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Battles and Turning Points. First Bull Run Where- Manassas Junction - 30 miles from WashingtonWhere- Manassas Junction - 30 miles from Washington When.

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Presentation on theme: "Battles and Turning Points. First Bull Run Where- Manassas Junction - 30 miles from WashingtonWhere- Manassas Junction - 30 miles from Washington When."— Presentation transcript:

1 Battles and Turning Points

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3 First Bull Run Where- Manassas Junction - 30 miles from WashingtonWhere- Manassas Junction - 30 miles from Washington When - July 21, 1861When - July 21, 1861

4 Union wants a decisive battle to end the revoltUnion wants a decisive battle to end the revolt take S. Capital in Richmond VAtake S. Capital in Richmond VA - only 100 miles from DC McDowell wants more time to prepare his troopsMcDowell wants more time to prepare his troops Lincoln respondsLincoln responds It is true that you are green, but they are green also; you are all green together. First Bull Run

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6 GeneralsUnion: Irwin McDowell Confederate: Pierre G.T. Beauregard reinforced by Joseph E. Johnston

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8 Spectators came from Washingtoncame from Washington wanted to witness whipping of Confederateswanted to witness whipping of Confederates sat within Confederate cannon rangesat within Confederate cannon range monstrous picnicmonstrous picnic

9 Forces Engaged: 60,680 total (US 28,450; CS 32,230)Forces Engaged: 60,680 total (US 28,450; CS 32,230) Union forces attack Beauregards troops continually pushing them backUnion forces attack Beauregards troops continually pushing them back late in daylate in day - 12,000 Confederate reinforcements under Johnston arrive from Harpers Ferry Federals retreatFederals retreat - out of control - Confederates too unorganized to pursue

10 Results 4,700 casualties (US 2,950; CS 1,750)4,700 casualties (US 2,950; CS 1,750) Union learns: war will be costlier and harder than expectedUnion learns: war will be costlier and harder than expected - replace McDowell - George B. McClellan Confederates: boost of confidenceConfederates: boost of confidence

11 Battle of Shiloh

12 55,000 Confederates55,000 Confederates push Federals backpush Federals back Federals draw new line of defenseFederals draw new line of defense

13 The Peach Orchard Peach Orchard from the Federal position. Death site of A. S. Johnston is in the trees at center

14 Death of Albert Sidney Johnston highest ranking officer in the war to die – believe it might be from his own menhighest ranking officer in the war to die – believe it might be from his own men took a bullet behind the right kneetook a bullet behind the right knee didnt believe it was serious and sent his physician to tend to some Union soldiersdidnt believe it was serious and sent his physician to tend to some Union soldiers actually clipped his popliteal arteryactually clipped his popliteal artery soldiers saw him sway and asked if he was woundedsoldiers saw him sway and asked if he was wounded his reply "Yes, and I fear seriouslyhis reply "Yes, and I fear seriously bled to death in minutesbled to death in minutes

15 The Hornets Nest Gen. Benjamin M. Prentiss and men take up defense along the sunken roadGen. Benjamin M. Prentiss and men take up defense along the sunken road Union Gen. Ulysses S. Grant - "maintain that position at all hazards."Union Gen. Ulysses S. Grant - "maintain that position at all hazards." fighting in peach orchard to their leftfighting in peach orchard to their left hold off Confederate Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard and a 62 cannon bombardmenthold off Confederate Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard and a 62 cannon bombardment surrender after full day of fighting- completely surroundedsurrender after full day of fighting- completely surrounded succeeds in holding Confederates for Grant to set line of defensesucceeds in holding Confederates for Grant to set line of defense

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18 15,000 troops under Buell arrive during night15,000 troops under Buell arrive during night launch surprise at daybreaklaunch surprise at daybreak 55,000 Confederates55,000 Confederates push Federals backpush Federals back Federals draw new line of defenseFederals draw new line of defense

19 General Buell arrived with Union reinforcements the evening of the 6th. They arrived by river under the cover of fire from the Union gunboats Lexington and Tyler. The Federals had established a line near Pittsburg Landing. The arrival of fresh troops and gunboats only stengthened this line. By morning the southern army was outnumbered.

20 Results of Battle of Shiloh Union Wins!Union Wins! - beat back S. - joined 2 armies together - threatened to divide the S. Union Casualties 13,000Union Casualties 13,000 Confederate Casualties 10,000Confederate Casualties 10,000 over 2,400 dieover 2,400 die

21 Both nations were shocked at the carnage, which foretold that no single battle was likely to end the conflict

22 The Ironclads Battle between the C.S.S. Virginia and the U.S.S. Monitor

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24 Sept 17, 1862Sept 17, 1862 Union attacks ConfedUnion attacks Confed McClellan unable to break rebel lines even w/ his huge #sMcClellan unable to break rebel lines even w/ his huge #s Assaults against S. center and right flank E. and S. of Sharpsburg = no resultAssaults against S. center and right flank E. and S. of Sharpsburg = no result 12,000 N. Casualties12,000 N. Casualties 10,000 S. Casualties10,000 S. CasualtiesAntietam

25 The Battle FYI Confederates make their stand in the hills of Sharpsburg – canons on high ground and men scattered belowConfederates make their stand in the hills of Sharpsburg – canons on high ground and men scattered below McClellan had 60,000 troops- double LeesMcClellan had 60,000 troops- double Lees fighting begins at Dunker Churchfighting begins at Dunker Church Federals attacked by Confeds in the cornfieldFederals attacked by Confeds in the cornfield Confeds at old sunken road – repel 4 N. chargesConfeds at old sunken road – repel 4 N. charges known as bloody lane known as bloody lane - By 1 p.m. about 5,600 killed and wounded troops from both sides lay along and in front of this 800- yard lane.

26 Federals find weak spot and fire down sunken roadFederals find weak spot and fire down sunken road Confeds retreat misinterpreting an orderConfeds retreat misinterpreting an order Rebel infantry attempted a weak counterattack, whileRebel infantry attempted a weak counterattack, while Lee rushed 20 cannon to the Piper farmLee rushed 20 cannon to the Piper farm An attack through this hole would have crushed the Confederate center,An attack through this hole would have crushed the Confederate center, McClellan decided against a counterattack with his fresh reservesMcClellan decided against a counterattack with his fresh reserves The Battle FYI

27 McClellan poorly managed the troopsMcClellan poorly managed the troops Lee expertly shifts army w/ each attackLee expertly shifts army w/ each attack Lee held off attack but too weak and must retreatLee held off attack but too weak and must retreat = a tactical stalemate!= a tactical stalemate! McClellan claims victory – Lee withdrawsMcClellan claims victory – Lee withdraws The Battle FYI

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32 Burnside Bridge Confedera te View

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37 Who won at Antietam? our march to and across the river was undisturbed- This, of itself, will show to the world the nature of McClellans victory. And if he had beaten and driven us… why did he allow us to pass quietly away after holding the field a whole day and night.our march to and across the river was undisturbed- This, of itself, will show to the world the nature of McClellans victory. And if he had beaten and driven us… why did he allow us to pass quietly away after holding the field a whole day and night. - Jefferson Davis

38 Antietam FYI just 18 days after the Confederate victory at Second Manassasjust 18 days after the Confederate victory at Second Manassas the first major Civil War engagement on Northern soilthe first major Civil War engagement on Northern soil the bloodiest single day battle in American historythe bloodiest single day battle in American history - resulted in nine times as many Americans killed or wounded (23,000 soldiers) as took place on June 6, D-day - more soldiers were killed and wounded than the deaths of all Americans in the Revolutionary War, War of 1812, Mexican War, and Spanish-American War combined

39 Antietam a Turning Point changed the entire course of the Civil Warchanged the entire course of the Civil War - halted Lee's bold invasion of the North - provided Lincoln with the victory he needed to announce the abolition of slavery in the South - with proclamation of Emancipation, Lincoln was able to broaden the base of the war - prevented England and France from lending support to a country that engaged in human bondage - prevented England and France from lending support to a country that engaged in human bondage

40 Two important Union Victories in 1863

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42 The Battle of Vicksburg From mid-Oct. 1862, Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant made several attempts to take VicksburgFrom mid-Oct. 1862, Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant made several attempts to take Vicksburg siege of Vicksburg begins May 1863siege of Vicksburg begins May 1863 Vicksburg surrenders July 4, 1863Vicksburg surrenders July 4, citizens starving Union now controls the MississippiUnion now controls the Mississippi

43 PORTER'S FLEET SHELLING THE BATTERIES AT VICKSBURG.

44 Importance of Vicksburg one of the main S. strongholds on Mississippione of the main S. strongholds on Mississippi Union victory = control of the MississippiUnion victory = control of the Mississippi Union splits the Confederacy in twoUnion splits the Confederacy in two

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46 Emma Balfour Wife of Dr. William Balfour; lived in house next door to Pembertons headquartersWife of Dr. William Balfour; lived in house next door to Pembertons headquarters Remained in house rather than living in a caveRemained in house rather than living in a cave We have slept scarcely none now for two days and two nights. Oh! It is dreadful…. [E]very shell… came rushing down like some infernal demon…We have slept scarcely none now for two days and two nights. Oh! It is dreadful…. [E]very shell… came rushing down like some infernal demon… –Excerpt from diary

47 Balfour House Shell damage

48 Cave Life To escape the bombardment, citizens dug caves into the sides of the hills for shelter.To escape the bombardment, citizens dug caves into the sides of the hills for shelter. –The caves did their job very well – during the siege less than 20 civilians were killed by the bombardment. The cave was an excavation in the earth the size of a large room, high enough for the tallest person to stand perfectly erect, provided with comfortable seats, and altogether quite a large and habitable abode (compared with some of the caves in the city) were it not for the dampness and the constant contact with the soft earthy walls.The cave was an excavation in the earth the size of a large room, high enough for the tallest person to stand perfectly erect, provided with comfortable seats, and altogether quite a large and habitable abode (compared with some of the caves in the city) were it not for the dampness and the constant contact with the soft earthy walls. –Mary Webster Loughborough, My Cave Life in Vicksburg

49 Cave Life

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51 Gettysburg

52 Gettysburg Importance and Turning Point last time Confederate forces seriously threaten the Northlast time Confederate forces seriously threaten the North Added with Vicksburg = boost for NorthAdded with Vicksburg = boost for North

53 Ulysses S. Grant general in chief all Union armiesgeneral in chief all Union armies strategystrategy - overwhelm the South - it is OK to have mass casualties


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