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

230 Conference Hints Individualized demystification usually requires periodic follow-up “booster” doses. It can be very helpful for parents to be present during the demystification session so that they can make use of the same terminology and frames of reference at home. Alternatively, a cassette recording could be made available to the student to share with his/her family.  It is essential that the overall tone be supportive, non-accusatory, and not “preachy.” Students should be helped to understand that she or he is accountable for work output, etc.; i.e., one cannot use the identified weakness as an excuse for poor performance. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

231 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11
2-4

232 Attention Cockpit Interview
Small Group or Individual Interview Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

233 Component Four: Ownership
Ownership of Bypass Strategies - Teach Students to Ask for Accommodations Input Accommodation/Modification Strategy: Alter presentation of information to the student Output Accommodation/Modification Strategy: Circumvent deficits, alter production from the student Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

234 Component Four: Ownership
True Ownership of Bypass Strategies - Teach Students to Ask for Accommodations The need for the bypass strategies should be well understood by the student. Bypass strategies should be utilized in such a way that they are not embarrassing and do not imply any disrespect or “writing off” of the student. One can “charge a price” for a bypass (e.g., suggesting a student read an extra book in exchange for reduction in length for a written report). Mel Levine, M.D. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

235 Component Four: Ownership
True Ownership of Bypass Strategies - Teach Students to Ask for Accommodations The entire class should know that bypass options are available to everyone who really needs them. Never tolerate the teasing of a student who is receiving accommodations. Everyone is entitled to a special program for an area in need of improvement, to help improve a skill. Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

236 Accommodation/Modification Forms
Notification of Teacher Accommodation Plan Accommodations/Modifications Plan: linked to Nine Types Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

237 Brendan 11th grader, legally blind, learning problems-IEP
Achievement on par on many parameters Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

238 Accommodations/Modifications
All range from least restrictive to most restrictive Only modifications require IEPs least restrictive to most restrictive Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

239 People react in different ways when they find out a student in their class needs accommodations...
Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

240 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

241 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

242 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

243 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

244 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

245 Overcoming Barriers They don’t want to do it! Why?
What Beliefs, Knowledge and Skills are Barriers? Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

246 Teacher Student Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

247 Strategies for Overcoming Resistance
Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

248 Swamp or Alligators? Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

249 Decreasing Resistance
Roadblock: Lack of Visible District-Wide Commitment 2. Roadblock: Lack of Legal Knowledge 3. Roadblock: Lack of Two-way Communication On Content of a Student's IEP/504 Plan, Rationale for Elements In the Plan, How to Change IEP Plan Content Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

250 Decreasing Resistance
4. Roadblock: Lack of Clarity in Writing, Assigning Implementers, Establishing Accountability, and Explaining Plans Immediately Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

251 Decreasing Resistance
5. Roadblock: Lack of Addressing The Five Key Reasons Educators Typically Are Reluctant To Accommodate Grading Responding to “Unfair!” Change of Incompatible Educational Philosophy Addressing Instructional Methods/Contexts It Takes Too Much Time Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

252 You may be coming face to face with the possibility that brains may be self-cleaning.
Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

253 John 10th Grader, 16 yr old-IEP
Learning Disability in written language Achievement deficits Fictitious picture Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

254 Dolores 8th Grader-No disability Newly immigrated to the United States
Achievement delayed Fictitious picture Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

255 Philip 5th Grader, AD/HD-504 Difficulty completing tasks
Achievement on par Fictitious picture Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

256 Nathan 4th grader with Asperger’s Syndrome/High Functioning Autism-IEP
Achievement on par with peers Nathan Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

257 Mae Lee 3rd grader with Reading Disability-IEP Cannot decode text
Thinking on par, reading/writing severe delays Fictitious picture Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

258 Joseph Included 1st Grader-IEP Autism Achievement uncertain
Fictitious picture Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

259 Bruce 1st Grader, Moderate Mental Retardation-IEP
Included 80% of his day, general education Unable to master grade level standards Fictitious picture Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

260 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

261 You can always email or phone me for clarification or assistance.
Diana Browning Wright, 10-11

262 Diana Browning Wright, 10-11


Download ppt "Welcome to OCHO COHORT Arizona High Achievement for All AHAA!"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google